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Rational Unified Process
Rational Unified Process
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  1. 1. RRaattiioonnaall UUnniiffiieedd PPrroocceessss Preeti Mishra Course Incharge
  2. 2. Architect Tool Specialist Developer Project Management Analyst Designer Tester
  3. 3. Rational Unified Process (RUP) • Iterative • Incremental • Object oriented (OO) • Commercial, popular • Developed by Rational Software, now IBM CS427 2-3
  4. 4. Best practices in RUP • Develop software iteratively • Manage requirements • Use component-based architectures • Visually model software • Verify software quality • Control changes to software 4
  5. 5. Components of RUP • Artifacts – what – Things people make • Roles – who – Roles people take • Activities – how – Tasks people do • Workflows – when – Order of steps people follow CS427 2-5
  6. 6. Artifact – Artifacts are either final or intermediate work products that are produced and used during a project. – Artifacts are used to capture and convey project information. – An artifact can be any of the following: • A document, such as Business Case or Software Architecture Document • A model, such as the Use-Case Model or the Design Model • A model element; that is, an element within a model, such as a class, or a subsystem
  7. 7. Artifacts • Vision statement • Iteration plan • Use-case model (UML) • Software architecture document (UML) • Design model (UML) • Component • Integration build plan • … CS427 2-7
  8. 8. Roles • Project manager • Architect • Systems analyst • Use-case specifier • Designer • Implementer • Tester • Configuration and change manager • … CS427 2-8
  9. 9. Kinds of roles • Manager • Architect (technical lead) • Business experts – Systems analyst, use case specifier • Developers – Designer, developer, tester, CM CS427 2-9 manager
  10. 10. Activities • Plan subsystem integration • Implement classes • Fix a defect • Perform a unit test • Review code • Integrate subsystem • … CS427 2-10
  11. 11. What is a workflow? • A set of activities that is performed by the various roles in a project • Describes a meaningful sequence of activities that produce a useful result (an artifact) • Shows interaction between roles
  12. 12. Workflows • Project management • Business modeling • Requirements • Analysis and design • Implementation • Test • Configuration and change management • Deployment • Environment CS427 2-12
  13. 13. Implementation workflow I n t e g r a t e s u b s y s t e m CS427 2-13 A r c h i t e c t P l a n S y s t e m I n t e g r a t i o n S y s t e m I n t e g r a t o r I m p l e m e n t o r C o d e r e v i e w e r D e f i n e O r g a n i z a t i o n o f S u b s y s t e m P l a n S u b s y s t e m I n t e g r a t i o n I m p l e m e n t C l a s s e s F i x a d e f e c t P e r f o r m U n i t T e s t R e v i e w c o d e I n t e g r a t e s y s t e m
  14. 14. Four phases CS427 2-14 • Inception – Get the idea, initial planning • Elaboration – Create the architecture – Build skeleton system – Detailed planning • Construction – Build the rest of the system • Transition
  15. 15. Inception Goals • Establishing the project's software scope and boundary conditions, including: – an operational vision – acceptance criteria – what is intended to be in the product – what is not. • Discriminating – the critical use cases of the system – the primary scenarios of operation that will drive the major design trade-offs.
  16. 16. Inception Goals (Cont.) • Estimating – the overall cost – and schedule for the entire project – and more detailed estimates for the elaboration phase that will immediately follow • Estimating potential risks (the sources of unpredictability) • Preparing the supporting environment for the project.
  17. 17. Inception Essential Activities • Formulating the scope of the project. • Planning and preparing a business case. • Synthesizing a candidate architecture. • Preparing the environment for the project. • …
  18. 18. Inception Artifacts • Vision: The project's core requirements, key features, and main constraints are documented. Stakeholders … • Glossary: defines important terms used by the project. • Business Case: provides the necessary information from a business standpoint to determine whether or not this project is worth investing in. • Software Development Plan: all information required to manage the project. (Risk, time and durations, needed tools, changes, documentations) • Use-case model: a model of the system's intended functions and its environment, and serves as a contract between the customer and the developers.
  19. 19. Elaboration Goals (Cont.) • To produce an evolutionary prototype • Verify baseline architecture – Demonstrate that the architecture will support requirements of the system at a reasonable cost and time. • To establish a supporting environment.
  20. 20. Elaboration Activities • Defining, validating the baseline architecture. • Refining the Vision. • Creating detail of iteration plans for the construction phase. • Refining the development case and putting in place the development environment • Refining the architecture and selecting components.
  21. 21. Elaboration Artifacts • Software Architecture Document: provides a comprehensive architectural overview of the system, using a number of different architectural views to depict different aspects of the system. • Prototypes: One or more executable architectural prototypes have been created to explore critical functionality and architecturally significant scenarios. • Design model: an object model describing the realization of use cases, and serves as an abstraction of the implementation model and its source code. • Data model: a subset of the implementation model which describes the logical and physical representation of persistent data in the system. • Testing Mechanisms and refining previous Iteration’s artifacts.
  22. 22. Construction Goals • Completing the analysis, design, development and testing of all required functionality. • Achieving useful versions (alpha, beta, and other test releases) • Achieving adequate quality as rapidly as practical • To decide if the software, the sites, and the users are all ready for the application to be deployed. • Minimizing development costs by optimizing resources and avoiding unnecessary scrap and rework. • To achieve some degree of parallelism in the work of development teams.
  23. 23. Construction Activities • Resource management, control and process optimization • Complete component development and testing against the defined evaluation criteria • Assessment of product releases against acceptance criteria for the vision.
  24. 24. Construction Artifacts • The System: The executable system itself, ready to begin "beta" testing. • Training materials: the material that is used in training programs or courses to assist the end-users with product use, operation and/or maintenance. • Testing results and refining previous Iteration’s artifacts.
  25. 25. Transition Goals • Beta testing to validate the new system against user expectations • Beta testing and parallel operation relative to a legacy system that it's replacing • Training of users and maintainers • Roll-out to the marketing, distribution and sales forces • Tuning activities such as bug fixing, enhancement for performance and usability
  26. 26. Transition Goals (Cont.) • Achieving user self-supportability • Achieving stakeholder concurrence that deployment baselines are complete
  27. 27. Transition Activities • Executing deployment plans • Finalizing end-user support material • Testing the deliverable product at the development site • Creating a product release • Getting user feedback • Fine-tuning the product based on feedback • Making the product available to end users
  28. 28. Transition Artifacts • Product. • Release Notes: identify changes and known bugs in a version of a build or deployment unit that has been made available for use. • Installation Artifacts: refer to the software and documented instructions required to install the product. • End-User Support Material: Materials that assist the end-user in learning, using, operating and maintaining the product. • Testing results and refining previous Iteration’s artifacts.
  29. 29. Iterations Inception Elaboration Construction Transition Preliminary It. Iter. 1 Iter. 2 Iter. 3 Iter. 7 Iter. 8 Iter. 9 CS427 2-29
  30. 30. Rational Unified Process (RUP) Process Workflows Business Modeling Requirements Analysis & Design Implementation Test Deployment Supporting Workflows Configuration & Change Mgmt Project Management Environment Inception Elaboration Construction Transition Preliminary Iteration(s) Iter. #1 Phases Iter. #2 Iter. #n Iter. #n+1 Iterations Iter. #n+2 Iter. #m Iter. #m+1 time conten t
  31. 31. Iteration plan • What are we going to do this iteration? • Who is going to do it? • What order are we going to do it? • Do we have enough resources? CS427 2-32
  32. 32. An iteration workflow • Each iteration uses some of the standard workflows – Requirements, design, implementation, CS427 2-33 test • Workflows can run in parallel • Early iterations – Much project management – Much business modeling – Little implementation
  33. 33. Architecture • Describes components and connections • Component is system/subsystem • Architect responsible for architecture • Developers responsible for components • Elaboration phase writes code for the architecture CS427 2-34
  34. 34. Summary of RUP principles • Develop software iteratively • Manage requirements • Use component-based architectures • Visually model software • Verify software quality • Control changes to software CS427 2-35
  35. 35. RUP is a framework • Complicated process • Framework - you are not expected to do everything • Don’t focus so much on the process that you forget the product! CS427 2-36

Notes de l'éditeur

  • Inception Defines the scope of the project. A business plan is often created to determine whether resources should be committed or not. The model is 20% complete.
    Elaboration Plan project, specify features, baseline architecture. Requirements are firmed up, we’re now 80% complete. A detailed cost/resource estimation can be drawn up.
    Construction Build the product. Several iterations.
    Transition Move the product into and end user environment. Training, installation and support.
    An iteration is a distinct sequence of activities based on an established plan and evaluation criteria, resulting in an executable release (internal or external)
    A workflow shows all the activities you might go through to produce a particular set of artifacts – more later.