Consultancy in Airport Sector Scope and Opportunities
MASTERS DEGREE IN AVIATION LAW AND AIR TRANSPORT MANAGEMENT
New Delhi Centre
Consultancy in Airport Sector: Scope and Opportunities
Prashanth M R
Roll No. or ID No.
Date of Submission: 05.10.2014
NALSAR Center of Air and Space
University of Law Law
Hyderabad. NALSAR, Hyderabad.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
S. No. Chapter Name Page Number
1 Introduction 5-7
1.1 Airport Development in India
1.2 Need of Consultant
1.3 ICAO Policy on Contract of Individual
2 Objectives and Duties of Airport Consultant 7-10
2.1 Objectives of Airport consultant
2.2 Duties of Airport Consultant
3 Scope and Opportunity of Airport Consultant 10-14
3.1 Airport Planning Services
3.2 Architectural / Engineering services
3.3 Special Services
3.4 Opportunity of Experts in Airport Consultancy
4 Selection Methodology of Airport Consultant 14-18
4.1 Technical Parameters
4.2 Financial Parameters
4.3 Qualifying Criteria
5 Conclusion and Suggestion 19
TABLE OF CASES CITED
ADB Bank: Selection of Consultant for the development of Airport
Selection of consultant for Review of DPR for Dholera International airport at Dholera SIR, Gujarat
Selection of Consultant for Site Finalization and Development of Taj International Airport,
Selection of Legal consultant to provide legal advisory services for Public Private Partnership in
Development, Operation & Maintenance of Chennai and other airports.
LIST OF STATUTES
1. Airports Authority of India Act, 1994
2. AERA Act 2008
3. ICAO Airport Planning Manual (DOC 9184) Part 3 c Guidelines for Consultant /
4. FAA Advisory circular
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS USED
AAI Airports Authority of India
ACI Airport Council International
ADB Asian Development Bank
DGCA Directorate General of Civil Aviation
EOI Expression of Interest
ICAO International Civil Aviation Organization
RFQ Request for Qualification
PPP Public Private Participation
TEFR Techno Economic Feasibility Report
FAA Federal Aviation Administration
LIST OF TABLES USED
Table 3.4 Expert List
Table 4.2 Selection Criteria Evaluation
Table 4.3 Qualification Based Selection Process
CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Airport development in India
India is a vast land of construction opportunity. India is at the threshold of emerging as an economic
power. However, it is recognized that infrastructure holds the key to this transformation. Airport
infrastructure in India is witnessing improvisation and expansion on a massive scale, with the
Government avidly supporting private participants. The Government of India has received proposals
for setting up Greenfield airports at various places all over the country as there is a growing need for
internationally-benchmarked airports. The investment in Indian airport infrastructure market,
especially in the Greenfield projects is increasing with large number of ongoing and proposed
According to the recent survey, rise in per capita income is making air travel more affordable for
Indian travelers. It is anticipated that air passenger traffic will grow at a CAGR of 16% during FY
2012 to FY 2015.
The need for internationally benchmarked airports is increasing in nation. Therefore, non-metro
cities are getting authority's attention so as to develop Greenfield projects under Public private
partnership in various parts of country so as to boost tourism and trade in the region.
So the need of airport consultant is required for providing subject matter support to the Airport
Authority / the private airport. The subject matter expert namely the consultant having expertise in
the area of Airport Planning, Airport Design and Development, Architectural and Engineering
aspects of designing / construction of a airport, Legal consultation for providing the legal framework
in and around the airport premises etc.
The following chapters will explain in detail about the Need of consultant, Different kind of airport
consultant, Selection Methodology of the consultant etc
1.2 Need of Consultant
As air transport expands at an increasingly rapid pace, civil aviation regulatory institutions face more
complex challenges to enhance flight safety and security to protect consumers and sustain
“A consultant is usually an expert or a professional in a specific field and has a wide knowledge of
the subject matter”
Consultant provides training and technical support in a diverse range of economic and technical
areas as well as advisory services to help your organization develop its own procedures and practices
Consultant, turn ideas and visions into success stories.
Consultant leverages his / her strong aviation IP base to provide strategic and implementation
advice, with the fast delivery of solutions so that the clients can implement and knowledge transfer
into their management teams as required.
1.3 ICAO Policy on Contract of Individual Consultants/Contractors
An individual consultant is a person who is a recognized authority or specialist in a specific field
engaged by ICAO in an advisory or consultative capacity for a finite period of time and linked to
deliverables. An individual consultant must have special skills or knowledge not readily available
within ICAO or not normally possessed by the regular staff of ICAO and for which there is no
continuing need in ICAO. An individual contractor may be engaged by ICAO from time to time to
provide expertise, skills or knowledge in the performance of a specific task or piece of work. The
work assignment may involve full-time or part-time functions similar to those of staff members. The
functions of an individual consultant or contractor shall not include any representative, certifying,
supervisory or approving responsibilities.
Building a new airport, adding new facilities or attracting new airlines is a highly complicated,
lengthy and costly undertaking. IATA takes a leadership role in assisting airports worldwide to meet
airline requirements for safety, efficiency and functionality.
We offer unequalled expertise and experience to help you plan efficiently, avoid costly mistakes and
profit from unseen opportunities.
CHAPTER II: OBJECTIVES AND DUTIES OF THE AIRPORT
2.1 Objectives of Airport Consultant
In Indian context the construction, development, operation and maintenance of the airports are
divided into two concepts namely:
Green Field Airport Greenfield Airport means a new airport which is built from scratch in a new location
because the existing airport is unable to meet the projected requirements of traffic.
Brown Field Airport Those projects which are modified or upgraded from existing facilities are called
Following are the main objective of the Airport Consultant who provides consultancy services for
the establishment of new Greenfield airport
To review the present laws and rules guiding the location and development of Greenfield
Airports in the country
To identify the best possible site for the development of airport
To provide important considerations for technical operation.
To carry out necessary surveys / studies for evaluating site options and selecting the best
Preparation of Techno-economic Feasibility Report
Master plan of the Airport
The Bid Documents and Concession Agreements and
The selection of the Developer etc
Airport Planning & Development
Master Plan including Terminal Concepts, Runway and Apron Systems
Capacity / Demand Analysis
Level of Service
Passenger, Aircraft and Baggage Simulation
Master Plan Review
Technical Due Diligence
Airport Process Reengineering and Optimization
Safety and Security
Traffic Forecasting & Development
Air Service Development and Marketing Strategy
Traffic Forecast Review and Due Diligence
Airport Non-Aeronautical Activities
Business Planning and Implementation
Airport Transactions and Privatization
2.2 Duties of Aviation / Airport consultant
Aviation consultants works with an aviation company, aviation attorney or insurance company
providing solutions on complex technical issues.
An aviation consultant helps clients understand the latest and the best aviation practices. The
consultant may also be responsible for overseeing the procedures of surveillance of air traffic, as
well as developing and implementing aviation certification programs.
The prerequisite for the job is a bachelor’s degree in aviation administration. Prior experience in
commercial airline industry is desirable for a better job prospect.
The aviation consultant establishes new policies and consults the management for the best
operational analysis strategies that suit the needs of the client.
The primary duty of the aviation consultant is to conduct technical reviews aimed at evaluating the
welfare of operational analysis of airport design and development, and airport safety performance.
2.2.2 Skills to Advise
Airport consultants must be knowledgeable about the latest industry trends. The consultant he/she
should have knowledge of FAA rules, ICAO rules & Annexure and the process of gaining necessary
The consultants need to have good analytical skills in order to interpret various sources of
information and make recommendations to clients.
Airport consultants should also have interpersonal skills to develop relationships with existing and
2.2.3 Assisting Clients
The airport consultants work with clients on a daily basis. According to the website of Aero
Consulting Experts, aviation consultants must first ascertain their clients' needs before providing
Upon being contracted, consultants perform a case assessment of the company and create a plan of
In some situations, the company may be dealing with a recent airport development and the aviation
consulting firm acts in a public relations capacity. Another client may be in need of extensive work
on its airport planning, and the consultant negotiates the provision and provides the phase wise
2.2.4 Engineering and Design
The aviation consultants also provide engineering assistance to industry designers. For instance, India
Aviation Consulting and Support LLP, a national aviation consulting firm, specializes in the provide
consultancy services in construction of airports. Preparation of Aerodrome Manuals, Feasibility studies etc.
As an aviation engineering consultant, the consultant will work with large aircraft manufacturers or
government officials in localities with airports. The consultant provide expertise in design, appropriate use
of space and innovative building techniques
CHAPTER III: Scope and Opportunities in Airport Consultant Services
There are two separate and distinct scopes of consultant services that are utilized for projects
conducted under airport grant programs. The first category involves Airport Planning services. The
second involves Architectural / Engineering services for the design and construction supervision /
inspection of airport projects
These two categories of consultant services are discussed below:
3.1. Aviation planning services.
This category involves studies under the broad headings of airport system and master planning, Site
selection, Traffic forecasting, marketing strategies, environmental assessments and related studies.
These studies include, but are not limited to the following activities:
Design study to establish the framework and detailed work program
Airport data collection and facility inventories
Aeronautical activity forecasts and demand/capacity analyses
Facility requirements determination
Airfield modeling for capacity and delay
Airport layout and terminal area plan development
Airport noise study
Compatible land use planning in the vicinity of airports
Airport site selection studies
Airport development schedules and cost estimates
Airport financial planning and benefit cost analysis
Participate in public information and community involvement programs and/or public
hearings relating to airport development and planning projects
Environmental Assessment (EA), Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and other studies
in accordance with ICAO standards and Recommended practices..
3.2 Architectural / Engineering services for airport development projects
This category includes the basic A/E services normally required for airport development projects. It
involves services generally of an architectural, civil, geotechnical, structural, mechanical, and
electrical engineering nature. The basic services are usually conducted in, but are not limited to, the
four distinct and sequential phases summarized below:
3.2.1. Preliminary Phase
This phase involves those activities required for defining the scope of a project and establishing
preliminary requirements. Some examples of activities within this phase of a project include, but not
a) Conferring with the sponsor on project requirements, finances, schedules, early phases of the
project, and other pertinent matters and meeting with ICAO and other concerned agencies
and parties on matters affecting the project.
b) Planning, procuring, and / or preparing necessary surveys, geotechnical engineering
investigations, field investigations and architectural and engineering studies required for
preliminary design considerations.
c) Developing design schematics, sketches, environmental and aesthetic considerations, project
recommendations and preliminary layouts and cost estimates
3.2.2 Design Phase
This phase includes all activities required to undertake and accomplish a full and complete project
Examples include, but are not limited to, those below
a) Conducting and attending meetings and design conferences to obtain information and to
coordinate or resolve design matters
b) Collecting engineering data and undertaking field investigations; performing geotechnical
engineering studies; and performing architectural, engineering and special environmental
c) Preparing necessary engineering reports and recommendations
d) Preparing detailed plans, specifications, cost estimates, and design/construction schedules.
e) Preparing construction safety plans
f) Printing and providing necessary copies of engineering drawings and contract specifications
3.2.3 Bidding and Negotiation Phase
These activities are sometimes considered part of the construction phase. They involve assisting the
sponsor in advertising and securing bids, negotiating for services, analyzing bid results, furnishing
recommendations on the award of contracts, and preparing contract documents.
3.2.4 Construction Phase
This phase includes all basic services rendered after the award of a construction contract, including,
but not limited to, the following activities.
a) Providing consultation and advice to the sponsor during all phases of construction
b) Representing the sponsor at preconstruction conferences.
c) Inspecting work in progress periodically and providing appropriate reports to the sponsor.
d) Reviewing and approving shop and errection drawings submitted by contractors for
compliance with design concept/drawings
e) Reviewing, analyzing and approving laboratory and test reports of materials and equipment
f) Preparing and negotiating change orders an supplemental agreements
g) Observing or reviewing performance tests required by specifications.
h) Determining amounts owed to contractors and assisting sponsor in the preparation of
payment requests for amounts reimbursable from grant project.
i) Making final inspections and submitting check lists and a report of the completed project to
j) Reviewing operations and maintenance manuals.
3.3 Special Services:
The development of some projects may involve activities or studies outside the scope of the basic
design services routinely performed by the consultant. These special services may vary greatly in
scope, complexity, and timing and may involve a number of different and fields of expertise.
Consultants performing special services may be employed directly by th sponsor to implement one
or more phases of a project or may be employed by the principal consultant via a subcontract
agreement. In certain instances, these services may be performed by the principal consultant. Some
examples of special services that might be employed for airport projects include, but are limited to,
a) Soil investigation – which includes core sampling, laboratory y tests, related analyses and
b) Detailed mill, shop, and / or laboratory inspection of materials and equipments
c) Land surveys and topographic and contour maps
d) Field and / or construction surveys
e) Onsite construction inspection and / or management involving the services of a full time
resident engineer (s), inspector (s), or manager (s) during the construction or installation
phase of a project.
f) Special environmental studies and analyses
g) Expert witness testimony in litigation involving specific projects
h) Project feasibility studies
i) Public information and community involvement surveys, studies and activities
3.4 Opportunities of Experts in Airport consultancy services
Sl. No. Specialist
1 Aviation Sector Expert
2 Expert in Airport Development
3 Expert in Civil Aviation Industry
4 Transportation Planner
5 Transport Economist
6 Architect Urban planner
7 Airport Master Planner
8 Survey Engineer
9 Financial Specialist
10 Concession Agreement / Legal Expert
11 PPP Expert
Table 3.4 – Expert List
CHAPTER IV: SELECTION OF AIRPORT CONSULTANT
The selection of consultants must be made on the basis of fair negotiations and equitable fees an
through selection procedures that are professionally acceptable, ensure maximum open and free
competition, and avoid any suggestion of unfair or unethical conduct.
Consultants employed for work on projects involving airport must be responsible and posses the
ability to perform successfully under the terms and conditions of the proposed procurement.
Considerations should be given to such matters as integrity, record of past performance, extent of
experience with the type of services required by the sponsor, technical resources and accessibility to
other necessary resources.
The airport authority or the state government or the private airport developer publishes the
opportunities in the form of tender in the media for the selection of the consultant for the
development of the airport. The tender is mainly of two stages bid system.
The tenderer will provide the minimum qualifying criteria to which the consultant shall satisfy the
minimum parameters set by the tenderer.
4.1 Technical Parameters
The selection criteria include, but are not limited to, the following:
a) Capability to perform all or most aspects of the project and recent experience in airport
projects comparable to the proposed task,
b) Key personnel’s professional qualifications and experience and availability for the proposed
project; their reputation and professional integrity and competence and their knowledge of
ICAO / FAA regulations, policies and procedures
c) Current workload and demonstrated ability to meet schedules or deadlines
d) Quality of projects previously undertaken and capability to complete projects without having
major cost escalations or overruns.
e) Qualification and experience of outside consultants regularly engaged by the consultant
Example: The tenderer or the contractor shall set the minimum technical qualifying criteria as well
as the weight age for the parameter
Experience of consultancy services for project development of Domestic / International
Experience of consultancy for successful selection of project developers in aviation / tourism
sector on PPP basis and finalization of contract agreements
Experience of consultancy services for developing infrastructure projects other than aviation
and tourism sector
Technical Team which comprises of sector expert and the key personnel with their CV’s
4.2 Financial Parameters
The tenderer will set the following parameters for the eligibility of the consultant to take over the
The consultant should have average annual turnover from the advisory / consultancy services
for last three financial years
The consultant should have average Net worth as per last audited financial sheet
S.No. Criteria Total Mark Marking System
1 Experience of consultancy services
for project development of
Domestic / International airport
2 Experience of consultancy for
successful selection of project
developers in aviation / tourism
sector on PPP basis and
finalization of contract agreements
3 Experience of consultancy services
for developing infrastructure
projects other than aviation and
4 Technical Team which comprises
of sector expert and the key
personnel with their CV’s
5 average annual turnover from the
advisory / consultancy services for
last three financial years
6 average Net worth as per last
audited financial sheet
Table 4.2 Selection Criteria Evaluation
4.3 Qualifying Criteria: Bidders securing 80% marks in Technical Bid shall qualify for opening of
The weightage to Technical and Financial Bids would be 80% and 20% respectively.
a) Technical Bid: The total marks obtained out of 100 marks in Technical Bid shall be scaled down
to a maximum of 80 as follows which shall henceforth be the total marks obtained by the Bidder
against the Technical Bid:
Marks (maximum 80) on Technical Bid (A) = 0.80 x Marks of Technical Bid under evaluation
b) Financial Bid: The least Financial Bid would be best Financial Bid and shall be awarded 20
marks. Other Financial Bids would be awarded marks out of maximum 20 based on following
Marks (maximum 20) on Financial Bid (B) = 0.20 x (Lowest Financial Bid/ Financial Bid under
c) Total Marks = A+B
d) The Bidder scoring maximum Total Marks would be recommended for selection.
CHAPTER V: CONCLUSION & SUGGESTIONS
From the view point of the above chapters, i am concluding that “Airport consultants provide
technical advice and services to sponsors on the development, improvement and expansion of
airports, and they are very knowledgeable in their respective areas of expertise.
Chapter 1, explains the necessity of the consultant to review the project to determine what is
required and expected of the consultant.
Chapter 2 & 3 explains the roles and responsibility & the scope of the consultant, the selected
consultant is to review the project proposed, site identification and site selection based on the critical
aircraft in use in the proposed airport, to prepare the pre-feasibility, feasibility and the Techno-
Economical Feasibility report. Once the proposed TEFR is accepted by the sponsor , the consultant
have to prepare the DPR – Detailed Project Report which contains the land use plan, proposed
critical aircraft in use, Master plan, Financials etc.
Chapter 4 explains the selection methodology adopt in the selection of consultant as per ICAO and
FAA advisory circulars. The well defined scoring system and the rate of Statement of Qualifications,
technical and financial criteria which provides the consultant technical as well as the financial
background to undertake the proposed project
1. US DOT FAA Advisory Circular “Architectural, Engineering and Planning consultant services for
Airport Grant projects
2. Reference Guide for Airport Consultants PDF from Airport Council of Consultants
3. ADB: Selection of Consultant for the development of Airport
4, Selection of consultant for Review of DPR for Dholera International airport at Dholera SIR,
Gujarat by Airport Authority of India website
5. Selection of Consultant for Site Finalization and Development of Taj International Airport,
Uttarpradesh by Government of Uttarpradesh
6. Selection of Legal consultant to provide legal advisory services for Public Private Partnership in
Development, Operation & Maintenance of Chennai and other airports –Airport Authority of India