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Re-Entry and Career Issues
Prof. Preeti Bhaskar
Symbiosis Centre for Management Studies, NOIDA
Re-entry/Expatriation
• Reasons of Repatriation
• Repatriation process
• Challenges of effective Repatriation
• Re-expatri...
Repatriation
Repatriation generally refers to the
termination of the overseas assignment
and coming back to the home count...
• Expatriation process also includes repatriation:
the activity of bringing the expatriate back to the home
country
• Re-e...
Returnee offers several
advantages-:
• Increasingly hiring foreign returned Indian executives.
Reasons-:
• Returnees have ...
Honda, the trend setter in handling Expatriates. It defines clearly , the
objective of the assignment before it starts. Th...
The readjustment challenge
RE-ENTRY AND CAREER ISSUES
UK Repatriate Study
RE-ENTRY AND CAREER ISSUES
• Surveyed 124 recently repatriated employees
• Indicated five predictors f...
RE-ENTRY AND CAREER ISSUES
Global Relocation Trend Survey -:
shows that 60- 70% of Returnees did not know what their posit...
RE-ENTRY AND CAREER ISSUES
“40% of repatriate leave their
company within the Year”
This is usually due to poor repatriatio...
Employment
Expectations
Family
Expectations
Partner
Expectations
Your
Expectations Length of
Time Away
Age and
Stage
What ...
Individual reactions:
Job-related
RE-ENTRY AND CAREER ISSUES
• No post-assignment
guarantee of employment
• Loss of visibi...
Individual reactions:
social factors
• International experience can distance the repatriate (and
family) socially and psyc...
Multinational responses
RE-ENTRY AND CAREER ISSUES
• Staff availability
– How repatriation is handled is critical
• Return...
The use of mentors
RE-ENTRY AND CAREER ISSUES
• Aims to alleviate the ‘out-of-sight, ‘out-of-mind’ feeling by
keeping expa...
Factors Affecting
Mentoring
RE-ENTRY AND CAREER ISSUES
• Size of expatriate workforce
Firms with over 250 expatriates are ...
Repatriation activities and
practices
RE-ENTRY AND CAREER ISSUES
Predictors for repatriation
maladjustment
RE-ENTRY AND CAREER ISSUES
• Length of time abroad
• Unrealistic expectations of...
Repatriate knowledge
categories
RE-ENTRY AND CAREER ISSUES
• Market specific knowledge
• Personal skills
• Job-related man...
RE-ENTRY AND CAREER ISSUES
Readjustment
Physical
Relocation
Preparation
Transition
Repatriation
Process
Repatriation Phases
RE-ENTRY AND CAREER ISSUES
Readjustment
Coping with changes
(e.g., company changes, reverse culture sh...
Challenges of effective
Repatriation
RE-ENTRY AND CAREER ISSUES
• Organizational Factors:
• Individual Factors:
• Social- ...
Organizational Factors:
RE-ENTRY AND CAREER ISSUES
• Recent research indicates that the majority of organizations have no ...
Individual relations – Job
Related factors
RE-ENTRY AND CAREER ISSUES
• Career anxiety
– No post-assignment guarantee of e...
Social – cultural factors
RE-ENTRY AND CAREER ISSUES
• If an expatriate served in a foreign assignment in a high-profile p...
Managing Repatriation
RE-ENTRY AND CAREER ISSUES
Successful repatriation requires proper
management or action on at least ...
Re expatriation offers
several benefits to MNC:
RE-ENTRY AND CAREER ISSUES
1. Contributes to Skill of expatriates whose sk...
Designing a Repatriate
Program
RE-ENTRY AND CAREER ISSUES
Repatriation, physical relocation and transition information tha...
Repatriation Strategy:
RE-ENTRY AND CAREER ISSUES
Pre-expatriation
During the assignment
Preceding Repatriation
After repa...
RE-ENTRY AND CAREER ISSUES
Stage Strategies
Pre-
expatriation
• Agreement outlining the type of position expatriates will ...
Inpatriation
• In-patriation is a process of identifying a potential
candidate in host country , and moving him or her to
...
Chapter  7 repatriation
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Chapter 7 repatriation

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Chapter 7 repatriation

  1. 1. Re-Entry and Career Issues Prof. Preeti Bhaskar Symbiosis Centre for Management Studies, NOIDA
  2. 2. Re-entry/Expatriation • Reasons of Repatriation • Repatriation process • Challenges of effective Repatriation • Re-expatriation • Repatriation Strategy RE-ENTRY AND CAREER ISSUES
  3. 3. Repatriation Repatriation generally refers to the termination of the overseas assignment and coming back to the home country or to the country where the HQ is located or to the home subsidiary from where he/she was expatriated RE-ENTRY AND CAREER ISSUES
  4. 4. • Expatriation process also includes repatriation: the activity of bringing the expatriate back to the home country • Re-entry presents new challenges – May experience re-entry shock – Some exit the company RE-ENTRY AND CAREER ISSUES The multinational’s ability to retain current and attract future expatriates is affected by the manner in which it handles repatriation.
  5. 5. Returnee offers several advantages-: • Increasingly hiring foreign returned Indian executives. Reasons-: • Returnees have imbibed global culture & also have understood local culture. • Have extensive understanding of how the company is perceived in other countries. • Repatriate understand both the operation of the country headquarters and overseas operation • Transfer of important technology or information from foreign subsidiary to home country. • Social networks help in Coordination between Home Country & Host country. RE-ENTRY AND CAREER ISSUES Coke , Cisco , Ford, Whirlpool, Britannia, Mc Kinsey , GM…..
  6. 6. Honda, the trend setter in handling Expatriates. It defines clearly , the objective of the assignment before it starts. The objectives can range from development of a new product to improvement in Vendor Relation. The selected Executive prepares themselves for the assignment by an analysis of their strength & weakness. Well before the assignment is completed , all the expat is ready to return. Honda identifies a suitable job for him or her and makes arrangements for a debriefing session to capture the important lesson from the assignment RE-ENTRY AND CAREER ISSUES
  7. 7. The readjustment challenge RE-ENTRY AND CAREER ISSUES
  8. 8. UK Repatriate Study RE-ENTRY AND CAREER ISSUES • Surveyed 124 recently repatriated employees • Indicated five predictors for repatriate maladjustment • In ranked order: – Length of time abroad – Unrealistic expectations of job opportunities in the home country – Downward job mobility – Reduced work status – Negative perceptions of employer’s support during and after repatriation
  9. 9. RE-ENTRY AND CAREER ISSUES Global Relocation Trend Survey -: shows that 60- 70% of Returnees did not know what their position would be before they came home. 60% said that their firm were vague about repatriation , about their new roles & their career Progression
  10. 10. RE-ENTRY AND CAREER ISSUES “40% of repatriate leave their company within the Year” This is usually due to poor repatriation processes and policy. Solution-: • Consult on the design of proactive repatriation processes to help you hold on to the employee on return. • Run custom designed program to suit the expatriates specific needs. • Personal development profiles on return
  11. 11. Employment Expectations Family Expectations Partner Expectations Your Expectations Length of Time Away Age and Stage What can heighten re- entry shock? RE-ENTRY AND CAREER ISSUES
  12. 12. Individual reactions: Job-related RE-ENTRY AND CAREER ISSUES • No post-assignment guarantee of employment • Loss of visibility and isolation • Changes in the home workplace Career anxiety • The employment relationship and career expectation • Re-entry position • Devaluing of international experience Work adjustment • Role behavior • Role clarity • Role discretion • Role conflict Coping with new role demands • Autonomy • Responsibility • Lower pay in absolute terms • Drop in housing conditions Loss of status and pay
  13. 13. Individual reactions: social factors • International experience can distance the repatriate (and family) socially and psychologically • Each family member undergoing readjustment • Re-establishing social networks can be difficult • Effect on partner’s career RE-ENTRY AND CAREER ISSUES Recent research indicates a decrease in spousal assistance upon re-entry (e.g., job search, resume preparation and career counselling)
  14. 14. Multinational responses RE-ENTRY AND CAREER ISSUES • Staff availability – How repatriation is handled is critical • Return on investment (ROI) – Defining ROI in terms of expatriation – Gains accruing through repatriated staff • Knowledge transfer – A one-way activity? – Tacit and person-bound?
  15. 15. The use of mentors RE-ENTRY AND CAREER ISSUES • Aims to alleviate the ‘out-of-sight, ‘out-of-mind’ feeling by keeping expatriate informed • Mentor should ensure that the expatriate is not forgotten when important decisions are made re positions and promotions 1. Maintaining contact with the expatriate throughout the assignment 2. Ensuring expatriates are kept up to date with developments in the home country 3. Ensuring expatriates are retained in existing management development programs 4. Mentors are responsible for assisting expatriates with the repatriation process, including helping them with a repatriation position. Repatriate mentor duties
  16. 16. Factors Affecting Mentoring RE-ENTRY AND CAREER ISSUES • Size of expatriate workforce Firms with over 250 expatriates are more likely to assign mentors. • Who is responsible for repatriates Corporate HR or a separate international assignment unit is more likely to provide mentors than the divisional level. • Company nationality European firms are more likely to use mentors than U.S. firms.
  17. 17. Repatriation activities and practices RE-ENTRY AND CAREER ISSUES
  18. 18. Predictors for repatriation maladjustment RE-ENTRY AND CAREER ISSUES • Length of time abroad • Unrealistic expectations of job opportunities in the home company • Downward job mobility • Reduced work status • Negative perceptions of the help and support provided by employers during and after repatriation.
  19. 19. Repatriate knowledge categories RE-ENTRY AND CAREER ISSUES • Market specific knowledge • Personal skills • Job-related management skills • Network knowledge • General management capacity
  20. 20. RE-ENTRY AND CAREER ISSUES Readjustment Physical Relocation Preparation Transition Repatriation Process
  21. 21. Repatriation Phases RE-ENTRY AND CAREER ISSUES Readjustment Coping with changes (e.g., company changes, reverse culture shock, career demands, etc.) Transition Settling into temporary accommodation where necessary, making arrangements for housing and schooling, and carrying out other administrative tasks (e.g., renew driver’s license, applying for new health insurance, banking, etc.) Physical relocation (Removing personal effects, breaking ties with colleagues and friends, and traveling to the next posting, usually the home country) Preparation ( Developing plans for the future, and gathering information about the new position)
  22. 22. Challenges of effective Repatriation RE-ENTRY AND CAREER ISSUES • Organizational Factors: • Individual Factors: • Social- cultural Factors:
  23. 23. Organizational Factors: RE-ENTRY AND CAREER ISSUES • Recent research indicates that the majority of organizations have no formal repatriation programme to help expatriates readjust on return to the home country • Only a small proportion of the repatriation programmes have consideration for the spouse • Typical reasons given by organizations for not having a repatriation programme include:  Lack of the requisite expertise  Programme cost  Lack of a perceived need by top management • Some organizations provide a form of repatriation assistance in the form of a “mentor” • The mentor is usually a superior to the expatriate and provides assistance in the form of information, by maintaining regular contact with the expatriate, and by taking the expatriates interests regarding promotion and job placement on return etc. into account • Research indicates that the likelihood of an organization using mentors depends on the size of the expatriate workforce, the organizational unit responsible for handling expatriates and the nationality of the organization.
  24. 24. Individual relations – Job Related factors RE-ENTRY AND CAREER ISSUES • Career anxiety – No post-assignment guarantee of employment – Loss of visibility and isolation – Changes in the home workplace • Work adjustment – The employment relationship and career expectation – Re-entry position – Devaluing of the international experience • Coping with new role demands – Role behavior – Role clarity – Role discretion – Role conflict • Loss of status and pay – Autonomy – Responsibility – Lower pay in absolute terms
  25. 25. Social – cultural factors RE-ENTRY AND CAREER ISSUES • If an expatriate served in a foreign assignment in a high-profile position where he or she enjoyed considerable and sustained interaction with the social, economic and political elites of the host country, a feeling of disappointment may emerge after return to the home country. • In addition to the expatriate’s social readjustment problems, the social readjustment problems of his or her accompanying family members must also be taken into consideration as well. • Reestablishment of social networks in the home country may be difficult if, for e.g., the expatriate and family are repatriated to another locality in the home country. It may be that friends have moved away while the expatriate was on assignment and that other friends may have joined the workforce and have no time for social activities • Children may encounter social readjustment problems in school because they are not update on latest trends, and may have problems adjusting to their home country educational system
  26. 26. Managing Repatriation RE-ENTRY AND CAREER ISSUES Successful repatriation requires proper management or action on at least three areas: 1. Re – expatriation 2. Repatriation programme and 3. Repatriation strategies
  27. 27. Re expatriation offers several benefits to MNC: RE-ENTRY AND CAREER ISSUES 1. Contributes to Skill of expatriates whose skill and abilities can be used as and when the need arises. 2. Relocation of competent people in international assignment 3. The normal difficulties and challenges of managing expatriation and repatriation are few as the MNC has a pool of international managers who are ready to fly to any part of the globe at any time.
  28. 28. Designing a Repatriate Program RE-ENTRY AND CAREER ISSUES Repatriation, physical relocation and transition information that the company will help with Financial and tax assistance, e.g., benefit and tax changes, loss of overseas allowances, etc. Re-entry position and career-path assistance Reverse cultural shock, including family disorientation School systems and children’s education and adaptation Workplace changes, e.g., corporate culture, structure, decentralization, etc. Stress management and communication-related training Establishing networking opportunities Help in forming new social contracts Topics covered by a Repatriation Program
  29. 29. Repatriation Strategy: RE-ENTRY AND CAREER ISSUES Pre-expatriation During the assignment Preceding Repatriation After repatriation
  30. 30. RE-ENTRY AND CAREER ISSUES Stage Strategies Pre- expatriation • Agreement outlining the type of position expatriates will be placed in upon repatriation • Agreement about the duration of stay overseas • Keeping the post back at home vacant till the assignee comes back During the assignment • Continuous communication with expatriate • Visit to headquarter when on vacation to maintain visibility Preceding Repatriation • Career guidance between 6-12 months before the end of assignment. Ensure that all elements of the repatriation process are transparent. Such elements to include company policies with regard to travel reimbursement leave period, shipping of household goods, and contact information about the mentor. After repatriation • Training seminars to help returnees cope with reverse culture shock • Financial counselling and financial / tax assistance • Reorientation programme about the changes in the company policies, practices, personnel and strategies. • Reassurance that the company values international experience
  31. 31. Inpatriation • In-patriation is a process of identifying a potential candidate in host country , and moving him or her to parent country . • Indian & Chinese have acquired prominent position in the Globalized world. RE-ENTRY AND CAREER ISSUES In-patriation is also known as Reverse Diffusion

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