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KANCHANJUNGA
APARTMENT
Bombay, India, 1970-1983
Architect: Charles Correa
Program: Residential
Plot Area: 2900m2
Building Footprint: 432 m2
Gross Floor Area: 5,260 m2
Height: 84 m
Floor counts: 28 stories
Lifts: 3 + 1
Status: Constructed
LINKED HYBRID
Beijing, China, 2007
Architect: Steven Holl Architects
Client: Modern Investment Grp
Program: Mixed-Use
Plot Area: 61.800 m2
Building Footprint: 15,500 sq.m
Gross Floor Area: 2,21,000 sq.m
Height: 68 m
Floor counts: 21 stories
Lifts: 34
Status: Constructed
TAIPEI 101
Taipei City, Taiwan, 2004
Architect: C.Y. Lee & partners
Client: Taipei Financial Center Corp
Program: Commercial
Building Footprint: 2500 m2
Gross Floor Area: 412.500 m2
Height: 508 m
Floor counts: 101 stories
Cost US$: 1.6 billion
Lifts: 61
Status: Constructed
KOHINOOR SQUARE
Dadar, Mumbai, 2009-15
Architect: SSA Architects, Mumbai
Client: The Kohinoor Group
Program: Mixed-Use
Plot Area: 18,615 sq.m
Floor Area: 50,000 sq.m for commercial
Height: 203 meters Main building,
142 meters Residence Building
Floor counts: 52 stories, 28 stories
Cost US$: 0.33 billion
Lifts: 28
Status: Under-Constructed
AQUARIA GRANDE
Taipei City, Taiwan, 2004
Architect: james Law
Client: Wadhwa Group
Program: Residential
Building Footprint: 13,680 sq.m
Gross Floor Area: 30,500 sq.m
Height: 164 m , Two tower
Floor counts: 42 stories
Lifts: 8
Status: Constructed
CASE STUDIES
KOHINOOR SQUARE
Dadar, Mumbai, 2009-15
Architect: SSA Architects, Mumbai
Client: The Kohinoor Group
Program: Mixed-Use
Plot Area: 18,615 sq.m
Floor Area: 50,000 sq.m for Office
Height: 203 meters Main building,
142 meters Residence Building
Floor counts: 52 stories, 32 stories
Cost US$: 0.33 billion
Lifts: 28(24+4)
Status: Under-Constructed
Parking -3500
132 residential units
MIXED-USE
HIGH RISE
Beijing
Taipei
Mumbai
01 KOHINOOR
SQUARE
INTRODUCTION
Mixed-use High Rise Habitat is—in a broad sense—any urban,
suburban development, or even a single building, that blends a
combination of residential, commercial, cultural, institutional, or
industrial uses, where those functions are physically and
functionally integrated, and that provides pedestrian connections.
NEED OF PROJECT
Since the 1990s, mixed-use zoning has once again become desirable as
the benefits are recognized. These benefits include
• greater housing variety and density
• reduced distances between housing, workplaces, retail businesses, and
other destinations
• more compact development
• stronger neighborhood character
• pedestrian and bicycle-friendly environments
Mumbai currently faces Space shortage issue and various social issues
one of which is travelling from one end to another. A resilient mixed-used
complex is an attempt to Address these issues.
OBJECTIVE: TO study Mixed-use Habitat in context to Mumbai OBJECTIVE: To understand programmatic planning of urban space at
community level or mixed –use habitat at international level
OBJECTIVE: TO study vernacular in high rise in context to Mumbai
OBJECTIVE: TO study The Structural concept implied
for a high ride building
OBJECTIVE:
TO study A high Rise
structure according to
the DCR for Mumbai
• The Climate of Mumbai is a tropical
wet and dry climate.
• Mumbai's climate can be best
described as moderately hot with high
level of humidity.
• Its coastal nature and tropical location
ensures temperatures won't fluctuate
much throughout the year.
• The mean average is 27.2 °C
Climate of Mumbai
Site &
Surrounding
In India, Aquaria Grande
is located Borivali, a
suburb of Mumbai. The
site is surrounded by a
dense Low-Rise
residential areas hence
its Tallest structure in
the vicinity.
There are many parks
and schools as well near
to the site
OBJECTIVE: To study planning and design of Mixed-use High rise in context to Mumbai
Sr PROJECT NAME LOCATIO
N
TYPE SELECTION CRITERIA
1 KOHINOOR SQUARE MUMBAI MIXED USE FIRST MIXED USED
HIGH RISE IN MUMBAI
2 KANCHANJUNGA
APT.
MUMABI RESIDENTAIL ONE OF THE FISRT
HIGH RISE STURUCRE
3 AQUARIA GRANDE MUMBAI RESIDENTAIL HIGH RISE STRUCTURE
ABIDING DCR RULES
Sr PROJECT NAME LOCATIO
N
TYPE SELECTION CRITERIA
1 LINKED HYBRID BEIJING
,CHINA
MIXED USE A 3D URBAN
STURCUTRE
OF MIXED HIGH RISE
2 TAIPEI 101 TAIPEI,
TAIWAN
COMMERCIAL ICONIC STRUCTURE
L
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E
L
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T
E
R
A
T
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E
PRATEEK SRIVASTAVA
Vth Year B.ARCH
MIT-Aurangabad
The design of the building makes it environmentally friendly, using
technologies such as floor-to-ceiling insulated glazing to contain
heat and maximize natural light, and an automatic daylight dimming
system. The tower also features a greywater system, which
captures rainwater for reuse. Kohinoor group pvt ltd. States that the
building is made largely of recycled and recyclable materials. Air
entering the building is filtered, as is common, but the air exhausted
is cleaned as well. The Kohinoor square building is one of the first
skyscraper building in india to achieve a leadership in energy and
environmental design platinum rating for environmental
sustainability a gold (leed) certification from green building council.
Construction of the Kohinoor square started in early 2009, with an
completion date of march 2013.
The combined pile raft foundation (cprf) is a geotechnical
composite Construction that combines the bearing effect of
both foundation elements raft and Piles by taking into
account interactions between the foundation elements and
the
Subsoil the piled raft foundation system has recently been
widely used for many structures, especially high rise
buildings. In this foundation, the piles play an important role
in settlement and differential settlement reduction, and thus
can lead to economical design without compromising the
safety of the structure. In several design cases, the piles are
allowed to yield under the design load. Although the load
capacity of the pile is exceeded, the piled raft foundation can
hold additional loads with controllable settlement. Thus,
accurately determining the settlement of the foundation is
critical and for this the designers must consider the role of
the raft and the role of piles in combination, as well as the
interactions between the foundation’s components.
02 KOHINOOR
SQUARE
Floor Plan Analysis
11th to 24th Floor
11th to 24th Floor
25th to 39th Floor
• The Central Core is surrounded by
the office spaces and refuge areas
(at 24 meter of height)
• There are segregated office space
from 2nd to 24th floor with toilets to
each office and a common toilet s
also provided on all these floors.
Central core consist of
• 3 Lobbies of 6 Lifts serving levels
25th to 39th
• Spaces between the lifts where a lift
lobby is not provided are used as
toilets with dust at either side: 2 lifts
from this pack of 6 are assessable to
lower floors as well
• 1 lobby of 4 lifts serving levels 1st to
24th
• There is a lift bank at 24th floor .
• 2 services lifts travelling Throughout
the building
• 2 Stair cases are also placed in the
core
Residential Tower
132 units from 14th to 26th floor
13 Stories of Parking below
PARKING-3500 (brought from BMC)
Central core serves 3 lifts and 1
services lifts
There are 8 units on each floor
6 on 17th floor which is refuge floor
UNITS- 2.5 bhk 3bhk 3.5 bhk
10%
26%
16%11%
21%
13% 3%
Sales
Hotel Office
Residential Retail
Parking Services
Recreational ground
Refuge Floors
At 11th floor the first refuge floor is
provided
DCR RULE
In case of high-rise bldg. more than 30
m then first refuge floor shall be
provided at 24 m or first habitable floor
whichever is higher. Thereafter at every
seventh habitable floor.
PLIE FOUNDATION USED
Structural
Glazing
PRATEEK SRIVASTAVA Vth Year B.ARCH MIT-Aurangabad
KANCHANJUNGA APT.
Bombay, India, 1970-1983
Architect:CharlesCorrea
Client: -
Plot Area: 2900m2 Building
Footprint:432 m2 Gross
FloorArea:5,260 m2
Height:84 m
Cost $ Unknown -
Lifts:3 + 1
Status: Constructed
Concept
CONCEPTOFTHEARCHITECT
The Tower is one of the masterpieces of Indian
architect, Charleas Correa. Kanchanjunga Apartments
isa 28 story height high end residential building built
in Bombay, 1983. It was clear that the architect has
reference to Lecorbusier’s crossover units in Unit
habitation in Marseilles in 1952. Correa planned
the 3 and 4 bedroom units interlocking with 5 and
6 bedroom units. 3-4 bedroom units occupies on
and half level, and 5-6 bedroom units occupies two
and half levels. There are small level displacement
within the units to differenciate outdoor terrace and
indoor living space, dining room and bedrooms and
so on. These change of levels hide the living and bed
rooms from the heat of sun and rains, while the big
opening of balcony could get as much day light as
possible. The whole building structure is built by
reinforced concrete. The open terrace part is a 6m
deep cantilever structure. Central core with lifts and
shafts and building services so it also provide central
stability element for lateral loads.
The appearance of the building has strong
resemblance of modern western building design.
Especially the white plain surface with concrete
construction. But the apartment design is an
interperation of traditional Indian bungalow with
verandah which is a main part of living area of indian
family.
The tower is 21m square on plan, and 1:4 proportion
on elevation,84m height. It has aplain facadesurface,
with cut away to open up double height balcony.
EXTRATEXTEXPLANATION
The tower design reinterperated the traditional
living style of indian with modern architecture.
And it is succesfully merged with environmential
consideration, and social needs in this tower. Correa’s
strong design signiture of sectional displacement
where appropriate by changes in floor surface is
most elaborated in this project. The complexity of
internal spacial organization to create level changes
and interlocking four types of units waspushed to an
extreme in thisproject..
The building is oriented in east-
west direction to catch the natural
wind from the sea and also this
direction has best view from city
to the sea. But this face is also most
heat up surface by the sun. The old
bungalows solved this problem by
warpping a thick layer of around
living area verandas to protect
from heay monsoon rain and sun
heat. Kanchanjuna Apartment is
applying this concept into the
apartment design.
EVOLUTIONARYABOUTTHECONCEPT
KANCHANJUNGA
APARTMENT
03
The architect, Charles Correa,from
india and was born in1930. Started
his private practice in 1958 in
Bombay. He was at the age of 40
when the Kanchanjunga
Apartments project began
Charles correa
bombay,india
1970-1983
MAIN
ENTRY
PARKING
ENRTY
PARKING
EXIT
OBJECTIVE: TO study vernacular in
high rise in context to Mumbai
Site & Surroundings
In India Kanchanjunga is located
in Pedder Road of Greater
Mumbai, The Island city. Near
the site to the west is the Arabian
sea and the neigh hood is
surrounded by many high rise
structures influenced by
Kanchanjunga as it was the First
High rise in the area
PRATEEK SRIVASTAVA Vth Year B.ARCH MIT-Aurangabad
KANCHANJUNGA
APARTMENT
04
STRUCTURE
Whole structure is
made of reinforced
concrete. The
building is a 32
storied rein-forced
concrete structure
With 6.3 m
cantilevered open
terraces. The
central core houses
lifts and other
services also
provides the main
structural element
for resisting lateral
loads. The central
core was
constructed ahead
of the main
structure by slip
method of
construction. This
technique was used
for the first time in
India for a multi-
storied building.
MATERIALS&COLOURS
With its concrete
construction and large
areas of white panels,
bears a strong
resemblance to modern
apartment buildings in the
west. However, the garden
terraces of Kanchanjunga
apartments are actually a
modern interpretation of a
feature of the traditional
Indian bungalows the
verandah. In a bungalow,
the verandah wraps the
main living area. According
to the architect there are
some elements to combine
the whole city as form axis
of color. The color expert
says that “the quality of
sunlight, climate and
culture influence color
choices : hence one would
observe a preference for
blue and its shades in the
west while in India and
other Asian countries one
finds a predominance of
reds and yellows
Great deal of transparency has been achieved by
the use of large opening and terrace gardens on
every floor. Because of American training, Correa
has rarely been tempted to import Western ideas
into India. Like most architects of his generation he
has been influenced by Le Corbusier, but by his
response to the Mediterranean sun with his “Great
sculptural decisions (the over-hangs, the double-
heights), placed facing the elements”.
PRATEEK SRIVASTAVA Vth Year B.ARCH MIT-Aurangabad
Total bldg. :
Wing – A : 2 basements + 3 podiums
+ stilt + 32 upper floors.
Wing – B : 2 basements + 3 podiums
+ stilt + 32 upper floors.
Total height : 137.15 mts.
Total no. of flats : 202 Residential flats.
AQUARIA GRANDE 05
2nd Podium
1st Podium
3rd Podium
 THE RESIDENTIAL DEVELOPMENT IS
PROPOSED BY DEMOLISHING THE
EXISTING STRUCTURES.
 THE DEVELOPMENT OF THIS PROPERTY
HAS BEEN PROPOSED AS A RESIDENTIAL
DEVELOPMENT ALONG WITH PUBLIC
PARKING DCR 33(24).
 AREA OF THE PLOT : 13678.70 sq.mts.
 PROPOSAL TO BUILD A RESIDENTIAL
BUILDING WITH 2 BASEMENTS, 3 LEVEL
PODIUMS, AND SUPER STRUCTURE WING
– A, WING – B UPTO STILT + 32 UPPER
FLOORS WITH 180 FLATS & WING – C AS
THE CLUB HOUSE.
 TOTAL HEIGHT OF THE BUILDING 137.15
meters.
Stilt
Refuge Floor
SECTION
AQUARIA GRANDE
MUMBAI,INDIA
Architect: james Law
Client: Wadhwa Group
Program: Residential
Building Footprint: 13,680 sq.m
Gross Floor Area: 30,500 sq.m
Height: 164 m , Two tower
Floor counts: 42 stories
Lifts: 8
Status: Constructed
Parking- 409
202 residential units
OBJECTIVE:
TO study A high Rise
structure according to
the DCR of Mumbai
Site & surroundings
In India, Aquaria Grande is
located Borivali, a suburb of
Mumbai. The site is surrounded
by a dense Low-Rise residential
areas hence its Tallest structure in
the vicinity.
There are many parks and
schools as well near to the site
PRATEEK SRIVASTAVA Vth Year B.ARCH MIT-Aurangabad
Lower Basement
Upper Basement
• CLUB HOUSE INCLUDES GYM, SWIMMING
POOL, RESTAURANT & BAR.
• CLUB HOUSE IS FOR BOTH BUILDING
MEMBERS & OTHER MEMBERS.
• IT HAS SEPARATE ENTRANCE ALSO.
• IT IS ALSO HAVING BANQUET HALL.
• IT ALSO INCLUDES SPORTS CLUB WITH
BADMINTON CLUB, SNOOKER TABLE, SQUASH
COURT.
CLUB HOUSE & OTHER AMMENITIES
No. of staircases / wing : 2 nos. ( 2.00mts.
each )
No. of lifts / wing : 3 passenger lifts @ 1
service lift.
Refuge floors : 5th, 11th, 17th, 23rd & 29th
SECTION
SHOWING
REFUGE FLOORS
WHICH IS 4%
AREA OF THE
HABITABLE ZONE
ABOVE
Refuge floors
: 5th, 11th, 17th,
23rd & 29th
Carpet Areas Rule (DCR) No. of Flats Parking
Required
Below 35.00 sq.mt. 1 for 4 flats -- --
35.00 to 45.00
sq.mt.
1 for 2 flats -- --
45.00 to 70.00
sq.mt.
1 for 1 flat -- --
Above 70.00 sq.mt. 2 for 1 flat 180 360
Total 360
Visitors parking 36
Total parking required 396
Total parking provided 409
Parking Statement
Floor Total car park
1st podium (+1.00 m. Lvl.) 92 nos.
2nd podium (+5.10m. Lvl.) 140 nos.
3rd podium (+9.30m. Lvl.) 149 nos.
Stilt (+14.50m. Lvl.) 28 nos.
Total 409 nos.
Adequate open spaces all around the building for
easy movement of fire
tender.
 Building is accessible by Fire tender driveway on
podium level.
 Each unit accessible from two stair cases.
 Provision of Refuge floors as per CFO requirement.
PANAROMIC VIEW FROM CURVED BALCONIES
AQUARIA GRANDE 06
PRATEEK SRIVASTAVA Vth Year B.ARCH MIT-Aurangabad
EXTRATEXTEXPLANATION
Three different public entrances connect the skyring with the
public space on ground floor. These entrances (coloured red in the
floor plan above) each offer a different variety of pro- gram. One
area for health and sportcentre, one area for recreational program
opened through the day and one area for restaurants openede
during night. The entrance to the restaurant is located next to the
accesto the cinemawithin the heart of the project.
FUNCTIONSIN THERING
1.reading room
2.design/book store
3. architecture gallery
4. sculpture gallery
5. art gallery
6.viewing platform
7.dinning deck
8.ultralounge
9.bar/cocktail
10.listening lounge
11.fitness
12.juicebar
13.group axcersice space
14.spinning room
15.office, locker rooms
16.lane lap pool
17.suspended catwalk
18. spa/massage
19.meetin place
20.viewing platform
21.hair/nail salon
22.health food store
23.tea seating
24.tea store/gaming place
25. coffee shop
26. café seating
27.book event space
28.book store
Concept
CONCEPTOFTHEARCHITECT
Linked Hybrid projects a renewed thinking about the public space within
large scale high rise projects. Holl shows us in this project how his ideal
vertical city should work. It ishisideal city within acity.
The horizontal traditional urban structure, continuous plinth with services,
iscombined with the vertical city, disrupted plinth.
Living is combined with commercial program in various towers. The
commercial program is located in the plinth and living above. An ‘urban’
ring of commercial and cultural public activities link the towers on the
twentieth floor. This skyhigh public space provides a cinematc experience
of the whole complex and the city surrounding it. A big variation of
urban functions are located in this ring, for example: a swimmingpool, a
fitness centre, a nail and hair studio, an architecture office, galeries, bars,
theesaloons and stores(more info on page 3).
To prevent the city within a city to become an isolated island, Holl
introduces the term urban porosity. He connects his ideal city with it’s
context by attracting people to the centre of linked hybrid. Urban space is
enclosed in the heart of the project. On street level pedestrians are able to
move in and out the project.
These two themes, ‘city within a city’ and ‘urban porosity’ are also the basis
for Holl’s second big housing project in China, the sliced urban porosity
block.
EVOLUTIONARYABOUTTHECONCEPT
The ensemble of high rise towers instead of the vertical tower pinned in the
city projectsanew way of thinking about high rise architecture.
The public space in heart of the large plot area connected with the highly
accesible program in the skyring makes a unique contribution to the public
life in the city.
07 LINKED
HYBRID
LINKED HYBRID
Beijing, China, 2007
Architect: Steven Holl Architects
Client: Modern Investment Group,
Beijing Plot Area: 61.800 m2
Building Footprint: 15.500
m2 Gross Floor Area:
221.000 m2 Height: 68 m
Cost US$:
Unknown Lifts: 34
Status: Constructed
664 Residential units
OBJECTIVE: To understand programmatic planning of urban
space at community level or mixed –use habitat at
international level
Site & Surroundings
In China, Linked Hybrid is
located Beijing. The site is
surrounded by many high rise
colonies of same developer. It is
also adjacent to the old city.It
has Good connectivity the cities
express way. Hence can attract
a many visitors in their city within
a city
PRATEEK SRIVASTAVA Vth Year B.ARCH MIT-Aurangabad
08 LINKED
HYBRID
SECTION THROUG SKY BRIDGE
Program given in sky bridge
Horizontal
and Vertical
circulation
PRATEEK SRIVASTAVA Vth Year B.ARCH MIT-Aurangabad
TAIPEI 101
Taipei City, Taiwan, 2004
Architect: C.Y. Lee & partners
Client: Taipei Financial Center Corp
Building Footprint: 2500 m2
Gross Floor Area: 412.500 m2
Height: 508 m
Cost US$: 1.6 billion
Lifts: 61
Status: Constructed
Concept
CONCEPTOFTHEARCHITECT
The unusual tower shape is an idea of the architect C.Y. Lee from
Taipei. He was inspired by local culture, the building reflects the
culture in which it functions. Lee was looking for balance between
local culture and internationalism. The tall building symbolizes
a broader understanding and anticipation of things to come:
we “climb” in order to “see further”. The building rises from the
ground like a bamboo, a symbol of everlasting strength in Chinese
culture. In the section, the shape of a pagoda is recognizable.
Taipe 101 Tower rises in 8 modules, a design based on the Chinese
lucky number “8”. In cultures that observe a seven-day week the
number eight symbolizes a renewal of time (7+1). In cultures
where seven is the lucky number, 8 represent 1 better than ‘lucky
seven’. Each modue has 8 floors and flares wider t the top. There
are 101 floorsabove the ground and 5 floorsunderground.
It’s more challenging to design and build a super-tal building
in Taipei than any other location in the world because typhoon
winds, large potential earthquakes and weak soil conditions all
need to be overcome. A damping system was implemented to
reduce the excessive lateral accelerations from wind.
In the time it was build, the height of the Taipei 101 was
recordbreaking, previously held by the Petronas Towers with
452 meters. It was the highest building in the world, build in an
area with typhoons and earthquakes! The height of 101 floors
commemorates the renewal of time: the new century that arrived
as the tower was built (100+1) and all the new years that follow
(January 1 = 1-01). It symbolizes high ideals by going one better
on 100, a traditional number of perfection.
EVOLUTIONARYABOUTTHECONCEPT
A mega mass demper reduces the effect of wind. The pendulum
has a weight of 660.000 kilogram and is situated on the 88th floor.
It sways to offset movements in the building caused by strong
gusts. Its sphere, the largest damper sphere in the world, consists
of 41 circular steel plates. The structure has to be flexible enough
to resist an earthquake, and stiff enough to resist a typhoon. Eight
mega columnsgiving the stiffnessto the building.
EXTRATEXTEXPLANATION
The Taipei 101, formerly known as the Taipei World Financial Center, is a
landmark skyscraper located in the Hsinyi Distric of the city, the rapid-
growing “Manhattan” of Taipei. This is the future center of financial
power in Taiwan. Taipei 101 is owned by the Taipei Financial Center
Corporation (TFCC).
Taipei 101 has one of the fastest ascending elevator speed with 1010
meters per minute, which is 16.83 m/s (60.6 km/h). These Toshiba
elevatorsare able to take visitorsfrom the main floor to the observatory
on the 89th floor in under 39 seconds.
Taipei 101’s own roof and facade recycled water system meets 20-30
percent of the building’s water needs. Upgrades are currently under
way to make Taipei 101 “the world’s tallest green building” by LEED
IMAGES
1. Construction drawings
2. Elevatorsoverview
3. Taipei 101asalandmarkin theevening
SOURCES
Wells,M. (2003)Wolkenkrabbers. Alphen a/d Rijn,Atrium Uitgeverij
http://www.archinomy.com/case-studies/671/taipei-101-a-case-stud
http://www.architectureweek.com/2005/0330/building_2-2.html
http://www.cnn.com/2003/WORLD/asiapcf/
http://www.etaiwannews.com/etn/news_content.php?id=1147437&lang=eng_news
http://www.skyscraperpicture.com/taipei101.htm
http://www.taipei-101.com.tw/
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taipei_101#cite_note-etaiwannews.com-15east/10/17/taiwan.tower/
09 TAIPEI
101
OBJECTIVE: To study The Structural
concept implied for a high ride building
PRATEEK SRIVASTAVA Vth Year B.ARCH MIT-Aurangabad
In India Kanchanjunga
is located in Pedder
Road of Greater
Mumbai, The Island
city. Near the site to
the west is the Arabian
sea and the neigh
hood is surrounded by
many high rise
structures influenced
by Kanchanjunga as it
was the First High rise
in the area
In Mumbai, a building has to be oriented
east-west to catch prevailing sea breezes
and to open up the best views of the city.
Unfortunately, these are also the
directions of the hot sun and the heavy
monsoon rains. The old bungalows solved
these problems by wrapping a protective
layer of verandas around the main living
areas, thus providing the occupants with
two lines of defence against the elements.
In India Kohinoor
Square is located in the
heart of the city Dadar,
Greater Mumbai.
site is in commercial
hub. Surrounded by
various high end
national and
international office and
luxurious apartments.
The famous Shivaji park
is a 5 mins walk from the
site.
In India, Aquaria
Grande is located
Borivali, a suburb of
Mumbai. The site is
surrounded by a dense
Low-Rise residential
areas hence its Tallest
structure in the vicinity.
There are many parks
and schools as well
near to the site
In China, Linked
Hybrid is located
Beijing. The site is
surrounded by many
high rise colonies of
same developer. It is
also adjacent to the old
cityIt has Good
connectivity the cities
express way. Hence
can attract a many
visitors in their city
within a city
In Taiwan, Taipei 101 is
located in Taipei. It is in
a dense urban
environment in CBD
are of Taipei.
Surrounded by world
class urban
infrastructure and high
rise buildings with a
view to a near by
mountain.
Dadar is situated in the heart of mumbai, soil
is loamy and sandy, due to proximity to sea.
Similar to soil types in northwestern also
similar because of occurrence of basalt rock.
SITE & SURROUNDINGS
SOIL TYPE
Malabar hills is situated in the heart of
mumbai, soil is loamy and sandy, due
to proximity to sea. Similar to soil types
in northwestern also similar because of
occurrence of basalt rock.
Borivali is situated in the Suburb of
mumbai, soil is loamy and sandy, due
to proximity to sea. Similar to soil types
in northwestern also similar because of
occurrence of basalt rock.
ORIENTATION
CONCEPT
Design Concept: An iconic structure
drawing inspiration from the diamond.
The homes and Offices offer unrivalled
and unrestricted views of the Northern
Suburbs, South Mumbai, Eastern Port
and the Arabian Sea.
Arabian
Sea.
View
City View.
As said in Correas design n Mumbai, a
building has to be oriented east-west
to catch prevailing sea breezes and to
open up the best views of the city.
Hence the Site is designed in such a
way that the enclouser of the two tower
trap maximum winds from the west to
east
The Retail outlet of Taipei 101 are
located toward the south where as the
Main entrance to the skyscraper is in
the shades toward the North-east side.
The Linked Hybrid is mainly based on
User oriented planning as well as
climatic.
It was clear that the architect has
reference to Lecorbusier’scrossover
unitsin Unit habitation in Marseilles in
1952. Correa planned the 3 and 4
bedroom units interlocking with 5 and 6
bedroom units. 3-4 bedroom units
occupieson and half level, and 5-6
bedroom units occupies two and half
levels. There are small level displacement
within the unitsto differenciate outdoor
terrace and indoor living space, dining
room and bedroomsand so on.These
changeof levelshidetheliving and bed
rooms from theheat of sun and rains,
while thebig opening of balcony could
get as much day light aspossible.
Plan form
basically evolved
from the cross
ventilation
process through
the west to east
travelling winds
of Mumbai
Where balconies
also gave an
artistic
impression to the
towers "open city within a city". The
project promotes interactive
relations and encourages
encounters in the public
spaces that vary from
commercial, residential, and
educational to recreational.
The entire complex is a three-
dimensional urban space in
which buildings on the ground,
under the ground and over the
ground are fused together.
The tower has served as an icon of modern.
Taiwan ever since its openingThe building
was architecturally created as a symbol of the
evolution of technology and Asian tradition.
Its postmodernist approach to style incorporates
traditional design elements and gives them
modern treatments.
- -
• A High-Rise Structure comes out
of necessity. Specially in a
booming economical center with
growing population.
• Most populous cities have most
numbers of High rise structures
• It is seen that tallest high rise
structures are found in the heart
of the city.
• Or a new economic center of any
city
• To Understand the type of soil of
any site is important to develop a
conceptual level structure
proposal for any high-rise
structure.
• If a high rise structure is oriented
studying is climatic conditions its
can greatly increase the natural
ventilation and light thus
reducing the load on HVAC
system and lighting system .
Thus making it energy efficient.
• Success of Vernacular approach
or passive sustainable
technology could be easily
enhanced by proper orientation
• The user and types of user and
there circulation through a 3d
urban structure is a very
important aspect for orientation
of a MIXED-USE HIGH RISE
HABITAT.
• It important to design a building
which is relevant to the urban
fabric of the city it proudly soars
the sky of.
• A resilient mixed use cluster
development can be an attempt
to solve any high density urban
space issues
PRATEEK
SRIVASTAVA
Vth Year B.ARCH
MIT-Aurangabad
ZONNING-PARKING-FSI CONSUMED
PARKINGRESIDENTAIL
OFFICES
RETAIL SPACE
RESIDENTIAL
TOWERS
CLUB
12M MAIN WIDE
ENTRY
3 LEVEL OF PODIUM
PARKING BBELOW
GARDN
COMMERCIAL AND
ENTERTAIMENT SPACESRESIDENTAL SPACES REST OF
THE TOWERS
PUBLIC
ENTRY
PRIVATE ENTRY
9M SERVICE
WIDE ENTRY
Program: Mixed-Use
Plot Area: 18,615 sq.m
Floor Area: 50,000 sq.m
Height: 203 meters Main building,
142 meters Residence Building
Floor counts: 52 stories, 32 stories
Cost US$: 0.33 billion
Lifts: 28
Status: Under-Constructed
50000 SQ.M FOR OFFICES
132 RESIDENTIAL UNITS
PARKING-3500 IN 13 STORIES
PLOT AREA 4.8 ACRE
LIGHT AND VENTILATION (Natural & Mechanical)
Program: Mixed-Use
Plot Area: 61.800 m2
Building Footprint: 15,500 sq.m
Gross Floor Area: 2,21,000 sq.m
Height: 68 m
Floor counts: 21 stories
Lifts: 34
Status: Constructed
LINKED HYBRID CONSISTS OF 644 APRT.
PARKING – 1500 IN 3 LEVELS
FSI CONSUMED- 3.5
Program: Residential
Plot Area: 13,680 sq.m
Gross Floor Area: 30,500 sq.m
Height: 164 m , Two tower
Floor counts: 42 stories
Lifts: 6
Status: Constructed
202 RESIDENTIAL UNITS
PARKING – 409 IN LEVELS
FSI CONSUMED – 2
Program: Residential
Plot Area: 2900 sq.m
Building Footprint: 432 sq.m
Floor Area: 5260 sq.m
Height: 84 m
Floor counts: 28 stories
Lifts: 4
Status: Constructed
36 RESIDENTIAL UNITS
PARKING – PROVIDED IN LEVELS
FSI CONSUMED – 3.5
Program: Commercial
Building Footprint: 2500 m2
Gross Floor Area: 412500 m2
Height: 508 m
Floor counts: 101 stories
Cost US$: 1.6 billion
Lifts: 61
Status: Constructed
Green methodMechanical
Plan form basically evolved from the
cross ventilation process through the
west to east travelling winds of
Mumbai
Where balconies also gave an
artistic impression to the towers
Natural Method
Linked Hybrid’s ground source heat pump
system shoulders 70% of the complex’s yearly
heating and cooling load. The system consists
of 655 geothermal wells, 100 meters below the
basement foundation. The underground wells
have taken the place of above-ground space
normally needed for cooling towers,
increasing available green areas, minimizing
noise pollution and significantly reducing the
CO2 emissions
created by
traditional
heating/cooling
methods.
In Mumbai, a building has to be oriented east-
west to catch prevailing sea breezes and to
open up the best views of the city.
Unfortunately, these are also the directions of
the hot sun and the heavy monsoon rains. The
old bungalows solved these problems by
wrapping a protective layer of verandas around
the main living areas, thus providing the
occupants with two lines of defence against
the elements.
Natural Method
• An approach where different
zones are infused in an
interlinked context of its urban
fabric.
• FSI consideration is an Important
consideration for any high rise
proposal
• Limiting the user to private
spaces and allowing free roam in
its public spaces both spaces
segregated by different levels
can be effective to create a
mixed use environment
VERTICAL ZONING
• High rise structure can be zoned
vertically and the connectivity is
an important factor between any
two zones
• Service floors, lifts, shafts and
staircases are the most important
factor governing the daily
functionality of any high rise
• 200 meter tall Kohinoor square has a well
designed HVAC system for its ventilation
purposes. As it’s a glass enveloped
structure the load of mechanical
ventilation is also high.
• The cooling towers are situated near
water tanks at some levels in the buildings
• Natural method of light and
ventilation solves these problems
at a residential level
• But at commercial level there is a
need for mechanical ventilation
as there is a continues
requirement of larger floor space
to work collaboratively together.
• A green approach like in linked
hybrid is a very innovative
approach to tackle this
increasing load on the
mechanical system.
PRATEEK
SRIVASTAVA
Vth Year B.ARCH
MIT-Aurangabad
REFUGE AREAS
SERVICE CORE
60%15%
25%
Residential Services Parking
10%
26%
16%
11%
21%
13% 3%
Hotel Office
Residential Retail
Parking Services
Recreational ground
• The Central Core
is surrounded by
the office spaces
and refuge areas
(at 24 meter of
height)
• There are
segregated office
space from 2nd to
24th floor with
toilets to each
office and a
common toilet s
also provided on
all these floors.
Central core consist of 24Lifts
• 3 Lobbies of 6 Lifts serving levels
25th to 39th
• Spaces between the lifts where a lift
lobby is not provided are used as
toilets with dust at either side: 2 lifts
from this pack of 6 are assessable to
lower floors as well
• 1 lobby of 4 lifts serving levels 1st to
24th
• There is a lift bank at 24th floor .
• 2 services lifts travelling Throughout
the building
• 2 Stair cases are also placed in the
core
Residential Tower
• Central core serves 3 lifts and 1
services lifts
• It connects 8 units on each floor
• It connects 6 on 17th floor which is
refuge floor
• UNITS- 2.5 bhk 3bhk 3.5 bhk
Central core consist of 3 Lifts each
• Each Lobby has 2 Passenger lifts
connecting all floors and 1 Fire
escape Lift
• Core connects 3 units on envry floor
• It has two staircases and one shaft
• The planning is such that there is
natural ventilation in the core
Central core consist of 4 Lifts each
• Lobby has 3 Passenger lifts
connecting all floors and 1 Fire
escape Lift
• Core connects 2 units on envry
floor
• It has one staircases and one
shaft
AREA DISTRIBUTION
Kohinoor Square
Kanchanjunga Apt.
SECTION SHOWING
REFUGE FLOORS
WHICH IS 4% AREA OF
THE HABITABLE ZONE
ABOVE
Refuge floors
: 5th, 11th, 17th,
23rd & 29th
Central core
• Central core is the heart of
Taipei
• It connects all 101 floors
though a number of lifts
• The Fastest lift is travelling at
a speed of 1010 m/ min.
• That is 16.7 m/s
• Travelling though 364 m of
height
• The downward speed is 10m/s
Central core
• Central core is the heart of
any skyscraper
• It must be efficiently designed
in terms of planning as well
as cost
• A core holds all the services
of a skyscraper hence it
contains structural values as
well
Refuge Floors
At 11th floor the first refuge floor is
provided
DCR RULE
In case of high-rise bldg. more than 30
m then first refuge floor shall be
provided at 24 m or first habitable floor
whichever is higher. Thereafter at every
seventh habitable floor.
• A refuge floor is very important for the
safety of people living in a high rise
structure
• In case of high-rise bldg. More than 30
m then first refuge floor shall be
provided at 24 m or first habitable
floor whichever is higher. Thereafter
at every seventh habitable floor.
• Refuge floors
• Which is 4% area of the habitable zone
above
PRATEEK
SRIVASTAVA
Vth Year B.ARCH
MIT-Aurangabad

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Mumbai High Rise Buildings Case studies of Kohinoor Square, Aquaria Grande, Kanchanjunga, Linked Hybrid, Taipei 101 with comparitive

  • 1. KANCHANJUNGA APARTMENT Bombay, India, 1970-1983 Architect: Charles Correa Program: Residential Plot Area: 2900m2 Building Footprint: 432 m2 Gross Floor Area: 5,260 m2 Height: 84 m Floor counts: 28 stories Lifts: 3 + 1 Status: Constructed LINKED HYBRID Beijing, China, 2007 Architect: Steven Holl Architects Client: Modern Investment Grp Program: Mixed-Use Plot Area: 61.800 m2 Building Footprint: 15,500 sq.m Gross Floor Area: 2,21,000 sq.m Height: 68 m Floor counts: 21 stories Lifts: 34 Status: Constructed TAIPEI 101 Taipei City, Taiwan, 2004 Architect: C.Y. Lee & partners Client: Taipei Financial Center Corp Program: Commercial Building Footprint: 2500 m2 Gross Floor Area: 412.500 m2 Height: 508 m Floor counts: 101 stories Cost US$: 1.6 billion Lifts: 61 Status: Constructed KOHINOOR SQUARE Dadar, Mumbai, 2009-15 Architect: SSA Architects, Mumbai Client: The Kohinoor Group Program: Mixed-Use Plot Area: 18,615 sq.m Floor Area: 50,000 sq.m for commercial Height: 203 meters Main building, 142 meters Residence Building Floor counts: 52 stories, 28 stories Cost US$: 0.33 billion Lifts: 28 Status: Under-Constructed AQUARIA GRANDE Taipei City, Taiwan, 2004 Architect: james Law Client: Wadhwa Group Program: Residential Building Footprint: 13,680 sq.m Gross Floor Area: 30,500 sq.m Height: 164 m , Two tower Floor counts: 42 stories Lifts: 8 Status: Constructed CASE STUDIES KOHINOOR SQUARE Dadar, Mumbai, 2009-15 Architect: SSA Architects, Mumbai Client: The Kohinoor Group Program: Mixed-Use Plot Area: 18,615 sq.m Floor Area: 50,000 sq.m for Office Height: 203 meters Main building, 142 meters Residence Building Floor counts: 52 stories, 32 stories Cost US$: 0.33 billion Lifts: 28(24+4) Status: Under-Constructed Parking -3500 132 residential units MIXED-USE HIGH RISE Beijing Taipei Mumbai 01 KOHINOOR SQUARE INTRODUCTION Mixed-use High Rise Habitat is—in a broad sense—any urban, suburban development, or even a single building, that blends a combination of residential, commercial, cultural, institutional, or industrial uses, where those functions are physically and functionally integrated, and that provides pedestrian connections. NEED OF PROJECT Since the 1990s, mixed-use zoning has once again become desirable as the benefits are recognized. These benefits include • greater housing variety and density • reduced distances between housing, workplaces, retail businesses, and other destinations • more compact development • stronger neighborhood character • pedestrian and bicycle-friendly environments Mumbai currently faces Space shortage issue and various social issues one of which is travelling from one end to another. A resilient mixed-used complex is an attempt to Address these issues. OBJECTIVE: TO study Mixed-use Habitat in context to Mumbai OBJECTIVE: To understand programmatic planning of urban space at community level or mixed –use habitat at international level OBJECTIVE: TO study vernacular in high rise in context to Mumbai OBJECTIVE: TO study The Structural concept implied for a high ride building OBJECTIVE: TO study A high Rise structure according to the DCR for Mumbai • The Climate of Mumbai is a tropical wet and dry climate. • Mumbai's climate can be best described as moderately hot with high level of humidity. • Its coastal nature and tropical location ensures temperatures won't fluctuate much throughout the year. • The mean average is 27.2 °C Climate of Mumbai Site & Surrounding In India, Aquaria Grande is located Borivali, a suburb of Mumbai. The site is surrounded by a dense Low-Rise residential areas hence its Tallest structure in the vicinity. There are many parks and schools as well near to the site OBJECTIVE: To study planning and design of Mixed-use High rise in context to Mumbai Sr PROJECT NAME LOCATIO N TYPE SELECTION CRITERIA 1 KOHINOOR SQUARE MUMBAI MIXED USE FIRST MIXED USED HIGH RISE IN MUMBAI 2 KANCHANJUNGA APT. MUMABI RESIDENTAIL ONE OF THE FISRT HIGH RISE STURUCRE 3 AQUARIA GRANDE MUMBAI RESIDENTAIL HIGH RISE STRUCTURE ABIDING DCR RULES Sr PROJECT NAME LOCATIO N TYPE SELECTION CRITERIA 1 LINKED HYBRID BEIJING ,CHINA MIXED USE A 3D URBAN STURCUTRE OF MIXED HIGH RISE 2 TAIPEI 101 TAIPEI, TAIWAN COMMERCIAL ICONIC STRUCTURE L I V E L I T E R A T U R E PRATEEK SRIVASTAVA Vth Year B.ARCH MIT-Aurangabad
  • 2. The design of the building makes it environmentally friendly, using technologies such as floor-to-ceiling insulated glazing to contain heat and maximize natural light, and an automatic daylight dimming system. The tower also features a greywater system, which captures rainwater for reuse. Kohinoor group pvt ltd. States that the building is made largely of recycled and recyclable materials. Air entering the building is filtered, as is common, but the air exhausted is cleaned as well. The Kohinoor square building is one of the first skyscraper building in india to achieve a leadership in energy and environmental design platinum rating for environmental sustainability a gold (leed) certification from green building council. Construction of the Kohinoor square started in early 2009, with an completion date of march 2013. The combined pile raft foundation (cprf) is a geotechnical composite Construction that combines the bearing effect of both foundation elements raft and Piles by taking into account interactions between the foundation elements and the Subsoil the piled raft foundation system has recently been widely used for many structures, especially high rise buildings. In this foundation, the piles play an important role in settlement and differential settlement reduction, and thus can lead to economical design without compromising the safety of the structure. In several design cases, the piles are allowed to yield under the design load. Although the load capacity of the pile is exceeded, the piled raft foundation can hold additional loads with controllable settlement. Thus, accurately determining the settlement of the foundation is critical and for this the designers must consider the role of the raft and the role of piles in combination, as well as the interactions between the foundation’s components. 02 KOHINOOR SQUARE Floor Plan Analysis 11th to 24th Floor 11th to 24th Floor 25th to 39th Floor • The Central Core is surrounded by the office spaces and refuge areas (at 24 meter of height) • There are segregated office space from 2nd to 24th floor with toilets to each office and a common toilet s also provided on all these floors. Central core consist of • 3 Lobbies of 6 Lifts serving levels 25th to 39th • Spaces between the lifts where a lift lobby is not provided are used as toilets with dust at either side: 2 lifts from this pack of 6 are assessable to lower floors as well • 1 lobby of 4 lifts serving levels 1st to 24th • There is a lift bank at 24th floor . • 2 services lifts travelling Throughout the building • 2 Stair cases are also placed in the core Residential Tower 132 units from 14th to 26th floor 13 Stories of Parking below PARKING-3500 (brought from BMC) Central core serves 3 lifts and 1 services lifts There are 8 units on each floor 6 on 17th floor which is refuge floor UNITS- 2.5 bhk 3bhk 3.5 bhk 10% 26% 16%11% 21% 13% 3% Sales Hotel Office Residential Retail Parking Services Recreational ground Refuge Floors At 11th floor the first refuge floor is provided DCR RULE In case of high-rise bldg. more than 30 m then first refuge floor shall be provided at 24 m or first habitable floor whichever is higher. Thereafter at every seventh habitable floor. PLIE FOUNDATION USED Structural Glazing PRATEEK SRIVASTAVA Vth Year B.ARCH MIT-Aurangabad
  • 3. KANCHANJUNGA APT. Bombay, India, 1970-1983 Architect:CharlesCorrea Client: - Plot Area: 2900m2 Building Footprint:432 m2 Gross FloorArea:5,260 m2 Height:84 m Cost $ Unknown - Lifts:3 + 1 Status: Constructed Concept CONCEPTOFTHEARCHITECT The Tower is one of the masterpieces of Indian architect, Charleas Correa. Kanchanjunga Apartments isa 28 story height high end residential building built in Bombay, 1983. It was clear that the architect has reference to Lecorbusier’s crossover units in Unit habitation in Marseilles in 1952. Correa planned the 3 and 4 bedroom units interlocking with 5 and 6 bedroom units. 3-4 bedroom units occupies on and half level, and 5-6 bedroom units occupies two and half levels. There are small level displacement within the units to differenciate outdoor terrace and indoor living space, dining room and bedrooms and so on. These change of levels hide the living and bed rooms from the heat of sun and rains, while the big opening of balcony could get as much day light as possible. The whole building structure is built by reinforced concrete. The open terrace part is a 6m deep cantilever structure. Central core with lifts and shafts and building services so it also provide central stability element for lateral loads. The appearance of the building has strong resemblance of modern western building design. Especially the white plain surface with concrete construction. But the apartment design is an interperation of traditional Indian bungalow with verandah which is a main part of living area of indian family. The tower is 21m square on plan, and 1:4 proportion on elevation,84m height. It has aplain facadesurface, with cut away to open up double height balcony. EXTRATEXTEXPLANATION The tower design reinterperated the traditional living style of indian with modern architecture. And it is succesfully merged with environmential consideration, and social needs in this tower. Correa’s strong design signiture of sectional displacement where appropriate by changes in floor surface is most elaborated in this project. The complexity of internal spacial organization to create level changes and interlocking four types of units waspushed to an extreme in thisproject.. The building is oriented in east- west direction to catch the natural wind from the sea and also this direction has best view from city to the sea. But this face is also most heat up surface by the sun. The old bungalows solved this problem by warpping a thick layer of around living area verandas to protect from heay monsoon rain and sun heat. Kanchanjuna Apartment is applying this concept into the apartment design. EVOLUTIONARYABOUTTHECONCEPT KANCHANJUNGA APARTMENT 03 The architect, Charles Correa,from india and was born in1930. Started his private practice in 1958 in Bombay. He was at the age of 40 when the Kanchanjunga Apartments project began Charles correa bombay,india 1970-1983 MAIN ENTRY PARKING ENRTY PARKING EXIT OBJECTIVE: TO study vernacular in high rise in context to Mumbai Site & Surroundings In India Kanchanjunga is located in Pedder Road of Greater Mumbai, The Island city. Near the site to the west is the Arabian sea and the neigh hood is surrounded by many high rise structures influenced by Kanchanjunga as it was the First High rise in the area PRATEEK SRIVASTAVA Vth Year B.ARCH MIT-Aurangabad
  • 4. KANCHANJUNGA APARTMENT 04 STRUCTURE Whole structure is made of reinforced concrete. The building is a 32 storied rein-forced concrete structure With 6.3 m cantilevered open terraces. The central core houses lifts and other services also provides the main structural element for resisting lateral loads. The central core was constructed ahead of the main structure by slip method of construction. This technique was used for the first time in India for a multi- storied building. MATERIALS&COLOURS With its concrete construction and large areas of white panels, bears a strong resemblance to modern apartment buildings in the west. However, the garden terraces of Kanchanjunga apartments are actually a modern interpretation of a feature of the traditional Indian bungalows the verandah. In a bungalow, the verandah wraps the main living area. According to the architect there are some elements to combine the whole city as form axis of color. The color expert says that “the quality of sunlight, climate and culture influence color choices : hence one would observe a preference for blue and its shades in the west while in India and other Asian countries one finds a predominance of reds and yellows Great deal of transparency has been achieved by the use of large opening and terrace gardens on every floor. Because of American training, Correa has rarely been tempted to import Western ideas into India. Like most architects of his generation he has been influenced by Le Corbusier, but by his response to the Mediterranean sun with his “Great sculptural decisions (the over-hangs, the double- heights), placed facing the elements”. PRATEEK SRIVASTAVA Vth Year B.ARCH MIT-Aurangabad
  • 5. Total bldg. : Wing – A : 2 basements + 3 podiums + stilt + 32 upper floors. Wing – B : 2 basements + 3 podiums + stilt + 32 upper floors. Total height : 137.15 mts. Total no. of flats : 202 Residential flats. AQUARIA GRANDE 05 2nd Podium 1st Podium 3rd Podium  THE RESIDENTIAL DEVELOPMENT IS PROPOSED BY DEMOLISHING THE EXISTING STRUCTURES.  THE DEVELOPMENT OF THIS PROPERTY HAS BEEN PROPOSED AS A RESIDENTIAL DEVELOPMENT ALONG WITH PUBLIC PARKING DCR 33(24).  AREA OF THE PLOT : 13678.70 sq.mts.  PROPOSAL TO BUILD A RESIDENTIAL BUILDING WITH 2 BASEMENTS, 3 LEVEL PODIUMS, AND SUPER STRUCTURE WING – A, WING – B UPTO STILT + 32 UPPER FLOORS WITH 180 FLATS & WING – C AS THE CLUB HOUSE.  TOTAL HEIGHT OF THE BUILDING 137.15 meters. Stilt Refuge Floor SECTION AQUARIA GRANDE MUMBAI,INDIA Architect: james Law Client: Wadhwa Group Program: Residential Building Footprint: 13,680 sq.m Gross Floor Area: 30,500 sq.m Height: 164 m , Two tower Floor counts: 42 stories Lifts: 8 Status: Constructed Parking- 409 202 residential units OBJECTIVE: TO study A high Rise structure according to the DCR of Mumbai Site & surroundings In India, Aquaria Grande is located Borivali, a suburb of Mumbai. The site is surrounded by a dense Low-Rise residential areas hence its Tallest structure in the vicinity. There are many parks and schools as well near to the site PRATEEK SRIVASTAVA Vth Year B.ARCH MIT-Aurangabad
  • 6. Lower Basement Upper Basement • CLUB HOUSE INCLUDES GYM, SWIMMING POOL, RESTAURANT & BAR. • CLUB HOUSE IS FOR BOTH BUILDING MEMBERS & OTHER MEMBERS. • IT HAS SEPARATE ENTRANCE ALSO. • IT IS ALSO HAVING BANQUET HALL. • IT ALSO INCLUDES SPORTS CLUB WITH BADMINTON CLUB, SNOOKER TABLE, SQUASH COURT. CLUB HOUSE & OTHER AMMENITIES No. of staircases / wing : 2 nos. ( 2.00mts. each ) No. of lifts / wing : 3 passenger lifts @ 1 service lift. Refuge floors : 5th, 11th, 17th, 23rd & 29th SECTION SHOWING REFUGE FLOORS WHICH IS 4% AREA OF THE HABITABLE ZONE ABOVE Refuge floors : 5th, 11th, 17th, 23rd & 29th Carpet Areas Rule (DCR) No. of Flats Parking Required Below 35.00 sq.mt. 1 for 4 flats -- -- 35.00 to 45.00 sq.mt. 1 for 2 flats -- -- 45.00 to 70.00 sq.mt. 1 for 1 flat -- -- Above 70.00 sq.mt. 2 for 1 flat 180 360 Total 360 Visitors parking 36 Total parking required 396 Total parking provided 409 Parking Statement Floor Total car park 1st podium (+1.00 m. Lvl.) 92 nos. 2nd podium (+5.10m. Lvl.) 140 nos. 3rd podium (+9.30m. Lvl.) 149 nos. Stilt (+14.50m. Lvl.) 28 nos. Total 409 nos. Adequate open spaces all around the building for easy movement of fire tender.  Building is accessible by Fire tender driveway on podium level.  Each unit accessible from two stair cases.  Provision of Refuge floors as per CFO requirement. PANAROMIC VIEW FROM CURVED BALCONIES AQUARIA GRANDE 06 PRATEEK SRIVASTAVA Vth Year B.ARCH MIT-Aurangabad
  • 7. EXTRATEXTEXPLANATION Three different public entrances connect the skyring with the public space on ground floor. These entrances (coloured red in the floor plan above) each offer a different variety of pro- gram. One area for health and sportcentre, one area for recreational program opened through the day and one area for restaurants openede during night. The entrance to the restaurant is located next to the accesto the cinemawithin the heart of the project. FUNCTIONSIN THERING 1.reading room 2.design/book store 3. architecture gallery 4. sculpture gallery 5. art gallery 6.viewing platform 7.dinning deck 8.ultralounge 9.bar/cocktail 10.listening lounge 11.fitness 12.juicebar 13.group axcersice space 14.spinning room 15.office, locker rooms 16.lane lap pool 17.suspended catwalk 18. spa/massage 19.meetin place 20.viewing platform 21.hair/nail salon 22.health food store 23.tea seating 24.tea store/gaming place 25. coffee shop 26. café seating 27.book event space 28.book store Concept CONCEPTOFTHEARCHITECT Linked Hybrid projects a renewed thinking about the public space within large scale high rise projects. Holl shows us in this project how his ideal vertical city should work. It ishisideal city within acity. The horizontal traditional urban structure, continuous plinth with services, iscombined with the vertical city, disrupted plinth. Living is combined with commercial program in various towers. The commercial program is located in the plinth and living above. An ‘urban’ ring of commercial and cultural public activities link the towers on the twentieth floor. This skyhigh public space provides a cinematc experience of the whole complex and the city surrounding it. A big variation of urban functions are located in this ring, for example: a swimmingpool, a fitness centre, a nail and hair studio, an architecture office, galeries, bars, theesaloons and stores(more info on page 3). To prevent the city within a city to become an isolated island, Holl introduces the term urban porosity. He connects his ideal city with it’s context by attracting people to the centre of linked hybrid. Urban space is enclosed in the heart of the project. On street level pedestrians are able to move in and out the project. These two themes, ‘city within a city’ and ‘urban porosity’ are also the basis for Holl’s second big housing project in China, the sliced urban porosity block. EVOLUTIONARYABOUTTHECONCEPT The ensemble of high rise towers instead of the vertical tower pinned in the city projectsanew way of thinking about high rise architecture. The public space in heart of the large plot area connected with the highly accesible program in the skyring makes a unique contribution to the public life in the city. 07 LINKED HYBRID LINKED HYBRID Beijing, China, 2007 Architect: Steven Holl Architects Client: Modern Investment Group, Beijing Plot Area: 61.800 m2 Building Footprint: 15.500 m2 Gross Floor Area: 221.000 m2 Height: 68 m Cost US$: Unknown Lifts: 34 Status: Constructed 664 Residential units OBJECTIVE: To understand programmatic planning of urban space at community level or mixed –use habitat at international level Site & Surroundings In China, Linked Hybrid is located Beijing. The site is surrounded by many high rise colonies of same developer. It is also adjacent to the old city.It has Good connectivity the cities express way. Hence can attract a many visitors in their city within a city PRATEEK SRIVASTAVA Vth Year B.ARCH MIT-Aurangabad
  • 8. 08 LINKED HYBRID SECTION THROUG SKY BRIDGE Program given in sky bridge Horizontal and Vertical circulation PRATEEK SRIVASTAVA Vth Year B.ARCH MIT-Aurangabad
  • 9. TAIPEI 101 Taipei City, Taiwan, 2004 Architect: C.Y. Lee & partners Client: Taipei Financial Center Corp Building Footprint: 2500 m2 Gross Floor Area: 412.500 m2 Height: 508 m Cost US$: 1.6 billion Lifts: 61 Status: Constructed Concept CONCEPTOFTHEARCHITECT The unusual tower shape is an idea of the architect C.Y. Lee from Taipei. He was inspired by local culture, the building reflects the culture in which it functions. Lee was looking for balance between local culture and internationalism. The tall building symbolizes a broader understanding and anticipation of things to come: we “climb” in order to “see further”. The building rises from the ground like a bamboo, a symbol of everlasting strength in Chinese culture. In the section, the shape of a pagoda is recognizable. Taipe 101 Tower rises in 8 modules, a design based on the Chinese lucky number “8”. In cultures that observe a seven-day week the number eight symbolizes a renewal of time (7+1). In cultures where seven is the lucky number, 8 represent 1 better than ‘lucky seven’. Each modue has 8 floors and flares wider t the top. There are 101 floorsabove the ground and 5 floorsunderground. It’s more challenging to design and build a super-tal building in Taipei than any other location in the world because typhoon winds, large potential earthquakes and weak soil conditions all need to be overcome. A damping system was implemented to reduce the excessive lateral accelerations from wind. In the time it was build, the height of the Taipei 101 was recordbreaking, previously held by the Petronas Towers with 452 meters. It was the highest building in the world, build in an area with typhoons and earthquakes! The height of 101 floors commemorates the renewal of time: the new century that arrived as the tower was built (100+1) and all the new years that follow (January 1 = 1-01). It symbolizes high ideals by going one better on 100, a traditional number of perfection. EVOLUTIONARYABOUTTHECONCEPT A mega mass demper reduces the effect of wind. The pendulum has a weight of 660.000 kilogram and is situated on the 88th floor. It sways to offset movements in the building caused by strong gusts. Its sphere, the largest damper sphere in the world, consists of 41 circular steel plates. The structure has to be flexible enough to resist an earthquake, and stiff enough to resist a typhoon. Eight mega columnsgiving the stiffnessto the building. EXTRATEXTEXPLANATION The Taipei 101, formerly known as the Taipei World Financial Center, is a landmark skyscraper located in the Hsinyi Distric of the city, the rapid- growing “Manhattan” of Taipei. This is the future center of financial power in Taiwan. Taipei 101 is owned by the Taipei Financial Center Corporation (TFCC). Taipei 101 has one of the fastest ascending elevator speed with 1010 meters per minute, which is 16.83 m/s (60.6 km/h). These Toshiba elevatorsare able to take visitorsfrom the main floor to the observatory on the 89th floor in under 39 seconds. Taipei 101’s own roof and facade recycled water system meets 20-30 percent of the building’s water needs. Upgrades are currently under way to make Taipei 101 “the world’s tallest green building” by LEED IMAGES 1. Construction drawings 2. Elevatorsoverview 3. Taipei 101asalandmarkin theevening SOURCES Wells,M. (2003)Wolkenkrabbers. Alphen a/d Rijn,Atrium Uitgeverij http://www.archinomy.com/case-studies/671/taipei-101-a-case-stud http://www.architectureweek.com/2005/0330/building_2-2.html http://www.cnn.com/2003/WORLD/asiapcf/ http://www.etaiwannews.com/etn/news_content.php?id=1147437&lang=eng_news http://www.skyscraperpicture.com/taipei101.htm http://www.taipei-101.com.tw/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taipei_101#cite_note-etaiwannews.com-15east/10/17/taiwan.tower/ 09 TAIPEI 101 OBJECTIVE: To study The Structural concept implied for a high ride building PRATEEK SRIVASTAVA Vth Year B.ARCH MIT-Aurangabad
  • 10. In India Kanchanjunga is located in Pedder Road of Greater Mumbai, The Island city. Near the site to the west is the Arabian sea and the neigh hood is surrounded by many high rise structures influenced by Kanchanjunga as it was the First High rise in the area In Mumbai, a building has to be oriented east-west to catch prevailing sea breezes and to open up the best views of the city. Unfortunately, these are also the directions of the hot sun and the heavy monsoon rains. The old bungalows solved these problems by wrapping a protective layer of verandas around the main living areas, thus providing the occupants with two lines of defence against the elements. In India Kohinoor Square is located in the heart of the city Dadar, Greater Mumbai. site is in commercial hub. Surrounded by various high end national and international office and luxurious apartments. The famous Shivaji park is a 5 mins walk from the site. In India, Aquaria Grande is located Borivali, a suburb of Mumbai. The site is surrounded by a dense Low-Rise residential areas hence its Tallest structure in the vicinity. There are many parks and schools as well near to the site In China, Linked Hybrid is located Beijing. The site is surrounded by many high rise colonies of same developer. It is also adjacent to the old cityIt has Good connectivity the cities express way. Hence can attract a many visitors in their city within a city In Taiwan, Taipei 101 is located in Taipei. It is in a dense urban environment in CBD are of Taipei. Surrounded by world class urban infrastructure and high rise buildings with a view to a near by mountain. Dadar is situated in the heart of mumbai, soil is loamy and sandy, due to proximity to sea. Similar to soil types in northwestern also similar because of occurrence of basalt rock. SITE & SURROUNDINGS SOIL TYPE Malabar hills is situated in the heart of mumbai, soil is loamy and sandy, due to proximity to sea. Similar to soil types in northwestern also similar because of occurrence of basalt rock. Borivali is situated in the Suburb of mumbai, soil is loamy and sandy, due to proximity to sea. Similar to soil types in northwestern also similar because of occurrence of basalt rock. ORIENTATION CONCEPT Design Concept: An iconic structure drawing inspiration from the diamond. The homes and Offices offer unrivalled and unrestricted views of the Northern Suburbs, South Mumbai, Eastern Port and the Arabian Sea. Arabian Sea. View City View. As said in Correas design n Mumbai, a building has to be oriented east-west to catch prevailing sea breezes and to open up the best views of the city. Hence the Site is designed in such a way that the enclouser of the two tower trap maximum winds from the west to east The Retail outlet of Taipei 101 are located toward the south where as the Main entrance to the skyscraper is in the shades toward the North-east side. The Linked Hybrid is mainly based on User oriented planning as well as climatic. It was clear that the architect has reference to Lecorbusier’scrossover unitsin Unit habitation in Marseilles in 1952. Correa planned the 3 and 4 bedroom units interlocking with 5 and 6 bedroom units. 3-4 bedroom units occupieson and half level, and 5-6 bedroom units occupies two and half levels. There are small level displacement within the unitsto differenciate outdoor terrace and indoor living space, dining room and bedroomsand so on.These changeof levelshidetheliving and bed rooms from theheat of sun and rains, while thebig opening of balcony could get as much day light aspossible. Plan form basically evolved from the cross ventilation process through the west to east travelling winds of Mumbai Where balconies also gave an artistic impression to the towers "open city within a city". The project promotes interactive relations and encourages encounters in the public spaces that vary from commercial, residential, and educational to recreational. The entire complex is a three- dimensional urban space in which buildings on the ground, under the ground and over the ground are fused together. The tower has served as an icon of modern. Taiwan ever since its openingThe building was architecturally created as a symbol of the evolution of technology and Asian tradition. Its postmodernist approach to style incorporates traditional design elements and gives them modern treatments. - - • A High-Rise Structure comes out of necessity. Specially in a booming economical center with growing population. • Most populous cities have most numbers of High rise structures • It is seen that tallest high rise structures are found in the heart of the city. • Or a new economic center of any city • To Understand the type of soil of any site is important to develop a conceptual level structure proposal for any high-rise structure. • If a high rise structure is oriented studying is climatic conditions its can greatly increase the natural ventilation and light thus reducing the load on HVAC system and lighting system . Thus making it energy efficient. • Success of Vernacular approach or passive sustainable technology could be easily enhanced by proper orientation • The user and types of user and there circulation through a 3d urban structure is a very important aspect for orientation of a MIXED-USE HIGH RISE HABITAT. • It important to design a building which is relevant to the urban fabric of the city it proudly soars the sky of. • A resilient mixed use cluster development can be an attempt to solve any high density urban space issues PRATEEK SRIVASTAVA Vth Year B.ARCH MIT-Aurangabad
  • 11. ZONNING-PARKING-FSI CONSUMED PARKINGRESIDENTAIL OFFICES RETAIL SPACE RESIDENTIAL TOWERS CLUB 12M MAIN WIDE ENTRY 3 LEVEL OF PODIUM PARKING BBELOW GARDN COMMERCIAL AND ENTERTAIMENT SPACESRESIDENTAL SPACES REST OF THE TOWERS PUBLIC ENTRY PRIVATE ENTRY 9M SERVICE WIDE ENTRY Program: Mixed-Use Plot Area: 18,615 sq.m Floor Area: 50,000 sq.m Height: 203 meters Main building, 142 meters Residence Building Floor counts: 52 stories, 32 stories Cost US$: 0.33 billion Lifts: 28 Status: Under-Constructed 50000 SQ.M FOR OFFICES 132 RESIDENTIAL UNITS PARKING-3500 IN 13 STORIES PLOT AREA 4.8 ACRE LIGHT AND VENTILATION (Natural & Mechanical) Program: Mixed-Use Plot Area: 61.800 m2 Building Footprint: 15,500 sq.m Gross Floor Area: 2,21,000 sq.m Height: 68 m Floor counts: 21 stories Lifts: 34 Status: Constructed LINKED HYBRID CONSISTS OF 644 APRT. PARKING – 1500 IN 3 LEVELS FSI CONSUMED- 3.5 Program: Residential Plot Area: 13,680 sq.m Gross Floor Area: 30,500 sq.m Height: 164 m , Two tower Floor counts: 42 stories Lifts: 6 Status: Constructed 202 RESIDENTIAL UNITS PARKING – 409 IN LEVELS FSI CONSUMED – 2 Program: Residential Plot Area: 2900 sq.m Building Footprint: 432 sq.m Floor Area: 5260 sq.m Height: 84 m Floor counts: 28 stories Lifts: 4 Status: Constructed 36 RESIDENTIAL UNITS PARKING – PROVIDED IN LEVELS FSI CONSUMED – 3.5 Program: Commercial Building Footprint: 2500 m2 Gross Floor Area: 412500 m2 Height: 508 m Floor counts: 101 stories Cost US$: 1.6 billion Lifts: 61 Status: Constructed Green methodMechanical Plan form basically evolved from the cross ventilation process through the west to east travelling winds of Mumbai Where balconies also gave an artistic impression to the towers Natural Method Linked Hybrid’s ground source heat pump system shoulders 70% of the complex’s yearly heating and cooling load. The system consists of 655 geothermal wells, 100 meters below the basement foundation. The underground wells have taken the place of above-ground space normally needed for cooling towers, increasing available green areas, minimizing noise pollution and significantly reducing the CO2 emissions created by traditional heating/cooling methods. In Mumbai, a building has to be oriented east- west to catch prevailing sea breezes and to open up the best views of the city. Unfortunately, these are also the directions of the hot sun and the heavy monsoon rains. The old bungalows solved these problems by wrapping a protective layer of verandas around the main living areas, thus providing the occupants with two lines of defence against the elements. Natural Method • An approach where different zones are infused in an interlinked context of its urban fabric. • FSI consideration is an Important consideration for any high rise proposal • Limiting the user to private spaces and allowing free roam in its public spaces both spaces segregated by different levels can be effective to create a mixed use environment VERTICAL ZONING • High rise structure can be zoned vertically and the connectivity is an important factor between any two zones • Service floors, lifts, shafts and staircases are the most important factor governing the daily functionality of any high rise • 200 meter tall Kohinoor square has a well designed HVAC system for its ventilation purposes. As it’s a glass enveloped structure the load of mechanical ventilation is also high. • The cooling towers are situated near water tanks at some levels in the buildings • Natural method of light and ventilation solves these problems at a residential level • But at commercial level there is a need for mechanical ventilation as there is a continues requirement of larger floor space to work collaboratively together. • A green approach like in linked hybrid is a very innovative approach to tackle this increasing load on the mechanical system. PRATEEK SRIVASTAVA Vth Year B.ARCH MIT-Aurangabad
  • 12. REFUGE AREAS SERVICE CORE 60%15% 25% Residential Services Parking 10% 26% 16% 11% 21% 13% 3% Hotel Office Residential Retail Parking Services Recreational ground • The Central Core is surrounded by the office spaces and refuge areas (at 24 meter of height) • There are segregated office space from 2nd to 24th floor with toilets to each office and a common toilet s also provided on all these floors. Central core consist of 24Lifts • 3 Lobbies of 6 Lifts serving levels 25th to 39th • Spaces between the lifts where a lift lobby is not provided are used as toilets with dust at either side: 2 lifts from this pack of 6 are assessable to lower floors as well • 1 lobby of 4 lifts serving levels 1st to 24th • There is a lift bank at 24th floor . • 2 services lifts travelling Throughout the building • 2 Stair cases are also placed in the core Residential Tower • Central core serves 3 lifts and 1 services lifts • It connects 8 units on each floor • It connects 6 on 17th floor which is refuge floor • UNITS- 2.5 bhk 3bhk 3.5 bhk Central core consist of 3 Lifts each • Each Lobby has 2 Passenger lifts connecting all floors and 1 Fire escape Lift • Core connects 3 units on envry floor • It has two staircases and one shaft • The planning is such that there is natural ventilation in the core Central core consist of 4 Lifts each • Lobby has 3 Passenger lifts connecting all floors and 1 Fire escape Lift • Core connects 2 units on envry floor • It has one staircases and one shaft AREA DISTRIBUTION Kohinoor Square Kanchanjunga Apt. SECTION SHOWING REFUGE FLOORS WHICH IS 4% AREA OF THE HABITABLE ZONE ABOVE Refuge floors : 5th, 11th, 17th, 23rd & 29th Central core • Central core is the heart of Taipei • It connects all 101 floors though a number of lifts • The Fastest lift is travelling at a speed of 1010 m/ min. • That is 16.7 m/s • Travelling though 364 m of height • The downward speed is 10m/s Central core • Central core is the heart of any skyscraper • It must be efficiently designed in terms of planning as well as cost • A core holds all the services of a skyscraper hence it contains structural values as well Refuge Floors At 11th floor the first refuge floor is provided DCR RULE In case of high-rise bldg. more than 30 m then first refuge floor shall be provided at 24 m or first habitable floor whichever is higher. Thereafter at every seventh habitable floor. • A refuge floor is very important for the safety of people living in a high rise structure • In case of high-rise bldg. More than 30 m then first refuge floor shall be provided at 24 m or first habitable floor whichever is higher. Thereafter at every seventh habitable floor. • Refuge floors • Which is 4% area of the habitable zone above PRATEEK SRIVASTAVA Vth Year B.ARCH MIT-Aurangabad