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Indian Ethos

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Basic concept of Indian Ethos

Indian Ethos Importance
Difference between Indian Ethos & Ethics
Teaching from major Indian Scriptures
Teaching from major Indian Scriptures
Application of Indian Ethos to Management
Quality of work life
Quality of work life and Indian Ethos

Basic concept of Indian Ethos

Indian Ethos Importance
Difference between Indian Ethos & Ethics
Teaching from major Indian Scriptures
Teaching from major Indian Scriptures
Application of Indian Ethos to Management
Quality of work life
Quality of work life and Indian Ethos

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Indian Ethos

  1. 1. Concept, Components of Indian Ethos Principles of Indian Ethos Teaching from major Indian Scriptures, Application of Indian Ethos to Management Quality of work life and Indian Ethos Indian ethos
  2. 2. Ethos Oxford defines ethos as : “The characteristic Spirit and Beliefs of community/ people” which distinguishes one culture from the other. Indian ethos is drawn from the Vedas, the Ramayana, Mahabharat, the Bhagwadgita, and Upnishads.
  3. 3. Ethos vs. Ethics Ethos is a discipline that examines one’s morality or the moral standard of the society. Where as ; Ethics means expected standards in terms of your personal and social welfare. It includes honesty, morality, responsibility etc.
  4. 4. Indian Ethos in Management 'Indian Ethos in Management' refers to the values and practices that the culture of India (Bharatheeya Samskriti) can contribute to service, leadership and management. These values and practices are rooted in Sanathana Dharma (the eternal essence), and have been influenced by various strands of Indian philosophy.
  5. 5. What is Indian Ethos For Management? It means application of principles of management revealed in our ancient wisdom described in Upanishades and Gita. The following basic principles of management are as per ancient Indian Wisdom and Insight : – Each Soul is a Potential God – Holistic Approach – Equal Importance to Subjectivity/Objectivity – Karma Yoga (selfless work)
  6. 6. 1. Each Soul is a Potential God A human being has a soul, a spark of Divine. The Divide resides in the heart of a person. The Divine means perfection in knowledge, wisdom and power. Therefore, a human being has immense potential power or energy for selfdevelopment. The partnership of God and Man can bring about extraordinary or miraculous result. Indian wisdom indicates that productivity of human being is more important than plant capacity. Hence, management is helping ordinary people to produce extraordinary results. 2. Holistic Approach Holistic approach in Management is based on spiritual principle of unity, oneness, non-dual or Advaita concept. Under this principle of unity, the universe is an undivided whole where every particle is connected with every other particle. Hence, entire Humanity is ONE. Management must recognise Oneness of Humanity. Respect the Divine in all beings. 3. Equal Importance to Subjectivity/Objectivity Indian ethos for management distinguish subject and object. Subject is subtle and intangible. Object is gross or concrete, and tangible or invisible. Human and ethical values or qualities such as courage, vision, social awareness, fearlessness and clear mind, truth, etc are subjective, subtle and intangible concept. These represents divine wealth. Inner resource of human being are more powerful than external resources. Eg- Japan could prosper in industry, business and trade due to optimum utilisation of inner resources. Japan does not have coal, mineral and petrolieum. ‘Creator is subjective. Creation is objective’. Therefore, manager must develop third eye, the eye of vision, intuition, foresight and such other divine qualities or values. This is the essence of Indian ethos for management. 4. 4. Karma Yoga (selfless work) It is yoga of moral endeavour, self-less service to others. It brings about union of human being with the Divine. Work is done as workship to the Divine in human beings who is also all pervading in the universe(which is just a projection of the Divine). Gita evolves moral and ethical theory of human conduct and expounds the art of right living- the doctrine of duty with discipline and devotion without attachment to work and agency. Do your duty without ego and without calculations of gain or loss. Let not the fruit of action motivate you. Let not the fruits divert your concentration on work. Pour your heart and soul in the performance of your assigned duty. Concentrate your attention only on your present job.
  7. 7. Components of Indian ethos Indian believe: • 1. Ego sublimation rather than ego assertion • 2. Sacrificing spirit rather than fighting spirit • 3. Team achievement rather than individual achievement • 4. Spiritual attainment rather than material prosperity • 5. Self control rather than outside control • 6. Concept of duties rather than concept of rights • 7. Yielding rather than dominating • 8. Concern for this age world and improvement • 9. Respect for and search for all truth whatever be its source
  8. 8. Management attitude Humanizing organization Interiorizing (self) management Self introspection Brain stilling Stepping back Self dynamising meditation Role of intuition (feeling) Need of the Indian ethos
  9. 9. Management attitude: Top management must have firm belief in values-oriented holistic management of business. The management is called upon to meet expectations of all stakeholders, e.g., employees, customers, citizens and shareholders and fulfill the social responsibility. Profit is earned through service and satisfaction of all these interested parties Humanizing organization: There are three aspects of humane organisation : 1. Inter-personal relations 2. Man- machine equation and 3. Inner management- mental and spiritual. An organisation can create best inter-personal relations based on promotion from within, equality, autonomy, self-esteem and fraternal affection. Unity, harmony and effective communication can assure team spirit and team work in an organisation. Interiorizing (self) management: Self management: The manager is first a man and then a manager. The manager should first learn to manage and control himself. Without selfmanagement and control, how can he manage and control others? The first need is to understand and know himself. This is a course in the subjective system of management.
  10. 10. Self introspection We have to embark upon self-study, self analysis and self criticism to locate areas of friction and disharmony. We should prepare a balance sheet of our own strengths and weaknesses. our mind and heart may indicate weak spots. By regular introspection we would find out solution to problem so that the concerned parts of our being can be persuaded and guided to play the desired role. Brain stilling (Decision-making in silence) The western management resorts to brain-storming, i.e., loud thinking by managers for decisions to solve management problems. The Indian insight advocates a better alternative in the form of brain-stilling. For rational and enduring decisions, silent mind is a much more effective medium to get sound and lasting solution to all management problems. By this method the manager and his employees come into contacts with the inner mind or higher consciousness for arriving at proper solution to their
  11. 11. Stepping back The stepping back or drawing back into yourself is another device of learning to go deep within and look; you can remain quiet and call on the inner consciousness force and wait for a while for an answer. Then you know exactly what to do. Remember therefore, that you cannot receive the answer before you are very peaceful. The stepping back from a situation for a while enables you to control and even master the situation. When you have a problem to solve, when you are caught in a difficulty, try this method. ‘Never decide anything, never speak a word, never throw yourself into action without stepping-back.’ Self dynamising meditation A dynamic meditation is meditation of transforming of lower consciousness into higher consciousness. Hence we call it transforming meditation. It opens the third eye of wisdom through insight. Through meditation, in a silent and calm mind, you are able to contact this centre or higher conciousness. This is called consciousness approach to management, a process of ‘within to without’ management. The management and workers must have absolute faith or trust on the Supreme’s Infinite Power. Our inner being has the true knowledge. It says, “ I know, I cannot give reasons, but I know.”
  12. 12. Role of intuition (feeling) Intuition is the act of coming to direct knowledge or certainty without reasoning or inferring. It is immediate cognition by the inner mind and when fully developed is efficient and effective for taking prompt and sound decisions. Intuition skills enable one to cope with confidence the fluctuating environment and rapid changes. Faith is Prerequisite to develop and realize the power of intuition. In the scheme of management as per Indian ethos, the inner mind and the inner aspects of man are emphasised and the inner being has to develop for manifestation in the physical. In the management process consciousness is the approach, harmony is the tool and perfection is the aim. Centralisation of authority is meant to diffuse and decentralise functions and the power to perform them.
  13. 13. Insights into Indian ethos Indian ethos provides that „Business‟ need not be regarded evil, tainted and unethical. Business is sacred. It is a matter of attitude, approach and level of management consciousness. One can do business, make money, earn profit, build up property and even then it can be managed with due recognition to human and ethical values and respecting all persons in the enterprise and in the society as human beings. Indian ethos demands subjective management system, giving due importance to virtues like compassion, honesty, co-operation etc.
  14. 14. Managerial effectiveness under Indian ethos in management Basic of difference Western management Management Based on Indian ethos Belief Production, productivity, profit at any cost Material gain, with belief in achieving human and social welfare also Guidance Management guided by mind only, led away by ego and desire, soulless management Management by consciousness power beyond mind, i.e., soul. Interiorized management Emphasis Worker development, management of others, profit maximization. Human being given only lip sympathy Development of man, integrated growth, harmony, happiness and health, Management of self Tools 5Ms as resources- men, money, materials, machines, markets. Science and technology information for decision marking Men, machines, materials and methods as conscious partners all having consciousness whether manifested or dormant. Information and intuition for decision. Ethics and values combined with skills
  15. 15. Basic of difference Western management Management Based on Indian ethos Problem solving Conflict resolution by negotiation, compromise, arbitration, liquidation of differences only for a temporary period. No reference to higher consciousness Conflict resolution through integration and synthesis on stressing super ordinate common goals so that enduring harmony and unity is assured. Self introspection, stepping back aids the search for solution Decision making Brain storming (round table approach) Brain stilling (entering the room of timeless silence) Development Physical, vital and mental only. Soul or spirit ignored. Material development only, even at the cost of man and nature Integrated development, whole man approach, breath control and meditation emphasized. Human enrichment and total quality Approach External behavior. Mental, material, selfish only- soulless Noble attitudes. Inner guidance, team spirit, total harmony, global good
  16. 16. Business ethos principles practiced by Indian Companies 1. Principle of `sacrifice’ An individual is trained by the principle of `sacrifice’ through the process of `give and take’ policy. A person, who is willing to sacrifice part of his bread or effort, commands a superior place in the organization. 2. Principle of `harmony’ An individual is trained in such a way that to avoid conflicts and friction one should be guided by certain set of moral conducts and principles. 3. Principle of `non-violence’ This principle protects an organization from strikes and lockouts and unnecessary avoidable conflicts. Indian companies are guided by certain rules of conduct in the form of ethical and moral standards. Some of the business ethos principles, practiced by Indian companies are listed below
  17. 17. 4. Principle of `reward’ The one who performs well are encouraged to do so. This implies that the activities of individuals need to be monitored and encouragement in the form of `rewards’ may cultivate the spirit of higher productivity among groups. 5. Principle of `justice’ The one who works hard is `rewarded’ and the one who fails to do so is `punished’. This is essence the principle of Justice. 6. Principle of `taxation’ The one who is taxed more is encouraged to stay fit for a longer period by proper appreciation and encouragement. This principle applies to individuals who are hardworking and productive. 7. Principle of `Integrity’ An integrated mind is more productive. Groups are encouraged to stay united in order to reap the benefits of division of labour.
  18. 18. Application of Indian Ethos to Management – Indian ethos provides that „Business‟ need not be regarded evil, tainted and unethical. Business is sacred. It is a matter of attitude, approach and level of management consciousness. One can do business, make money, earn profit, build up property and even then it can be managed with due recognition to human and ethical values and respecting all persons in the enterprise and in the society as human beings. Indian ethos demands subjective management system, giving due importance to virtues like compassion, honesty, co-operation etc.
  19. 19. Teaching from major Indian Scriptures Scripture Description Scripture Description The Vedas There are four Vedas viz. Rig-Veda, Yajur-Veda, Sama-Veda, and Atharva-Veda. The primary thought in the Vedas is a mystic conception of the universe. The whole effort of the Veda is directed towards one goal – to achieve union of the individual Self (Atman) with the world Self (Brahma). Upanishads The Vedanta seeks to know the ultimate reality (Brahman) and the cause behind everything. In this pursuit it seeks to detach from the “Maya” and the material world and unite with Brahman (God or supreme consciousness). Bhagavada Gita It is a poem which depicts lessons on spirituality and ethics through a dialogue between Lord Krishna and the warrior Arjuna who is at a great crisis of his life. The Karma Yoga, Samkhya Yoga, Bhakti Yoga and the notion of three Gunas (Sattwa, Rajas, Tamas) have very important implications in the context of ethical leadership, decisionmaking and management which we will discuss subsequently.
  20. 20. Scripture Description Scripture Description Ramayana It depicts the duties of relationships, portraying ideal characters like the ideal father, ideal servant, the ideal brother, the ideal wife and the ideal king. Apart from this, the Ramayana also teaches how the temptation for lust can bring a powerful and well established man’s doomsday. Buddhism (1) The founder of this school was Gautam Sidhhartha who later became Lord Gautam Buddha. The Buddhism is based on the four noble truths: (i) Suffering exists; (ii) There is a cause of the suffering; (iii) Suffering can be eradicated; (iv) There is a means for eradication of that suffering. Buddha establishes that everything on the earth is non- permanent. And, nothing on earth is self. Hence everything on this earth is “anatta” or not-self. Finally, Buddha taught the eightfoldpath to liberation from all suffering. Patanjali Yoga It represents a form of personal discipline where we integrate the body and the soul, the individual self (Atman) with the Universal self (Brahman). According to Patanjali, Yoga is the control of the modifications of the mind. It is mind that leads to or to liberation; that most human problems are mental and that the only remedy to solve them is mental discipline
  21. 21. Quality of work life and Indian Ethos 1 Why work? – To purify my mind and heart and to become wise. To provide public benefit. 2. What is work? – To nurture each other. My work is a for of yagna, sacrifice. I develop the spirit of sacrifice. It is a worship of the Divine. 3. How to work? – With the spirit of renunciation, i.e.. Tyag and to serve others. I must work without self-interest. 4. Spirits of work : Excellence in work. Perfection in work and quality of output.

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