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The Knowledge Gap

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Carmen Neghina & Alina Oprea

Overview of the Knowledge Gap theory, developed by Tichenor. Analysis, criticism and recommendations

Publié dans : Formation, Business
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The Knowledge Gap

  1. 1. The<br />DGE<br />KNOWLE<br />GA<br />P<br />
  2. 2. „Knowledge is power“ <br />2<br />
  3. 3. Content<br />Mass Media‘s Role<br />Knowledge Gap Theory<br />Refinement of the hypothesis<br />
  4. 4. Mass Media‘s Role<br />
  5. 5. Timeline<br />Mass Media‘s Role<br />Vallone<br />Tichenor<br />Dervin<br />Lovrich & Pierce<br />Gaziano<br />Cook<br />Rogers<br />1984<br />1970<br />1975<br />1977<br />1982<br />1996<br />Brantgarde<br />Parker<br />Ettema & Kline<br />McLeod<br />Donohue<br />
  6. 6. Timeline<br />Mass Media‘s Role<br />Vallone<br />Tichenor<br />Dervin<br />Lovrich & Pierce<br />Gaziano<br />Cook<br />Rogers<br />1984<br />1970<br />1975<br />1977<br />1982<br />1996<br />Brantgärde<br />Parker<br />Ettema & Kline<br />McLeod<br />Donohue<br />
  7. 7. Hierarchy of Knowledge<br />Mass Media‘s Role<br />Wisdom<br />Knowledge<br />Information<br />Data<br />
  8. 8. Sesame Street<br />Mass Media‘s Role<br />Profile: educational TV programming<br />Target group: disadvantaged inner city kids<br />Goal: bring all kids up to a basic level to prepare them for school<br />Method: combining information and entertainment<br />Researcher: Thomas Cook – 1975<br />Findings: the gap still existed between kids with a higher level of education compared to kids with less<br />Exception: heavy viewers were able to narrow the gap<br />
  9. 9. Projections<br />Mass Media‘s Role<br />Mass media <br /><ul><li>reinforce or increase existing inequalities
  10. 10. more oriented towards the more educated and more powerful groups in society
  11. 11. systematically project definitions of issues which are conducive to the interest of established power groups
  12. 12. people of higher socioeconomic status get their information in a different way than lower educated people.</li></li></ul><li>Knowledge Gap Theory<br />
  13. 13. In the Beginning...<br />Knowledge Gap Theory<br />Information and knowledge usually spread <br />unequally to all groups within social systems<br />
  14. 14. Reasons<br />Knowledge Gap Theory<br />Predicted Knowledge Gap<br />
  15. 15. Hypothesis<br />Knowledge Gap Theory<br /> As the infusion of mass media information into a social system increases, segments of the population with higher socioeconomic status tend to acquire this information at a faster rate than the lower status segments so that the gap in knowledgebetween these segments tends to increase rather than decrease<br />
  16. 16. Study Variables<br />Knowledge Gap Theory<br />IV<br />DV<br />variation in mass media publicity or media use<br />knowledge gap according to social economic status<br />Knowledge gap becomes the degree of relationship between education and knowledge<br />
  17. 17. Operational Hypothesis<br />Over time, acquisition of knowledge of a heavily publicized topic will proceed at a faster rate among better educated person than among those with less education<br />2. At a given point in time, there should be a higher correlation between acquisition of knowledge and education for topics highly publicized in the media than for topics less highly publicized.<br />Knowledge Gap Theory<br />A<br />B<br />C<br />
  18. 18. Assumptions<br />Education indicates socio-economic status<br />Information flow may be characterized by irreversible linear or curvelinear trends<br />No upper limit of information has been reached<br />PA and science news have less appeal and value to <br />Knowledge Gap Theory<br />
  19. 19. Methods - Tichenor<br />Types of research:<br />Time trends<br />Newspaper strike<br />Field experiment<br />Methods: <br /> - surveys of mass media<br /> - tests of knowledge<br />Knowledge Gap Theory<br />
  20. 20. 4 different polls: <br />Question: Do you believe men would reach the moon in the future?<br />Results:<br /> - Gap between college educated and those with lower education<br />- Significant increase of knowledge over years<br />1. Time trend<br />Knowledge Gap Theory<br />
  21. 21. 2. Newspaper Strike Study<br />Knowledge Gap<br />Studied the effects of withdrawing mass media influence<br />Findings:<br />Less of a knowledge difference between better and less educated people in the strike community<br />
  22. 22. 3. Minneapolis – St. Paul Experiment<br />Knowledge Gap Theory<br />Reader understanding: <br />22 medical and biological research articles<br />21 social science articles<br />Sample: 600 persons – metropolitan area<br />Objective: readership and reiteration of information<br />
  23. 23. Findings<br />Most of the data seems to be consistent with the increasing knowledge gap hypothesis<br />A difference in knowledge according to educational level<br />Regardless of educational background, knowledge increases over years<br />When deprived of information, the gap between more and less educated persons lessens<br />People may develop trained capacities to react to various stimuli<br />Knowledge Gap Theory<br />
  24. 24. Relevance<br /> The Knowledge Gap hypothesis seems to be a fundamental explanation for the apparent failure of mass publicity to inform the public at large<br />The people reached by campaigns tend to be the better educated, the younger and the men, while less educated and older people ignore the campaign<br />Knowledge Gap Theory<br />
  25. 25. Criticism<br />The psychological level of analysis should also be analyzed: motivation, relevance, cognitive schemata, threat and interest.<br />Gender and race were not taken into consideration<br />PA and news science are less valuable and appealing to the general public<br />Income, occupation may also be relevant differentiators<br />Knowledge Gap Theory<br />
  26. 26. Refinement of the Theory<br />
  27. 27. Closing the Gap<br />Tichenor<br />Shift from an abstract notion of social systems to a concrete geographically grounded idea of community<br />Kw gap decreases for local issues under conditions of high significance, high community conflict and homogenity of population<br />Refinement of the <br />Theory<br />?<br />
  28. 28. Individual Voluntarism<br />Ettema & Kline<br />Shift from societal naturalism to individual voluntarism<br />The individual is seen as an entity constructing meanings unique to their circumstances<br />Refinement of the <br />Theory<br />
  29. 29. Influence Gap?<br />Brantgarde<br />Expanded the knowledge gap to include more than knowledge, namely social relations (opinion leaders)<br />Knowledge gap becomes the influence gap<br />Refinement of the <br />Theory<br />
  30. 30. Further Questions<br /> Q: If media widens these knowledge gaps, under which circumstances can they be closed?<br /> Knowledge gaps are not intractable. <br />Contributory conditions that could reduce knowledge gaps: <br />content domains<br />channel influence <br />social conflict and community mobilization<br />the structure of communities<br />individual motivational factors.<br />
  31. 31. Thank you for your attention !<br />