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People: The Grit in the Machine?

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Leading Change Feb09
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People: The Grit in the Machine?

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People factors are often neglected at the expense of technology and process in the IT industry. An argument is made for people factors being the difference between average and great.

People factors are often neglected at the expense of technology and process in the IT industry. An argument is made for people factors being the difference between average and great.

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People: The Grit in the Machine?

  1. 1. PEOPLE: The grit in the machine? Peter A. Johnson, Fairday Research Ltd.
  2. 2. Which one of these demonstrates people expertise? © Fairday Research Limited What Is > What Could Be
  3. 3. Do we practice Technology, Process, People?  This is the industry of the technology of information therefore technologists abound  Process frameworks such as ITIL and COBIT are well established in this industry  ITIL > 15 years old, COBIT > 13 years old  Why aren‟t projects universally successful?  Are people the grit in the machine?  Themystery variable that moderates the relationship between process/technology and ITSM performance? © Fairday Research Limited What Is > What Could Be
  4. 4. ITIL + „What else‟ = Success?  discussion thread  In group: ITSM (ITIL) Professionals  Thread started on 4th September 2009  Responses included  “Right attitude and behaviour of staff”  “Motivation”  “Culture”  “Knowledge”  “Soft skills”  “Change”  “Commitment”  “Learning” © Fairday Research Limited What Is > What Could Be
  5. 5. Thesis: ITSM needs „People Science‟  Situation: People are the uncontrolled factor in „People, Process, Technology‟  Complication: Lack of people expertise may cause ITSM projects to be less successful  Resolution: „People experts‟ should be part of Service Management projects  Me:  An IT career that spans 25 years  Development/Support/Service Management  Recent qualification as a Work Psychologist © Fairday Research Limited What Is > What Could Be
  6. 6. The moderating effect of homo sapiens? Technology Performance Process People 35 30 Performance Level 25 20 15 High People Expertise 10 Medium People Expertise 5 Low People Expertise 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Process & Technology Level © Fairday Research Limited What Is > What Could Be
  7. 7. Human Factors  Technology based upon predictability and repeatability  E.g.: V=I x R  Processes are rule-based  The decision diamond is all powerful!  Humans (individuals & groups) are unpredictable  Social sciences ≠ physical sciences  Probability is the measure of success  In ITSM, people decisions left to process, technology and project management experts  Crucial decisions not based on science © Fairday Research Limited What Is > What Could Be
  8. 8. Psychology (Ψ) = People Science  Occupational Psychology =  The study of people at work  Individuals and groups  Science is over 100 years old  Oc-Psychs used by many organisations including:  Large body of knowledge, e.g. How to organise for:  Motivation  Performance  Satisfaction, commitment & well-being © Fairday Research Limited What Is > What Could Be
  9. 9. Ψ and ITSM Part I  Design for motivation and performance  Generate autonomous employee motivation  Understand how goals can lead to performance  The only constant is change  Make teams receptive to change  Choose the right change approach for you  Learning theories:  New processes: make training effective  Transference of learning to the job  Teamwork  Understand how teams „storm‟, „norm‟ and „form‟. © Fairday Research Limited What Is > What Could Be
  10. 10. Ψ and ITSM Part II  Culture  What is culture? How is it measured?  Do you actually want to change it?  Selection  How to get the right the people on the team  Real Job satisfaction & well being  Reduce costs associated with churn.  Reputation – make recruitment easier.  Leadership  Understanding of the right way to lead in your organisation. © Fairday Research Limited What Is > What Could Be
  11. 11. Performance and Motivation  „Internalising‟ motivation for less pleasant tasks (Deci et al., 1994)  Increase motivation for process tasks in service management teams Edward Deci  Increase performance using goal setting theory (Locke & Latham, 1990)  Develop the motivation and persistence required to hit important targets Edwin Locke © Fairday Research Limited What Is > What Could Be
  12. 12. Change, Culture & Climate  Be aware of the difficulty of culture change  Understanding one‟s culture is difficult  „Culture change‟ - fashionable but risky Edgar Schein  Understand factors that improve receptivity to change  Develop these before implementing change  Understand the different approaches to organisational change Kurt Lewin  Choose correct method for your organisation © Fairday Research Limited What Is > What Could Be
  13. 13. A Framework For Change Large scale Transformational Level: The Organisation Level: The Organisation Focus: Structures & Processes Focus: Structures & Processes Approach: Emergent change Approach: Bold Stroke Slow change Rapid change Stable environment Turbulent environment Bernard Burnes (Burnes, 2000) Level: Individual/Group Level: Individual/Group Focus: Attitudes/behaviour Focus: Tasks & procedures Approach: Planned change Approach: Tayloristic or kaizen Small scale Incremental © Fairday Research Limited What Is > What Could Be
  14. 14. Selection & Job Satisfaction  Job / person analyses are  Benefits of job important pre-requisites to satisfaction selection  Reduce churn  Selection method  On the  Commitment job performance  Performance? How to generate job (Hackman & Oldham, 1976) Work Sample .54  Structured interview .51 satisfaction Assessment centre .37  Increase autonomy Personality tests .38  Feedback Unstructured interview .38  Identify with work  Work significance (Anderson & Cunningham-Snell, 2000) © Fairday Research Limited What Is > What Could Be
  15. 15. Training; Transference of Training  10% of companies evaluate behaviour change post-training (Patrick, 1992)  If behaviour doesn‟t change you‟ve wasted time & money  4 steps to successful training evaluation Donald Kirkpatrick  Reactions, learning, behaviour, results (Kirkpatrick, 1959)  Transference enhanced via motivation, training design & work environment (Baldwin & Ford, 1988)  Don‟t just train, change behaviour! Timothy Baldwin © Fairday Research Limited What Is > What Could Be
  16. 16. Other Areas  Social Networks  Teamwork  Leadership  Shift work  Organisational commitment  Well-being  Positive psychology  Innovation © Fairday Research Limited What Is > What Could Be
  17. 17. Joined-Up Thinking Job satisfaction Job Design Selection Autonomy Goal Setting Culture Motivation Reputation Retention Commitment Learning Performance Training £$€¥ © Fairday Research Limited What Is > What Could Be
  18. 18. “ITIL + People Science = SUCCESS!”  discussion thread  In group: ITSM (ITIL) Professionals  Thread started on 4th September 2009  Responses included  “Right attitude and behaviour of staff”   “Motivation”   “Culture”   “Knowledge”   “Soft skills”   “Change”   “Commitment”   “Learning”  © Fairday Research Limited What Is > What Could Be
  19. 19. People Expertise:  British Psychological Society  www.bps.org.uk  American Psychological Association  www.apa.org  Fairday Research Limited What Is - What Could Be.  www.fairday.co.uk  hello@fairday.co.uk © Fairday Research Limited What Is > What Could Be
  20. 20. None of these are people experts © Fairday Research Limited What Is > What Could Be
  21. 21. Q&A  Thanks for listening © Fairday Research Limited What Is > What Could Be
  22. 22. References  Anderson, N. & Cunningham-Snell, N. (1999). Personnel Selection. In N. Chmiel (Ed.) Introduction To Work and Organizational Psychology. Oxford: Blackwell  Baldwin, T. T. & Ford, J. K. (1988). Transfer of training: A review and directions for future research. Personnel Psychology, 41, 63-105.  Burnes, B. (2000). Managing Change. A strategic Approach To Organisational Dynamics, (4th edition). Harlow: Pearson  Deci, E. L., Eghrari, H., Patrick, B. C., and Leone, D. R. (1994). Facilitating internalization: the self-determination theory perspective. Journal of Personality, 62, 119-142  Hackman J. R., & Oldham, G. R. (1976). Motivation through design of work. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 16, 250-279.  Kirkpatrick, D. (1959). Techniques for evaluating training programs. Journal for the American Society of Training and Development, 13, 3-9  Locke, E. A., & Latham, G. P. (1990). A Theory of Goal Setting & Task Performance. New Jersey: Prentice Hall  Patrick, J. (1992). Training: Research and Practice. London: Academic Press © Fairday Research Limited What Is > What Could Be

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