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Traditional drugs

Traditional Indian Drugs
Chinese: Artemisia
European: Valerian

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Traditional drugs

  1. 1. Traditional Drugs
  2. 2. Content 1. Punarnava (Boerhavia diffusa) 2. Shankhpushpi (Convolvulus microphylla) 3. Lehsun (Allium sativum) 4. Guggul (Commiphora mukul) 5. Kalmegh (Andrographis paniculata) 6. Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum) 7. Valerian (Valerian officinalis) 8. Artemisia (Artemisia annua) 9. Chirata (Swertia chirata) 10.Ashoka (Saraca indica)
  3. 3. 1. Punarnava (Boerhavia diffusa)  Meaning: Punar + Nava (Punar means regaining/restoring and nava stands for newer, rejuvenates body)  Syn: Hog Weed  Regional name: Hindi: Punarnava, Sanskrit: Gothaghni, Marathi: Khaparkhuti  Source: fresh as well dried whole plant “Boerhavia diffusa”  Family: Nyctaginaceae  GS: Throughout India & Srilanka during rainy season
  4. 4.  Constituents:  Phenolic glycoside: Punarnavoside (0.03-0.05%)  Rotenoids: Boeravinones A, B, C, D, E  Lignan dvt.: Liridodendrin, Syringaresinol-mono beta D glucosides  Root contains: purine Nucleoside-hypoxanthin- 9-arabinofuranoside, boeravine, ursolic acid, beta sitosterol, insect moulding hormone, beta ecdysterone
  5. 5.  Use: Antifibrinolytic (Punarnavoside), Anti- inflammatory, Diuretic  Inflammatory renal disease, nephritic syndrome, IUD menorrhagia, Hepatoprotective, Blood purifier  Antihypertensive (Liridodendrin & hypoxanthin-9-arabinofuranoside)  Market formulation: Deepact (Lupin), Abana- Immunol-Diabecon (Himalaya drug co.), Punarnawadi, Punarnavarishta (Baidyanath)
  6. 6. Traditional Uses  Ayurveda describes 5 prime properties of the herb Punarnava mentioned below…  Paandughni: Paandu in Ayurveda is anemia. Punarnava is useful in treating different types of anemia wherein the hemoglobin level is low.  Shofaghna: Shofa stands for inflammatory conditions. The herb was prescribed by ancient Ayurvedic practitioners in various edematous conditions. This function of the herb is believed to be due to its specific action on kidneys. The herb rejuvenates the kidney that expels extra fluids from the body.  Vayasthaapan: Vaya in Ayurveda means the age of the person. Sthaapana stands for reestablishing. The herb of Punarnava has powerful rejuvenating and revitalizing properties that make it as an anti-aging ingredient used in Ayurvedic formulas.  Hridya: Hriday is the heart. Hridya means cardiac tonic to be used in various ailments including heart stroke, high cholesterol and lipid levels. In contemporary medical system also, cardiac patients are generally prescribed with diuretics and anti hypertensive medicines. Punarnava has multiple benefits in patient with cardiac diseases.  Anoovasanopag: The herb of Punarnava can be used in Anoovasana basti, therapeutic enema. The oil extracted from the herb is used as main constituents in such enema used to treat several health diseases.
  7. 7. 2. Shankhpushpi  Meaning: the plant with flowers shaped like a conch  Regional name: Marathi: Shankhvel  Source: whole aerial parts of “Convolvulus microphylla”  Family: Convolvulaceae  GS: wildly grows in India  Constituents: Alkaloid: Shankhpushpine  Flavonoids: Kaempferol, Kaempferol-3-glucoside  Coumarin: 6-methoxy-7-hydroxyl coumarin  Fatty alcohol, beta sitosterol, sugars, 3,4-dihyroxy cinnamic acid
  8. 8.  Uses: Brain tonic, antihypertensive, tranquillizer  Fresh juice: nervine tonic in epilepsy, insanity, nervous debility, memory enhancer (increased protein supply to hippocampus)  On the basis of flower colours, three types of Shankhpushpi are described in reference literatures viz. Red, white and blue. According to reference literatures, white flowered Shankhpushpi is most powerful and genuine.  Market formulation: Shankhpushpi syrup (Baidynath), Mentat (Himalaya)
  9. 9. 3. Lehsun  Syn: Garlic  Regional Name: Marathi: Lasun  Source: bulbs of “Allium sativum”  Family: Liliaceae  GS: Europe, Central Asia, US, India  Constituents: Sulphur containing volatile oil: allyl disulphide, alliin, allicin, allyl propyl disulphide, diallyl disulphide  Thioglycoside, Amino acids, flavonols, Vitamins, mucilage
  10. 10.  Use: Antithrombotic, Hypolipidemic, Hypoglycemic (allicin, allyl propyl disulphide), Hypotensive, Diaphoretic, Expectorant, Antiobiotic  Anthelmintic, Antiasthamatic, Anticholesterolemic, Antiseptic, Diuretic, Cholagogue, Febrifuge, Stomachic, Vasodilator  Colon cancer, cough, flatulence, Nervous disorder, gangrene of lung, dilated bronchi, pulmonary phthisis  Market formulation: Lashunadi bati (Baidynath), Lasuna (Himalaya co.)
  11. 11. 4. Guggul  Syn: Salai gogil  Regional Name: Hindi: Guggal, Marathi: Mahishaksh  Source: gum resin obtained by incision of the bark of “Commiphora mukul”  Family: Burseraceae  GS: distributed throughout India  Constituents: 32% gum, 1.45% Essential oil, Sterols (Guggulsterol I to IV), beta sitosterol, Z-E- guggulsterone, Sugar, Ellagic acid, Amino acids, Myricyl alcohol, Flavonoids, Alpha camphorene
  12. 12.  Use: lowers serum triglycerides, cholesterol, LDL, VLDL and raises HDL  Inhibits platelet aggregation, increase thermogenesis through stimulation of thyroid, potentially resulting in weight loss  Gum: astringent, anti-rheumatic, antiseptic, expectorant, aphrodisiac, demulcent, emmenagogue  Resin form: lotion for indolent ulcer, gargle in teeth disorder, tonsillitis, pharyngitis and ulcerated throat  Market formulation: Diakof (Himalaya Co.), Arogyavardhini gutika (Dabur)
  13. 13. 5. Kalmegh  Syn: King of bitter,  Source: leaves or entire aerial part of “Andrographis paniculata”  Family: Acanthaceae  GS: throught India  Constituents: Andrographolides (Liver), Kalmeghin, Andrographiside  Beta sitosterol glucoside, eugenol, andrograpanin, andrographidines
  14. 14.  Use: Hepatoprotective, Jaundice  Febrifuge, tonic, alterative, anthelmintic, astringent,  Debility, cholera, diabetes, swelling, itching, piles, STDs, bronchitis, dysentery, dyspepsia, fever, weakness  Decoction: blood purifier and in Jaundice  Market formulation: Sage liverex (Sage), Vasu- liv (Vasu herbal)
  15. 15. 6. Tulsi  Syn: Holy basil, Sacred basil  Source: dried leaves of “Ocimum sanctum”  Family: Labiatae  GS: Throughout world  Constituents: Volatile oil: 21% Eugenol, 37% caryophyllene, bornyl acetate, methyl eugenol, neral, alpha-beta pinene, camphene  Ursolic acid, campesterol, cholesterol, stigmasterol, beta sitosterol
  16. 16.  Aromatic, carminative, stimulant, flavouring agent  Hypoglycemic, Immunomodulator, anti stress, analgesic, antipyretic, anti inflammatory, CNS depressant, radio protective, antiseptic  Used in bronchitis, cough, cold, fever, gastric disorder  Seeds in genitourinary disorders  Scorpion sting and snake bite  Market formulation: Respinova ( Lupin), Sualin (Hamdard)
  17. 17. 7. Valerian  Syn: Tagara  Source: dried rhizomes, stolons and roots of “Valeriana officinalis” collected in autumn and dried at temp below 40 degree C  Family: Valerianaceae  GS: Europe  Constituents: 0.5-1% Volatile oil, Esters- bornyl acetate, bornyl formate, eugenyl isovalerate, isoeugenyl isovalerate  Alcohol, eugenol, valerenal  Epoxy-iridoid ester: Valepotriates-main action
  18. 18.  Indication: Tenseness, Restlessness, Irritability  Use: Sedative, Carminative, Anti spasmodic in Hysteria
  19. 19. 8. Artemisia  Syn: Qinghaosu, Sweet annie  Source: entire herb of “Artemisia annua”  Family: Asteraceae, NLT 0.8% artemisinin  GS: Indigenous to China, Europe, America, Australia, India (GJ, JK, Up, HP, KA)  Constituent: Artemisinin, Deoxyartemisinin, Artemisinic acid, Arteannuin A,B  Amyrin, Luteolin, Beta sitosterol, Stigma sterol  Volatile oil: Artemisia alcohol, Artemisia ketone, Camphor
  20. 20.  Choloroquine resistant Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax and cerebreal malaria  Artemether: developed by CDRI lucknow  Artemisic acid: Antibacterial, Cyto-toxic, Anti-inflammatort  Artemisinin: Anti-cancer as well
  21. 21.  Artemisinin contains endoperoxide group and this reacts with the iron in haem, giving rise to highly reactive free radicals. Parasites death is believed to result from the reaction of these free radicals with parasite molecules such as proteins and nucleic acids.  Artemisinin does not react with the iron in haemoglobin so that uninfected red cells are unaffected.  Artemether, oil soluble, IM injection  Artesunate & Artelinate, water soluble, IV injection
  22. 22. 9. Chirata  Syn: Indian Ginseng, Indian balmony  Source: entire herb of “Swertia chirata”  Family: Gentianaceae  GS: India, Nepal, Bhutan  Constituents: Chiritinm Gentiopicrin, Amarogentin (phenol carboxylic acid ester of sweroside), Ophelic acid, Gentianine and Gentiocrucine
  23. 23.  Ingredient of Mahasudarshan Churna  Chronic fever, bitter tonic, digestant  Liver tonic promoting bile flow  Constipation and dyspepsia  Market formulation: Sage chirata (Sage), Safi (Hamdard)
  24. 24. 10. Ashoka  Syn: Ashok  Source: dried bark of “Saraca indica”  Family: Leguminosae  GS: Overall India, Burma, Ceylon  Constituents: 6% tannins, Anthocyanin dvt- leucopelargonidin-3-O-beta-D-glucoside, Leucopelargonidin, Leucoanidin, Waxy subs. Long chain alkanes, esters, alcohols and n-octacosanol  Steroidal- 24-methylcholest-5-en-3-beta-ol, (ZZE)- 24-ethylcholesta-5,22-dien-3-beta-ol, 24- ethylcholest-5-en-3-beta-ol and Beta sitosterol
  25. 25.  Use: To stimulate the uterus making the contractions more frequent and more prolonged without producing tonic concentrations as in case of Ergot alkaloids  Phenolic glycoside: oxytocic activity in vitro and in vivo uterus and isolated myometrial strips and fallopian tube  Bark reported to have stimulating effect on the endometrium and ovarian tissue and is used in the treatment of menorrhagia due to uterine fibroids,  Leucorrhoea, internal bleeding, Haemorrhagic dysentery  Reported, Alc extract is antimicrobial and Aq extract anticancer  Market formulation: Ashokarishta (Baidynath), Pmensa (Lupin)