• Definition of Learning
• Theoretical process of learning
• Application of the learning theories
for behavior modification.
4. Learning is a lifelong process in which new behaviours are
We cannot see learning but we can see changed behavior as a
consequence of learning..
Driving a vehicle
An instant learning
5. Any relatively permanent change in
behavior that occurs as a result of
• Involves change
• Is relatively permanent
• Is acquired through experience
7. Behaviorist Theories
A behaviorist theory based on the fundamental
idea that behaviors that are reinforced will
tend to continue, while behaviors that are
punished will eventually end.
• Classical conditioning : Ivan Pavlov (1849 –
• Operant conditioning: Burrhus Frederic (B.F.)
Skinner (1904 – 1990)
8. Classical Conditioning
A type of conditioning in which an
individual responds to some stimulus that
would not ordinarily produce such a
• Unconditioned stimulus
• Unconditioned response
• Conditioned stimulus
• Conditioned response
9. Classical conditioning can be defined as
a process in which a formerly neutral
stimulus when paired with an
unconditional stimulus, becomes a
conditioned stimulus that illicit a
Classical conditioning states that
an event repeated several times
results into desired response.
10. IVAN PAVLOV’S THEORY
Ivan Pavlov a Russian psychologist introduced classical
EXPERIMENT CONDUCTED: - Dog as a subject.
STAGE ONE: -presented meat (unconditional stimulus) to the
He noticed a great deal of salivation (unconditional response).
STAGE TWO : - he only rang up the bell (neutral stimulus), the
dog had no salivation.
STAGE THREE: -accompanied the offering of meat to the dog
along with ringing up of bell.
After doing this several times, Pavlov rang up only bell (without
offering of meat to the dog). This time the dog salivated to the
ringing up of bell alone.
12. The dog has become classically conditioned to salivate
(response) to the sound of the bell (stimulus).
It will be seen that the learning can take place amongst animals
based on stimulus – response (SR) connections. The study was
undoubtedly single most famous study ever conducted in
behavioral sciences. It was a major break through and had a
lasting impact on understanding of learning.
13. Operant Conditioning
Operant conditioning can be described as a process that attempts
to modify behavior through the use of positive and negative
reinforcement. Through operant conditioning, an individual
makes an association between a particular behavior and a
Example 1: Parents rewarding a child’s excellent grades with candy or some
Example 2: A schoolteacher awards points to those students who are the most
calm and well-behaved. Students eventually realize that when they
voluntarily become quieter and better behaved, that they earn more points.
14. Operant conditioning deals with Response—Stimulus (R-S) connection.
Concept originated by B.F. Skinner states that “most human behavior
operates based on the environment.”
Learning depends on what happens after the response –THE
The learning of voluntary behaviour through the effects of
pleasant and unpleasant responses.
16. Types of Reinforcement
• Positive reinforcement
Providing a reward for a desired behavior.
• Negative reinforcement
Removing an unpleasant consequence when the desired
Applying an undesirable condition to eliminate an
Withholding reinforcement of a behavior to cause its
conditioning Description Outcome Example
Add or increase a
Giving a student a prize after
he gets an A on a test
Reduce or remove an
Taking painkillers that
eliminate pain increases the
likelihood that you will take
Present or add an
Giving a student extra
homework after she
misbehaves in class
Reduce or remove a pleasant
Taking away a teen’s
computer after he misses
18. Social-Learning Theory
People can learn through observation and
• Attention process
• Retention process
• Motor reproduction process
• Re-inforcement process
19. Behavioral approach.
It deals with learning process based on
direct observation and the experience.
Achieved while interacting with
people observe, alter and even construct
a particular environment to fit in the social
20. Attentional Processes: People learn from a model only when they
recognize and pay attention to its critical features
Retention processes: A model’s influence depends on how well the
individual remembers the model’s action after the model is no longer
Motor reproduction processes: after a person has seen a new
behavior by observing the model , the watching must be converted to
doing. This process then demonstrates that the individual can
perform the modeled activities.
Reinforcement processes: Individuals are motivated to exhibit the
modeled behavior if positive incentives or rewards are provided.
Behaviors that are positively reinforced are given more attention,
learned better and performed more often.
22. Cognitive Theory
The theory consists of relationship between
environmental (cognitive) cues and
EXPERIMENT: - Subject was RAT
He found that the rat could run through
critical path with particular intention of
getting food (goal/objective).
This theory was later applied on human
resources where incentives were related to
24. Steps in Organizational behavioral
Evaluation of intervention strategy to ensure performance improvement
Develop an effective intervention strategy
Carrying out a functional analysis of the behaviors
Measuring the critical performance behaviors
Identifying critical performance behaviors
25. OB MOD Organizational Applications
• Well Pay versus Sick Pay
– Reduces absenteeism by rewarding attendance, not absence.
• Employee Discipline
– The use of punishment can be counter-productive.
• Developing Training Programs
– OB MOD methods improve training effectiveness.
– Reduces the need for external management control.
27. USE OF LOTTERIES TO REDUCE ABSENTEEISM: -
Attractive prizes can be included in lottery.
Absenteeism reduced to a large extent and workers displayed a sense of responsibility that
led to increased productivity and higher job satisfaction.
WORK PAY VR SICK PAY
If sick leave can be converted in to payment of bonus up to a certain extent, the employees
would choose to avail of financial benefits and would not absent themselves under the
pretext of being sick. This will improve satisfaction level of employees and would not
Regulating various activities and achievement of personal as well as organizational goals
would be easier in an environment of self managed organizations
28. MENTORING PROGRAMMERS: -
Mentors need display model behavior so that subordinates emulate them. Mentors should ensure to
develop sense of responsibility amongst the subordinates who should be able to take higher jobs
and work for the organization. They are expected to develop positive attitude towards
subordinates. This can be achieved by full dedication on the part of both mentor and the trainee.
In organization be it production intensive or service sector, managers should insist that all his
subordinates strictly follow the timing of work, dress code, display courteous behaviour when
interacting with others and accomplish their assigned task on time. Defaulters should be dwelt
with strictly. Any lethargy in programme implementation will not bring behaviour modification.
TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT
Train to adapt to new working atmosphere.
Notes de l'éditeur
Behaviorism 2. Cognitivism 3. Social Learning Theory 4. Social Constructivism 5. Multiple Intelligences 6. Brain-Based Learning