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Let review 2013

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Let review 2013

  2. 2. Speech Communication  the process of sharing meaning through audible and visual codes as voice, facial expression, gestures, movement, posture and the like.  a process that includes participants, context, messages, channels, nois e and feedback.  The ability to talk with others to give and exchange information and ideas, such as: ask question, give directions, coordinate work tasks, explain and persuade.
  3. 3. How we use this skill:  Greeting people and taking messages  Reassuring, comforting or persuading  Seeking information and resolving conflicts  Facilitating or leading group
  4. 4. Vowel Sounds – are produced without blocking or constricting the passage of air  are oral sounds  are voiced
  5. 5. FRONT CENTRAL BACK HIGH /i/ /I/ MID /e/ /Ɛ/ / ^ / accented schwa / ǝ / unaccented schwa / Ʒ / accented er schwa sound / ɚ / unaccented er schwa sound /o/ LOW /ӕ/ /a/ / ͻ/ /u/ /U/ /ɐ/
  6. 6. Diphthong – is a combination of two vowel sounds blended into one syllable.  / aI /  / au/  / ͻI /
  7. 7. Consonants- are speech sounds produced through a modification of the outgoing breath by the organs of articulation. Therefore, there is blocking, narrowing, or diverting of the breath stream in their production.
  8. 8. Classification of Consonants Voicing Voiced- the vocal cords vibrate [b] [d] [g] [v] [ð] [z] [dƷ] [l] [m] [n] [ɳ ] [r] [w] [j] Voiceless- the vocal cords do not vibrate [p] [t] [k] [ƒ] [θ] [ ʃ ] [s] [ʧ ] [h] [ ƕ/Ϻ]
  9. 9. Points of Articulation  Bilabial- upper and lower lips  Labiodentals- lip and teeth  Lingua-dental (interdental)- tongue and teeth  Alveolar- tongue and gum ridge  Post alveolar (alveopalatal)- tongue and alveopalatal region  Palatal- tongue and palate  Velar- tongue and velum  Glottal- vocal folds
  10. 10. Manner of Articulation  Stops (stop-plosives) are characterized by an oral block, building up of pressure and a sudden explosive release of air.  Fricatives- are sounds produced when the breath stream passes through a narrowed oral opening and friction sounds result.  Nasals- are sounds produced by the blocking of the oral passage and diverting of the vocalized breath through the nasal passage.  Affricatives- are stops that move toward a fricative position.  Laterals- are sounds produced by closing the center of the oral passage and opening the sides.  Glides (semi-vowels)- are sounds produced with the tongue starting at a position and gliding rapidly to another.
  11. 11. Consonant Chart Points of articulation Lips (bilabial) Lip- teeth (Labio-dental) Tongue-teeth (lingua dental) Tongue- gum ridge (alveolar) Manner of articulation Stops VL VD Tongue- hard palate (post alveolar) Tongueblade palate (palate) Tonguevelum (velar) t k b Fricatives VL VD p d g ƕ/Ϻ VD m Lateral θ (th) s ʃ (sh) ð (th) z (zh) h ɳ (ng) n l glides Affricates f v Nasals w VL VD Larynx (glottal) r j (y) ʧ (ch) ʤ (dzh)
  12. 12. The critical consonant sounds for Filipinos:  / f, v, θ, ð, z, š, ž, ϐ, j/  /t, n/  / ð , r/
  13. 13. Noun Plurals are spelled as Rule 1. If you add letter “s” to a word ending in one of the voiceless consonant phonemes (sounds) it is pronounced / s /. boats puffs peeps walks breadths Rule 2: if you add letter “s” to a word ending in one of the voiced consonant phonemes as a vowel phoneme the “s” ending is pronounced /z/. dogs runs trees cars beds leave dolls Rule 3: if you add “es” suffix to a word ending in one of the /s, z, š, ž, ϐ, j/ it is pronounced as / ðz/
  14. 14. Pronunciation: “ed” suffixes /t/ after voiceless sounds looked, kicked /d/ after voiced sounds measured, loaned / ðd/ planted, wanted
  15. 15. Prosodic Features Prosodic – the rhythm of spoken language, including stress and intonation, or the study of these patterns
  16. 16. Stress  Stress also called accent refers to the prominence given to a syllable or word which makes the word or syllable stand out above the adjacent syllable or word.  -It can be word stress or sentence stress.  -It is the relative loudness or softness with which a syllable is spoken.  -A stressed syllable is pronounced louder and has a higher pitch and longer duration than unstressed syllable.
  17. 17. Four Degrees of Stress /’/ primary stress very loud and very long / ‘/ secondary stress loud and long / ”/ tertiary stress weak and short /^/ weak stress very weak and very short
  18. 18.  Most English words, especially nouns that contain two syllables are stressed on the first syllable.  Verbs are stressed on the second syllable  Words to which suffixes like –tion, -sion, -ic, -ity, are added, carry the strong stress on the syllable before these suffixes.  Compound nouns are stressed on the first noun to distinguish them from an adjective and a noun combination.
  19. 19. Blending  When the first word ends with a vowel sound and the second word begins also with vowel sound, you blend the sounds.  When the first word ends with a vowel sound and the second word begins with a consonant, you also blend the sounds.  When the first word ends with a consonant sound and the second word begins with a vowel sound, blending is also share.
  20. 20. Intonation  Intonation, also known as inflection is the movement of the voice up or down, along the line of sound.  It is the rising and falling of pitch in the delivery of a syllable or a word in a phrase or a sentence.  It is determined partly by the mind and mood of the speaker.  Through the rising and falling of the speaker’s voice, particular words in a phrase or sentence are given emphasis and significance.  Stress and intonation are closely related to each other. An increase of stress is generally accompanied by a rise pitch.
  21. 21. Four Levels of Pitch  low  mid  high  extra Levels 1,2, and 3 are used in normal conversation, while level 4 is used when the speaker is excited, emotional, or emphatic.
  22. 22. Shift and Glide  Shift occurs when there is a movement from one tune to another that takes place between syllables.  Glide happens when the voice slides from one tune to another while a syllable is spoken.
  23. 23. Basic Intonation Patterns  Rising-Falling  Rising Intonation or 2-3-1 Intonation or 2-3-3  Falling Intonation or 3-1  Non-Final Intonation or 2-3-2  Extra-High Pitch or 4