Understand how leaders motivate individuals and groups; identify,
compare and contrast different motivation theories and understand
how different scholars contributed to motivation within
◦ Meaning of Motivation
◦ Motivation Elements
◦ Importance of Motivation
◦ Types of Motivation
◦ Theories of Motivation
Motivation is the word derived from the word ’motive’ which
means needs, desires, wants or drives within the individuals.
Motivation is the process that initiates, guides, and maintains
goal-oriented behaviors within the individuals.
“Motivation means a process of stimulating people to action
to accomplished desired goals” (William G. Scout)
4. Importance of Motivation
Helps to change from negative attitude to positive attitude.
Helps in reducing in employee absenteeism
It helps the managers to introduce changes
It improves performance level of employees.
It helps in reduction in employee turnover.
It creates supportive work environment
It help in achieving the organizational goals
5. Elements of Motivation
◦ There are three major Elements of motivation:
Activation involves the decision to initiate a behavior
Persistence is the continued effort toward a goal even though
obstacles may exist.
Intensity can be seen in the concentration that goes into
pursuing a goal
6. Types of Motivation
Types of Motivation
Non Financial Motivation
7. Positive and Negative
• Positive motivation induces people to do work in the
best possible manner and to improve their
• Example : When Boss tells his subordinate , "if you
achieve the target on the time I will give you
• Negative motivation purpose is to correct the
mistakes of employees.
• Example: When a Boss tells his subordinate , "if you
do not achieve the target on the time I will give you
8. Intrinsic and extrinsic
• Intrinsic motivations are those that arise from
within the individual
• Example: Doing a complicated crossword puzzle
purely for the personal satisfaction of solving a
• Extrinsic motivations are those that arise from
outside of the individual and often involve rewards.
• Example: such as trophies, money, social
recognition, or praise.
9. Financial and Non- Financial
• Financial motivation involves motivating employees with money and
things associated with money.
• Example, increase in salary, allowances, performance related pay,
profit sharing, bonus, Commission etc
• Non-financial motivation is an employee's encouragement without
• Example recognition, Job Security, Job Enrichment:
11. Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Theory of Motivation
◦ Abraham Maslow is well renowned for proposing the
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory in 1943.
◦ Maslow was of the view that needs have priority, i.e., needs
are satisfied in an order.
◦ As soon as the lower level needs are satisfied. Those on the
next higher level need emerge.
◦ Thus, he considered an individual's motivation behavior as a
predetermined order of needs
13. ◦ Physiological needs- These are the basic needs of air, water, food, clothing and shelter. In other
words, physiological needs are the needs for basic amenities of life.
◦ Safety needs- Safety needs include physical, environmental and emotional safety and
protection. For instance- Job security, financial security, protection from animals, family
security, health security, etc.
◦ Social needs- These needs emerge from society. Man is a social animal. These needs become
important. Social needs include the need for love, affection, care, belongingness, and
◦ Esteem needs- Esteem needs are of two types: internal esteem needs (self- respect, confidence,
competence, achievement and freedom) and external esteem needs (recognition, power, status,
attention and admiration).
◦ Self-actualization need- This include the urge to become what you are capable of becoming /
what you have the potential to become. It includes the need for growth and self-contentment. It
also includes desire for gaining more knowledge, social- service, creativity and being aesthetic.
14. McGregor :Theory X and Theory Y
◦ In 1960, Douglas McGregor formulated Theory X and Theory
Y suggesting two aspects of human behavior at work.
According to McGregor, the perception of managers on the
nature of individuals is based on various assumptions.
16. Herzberg's Two-factor Theory
◦In 1959, Frederick Herzberg propose two-
factor theory (also known as Herzberg's
◦Herzberg’s two-factor theory outlines that
humans are motivated by two things:
17. Hygiene factors
• Hygiene factors: factors that are not related to workplace
satisfaction but must be present in the workplace in order to
• Hygiene factors cover extrinsic needs such as pay grade,
workplace policy and relationships with their peers.
• Motivation factors: factors that are related to workplace
satisfaction. They cover intrinsic needs such as achievement,
recognition, and advancement.
• Motivation factors allow employees to be content in their jobs and