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Gerritsen collection on Women's Studies - A Resource Guide

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This resource guide features primary source content from the Gerritsen Collection of Aletta Jacobs. Explore archival material across four units: women’s rights, women’s health and medicine, educational and conduct literature for women, and women’s employment.

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Gerritsen collection on Women's Studies - A Resource Guide

  1. 1. 1 Women’s Rights, Health, Education, and Employment in the Gerritsen Collection: A Resource Guide Compiled by Dawn Kaczmar
  2. 2. 2 Women Rights, Health, Education, and Employment in the Gerritsen Collection This resource guide features primary source content from the Gerritsen Collection of Aletta Jacobs. Students will have the opportunity to explore archival material across four units: women’s rights, women’s health and medicine, educational and conduct literature for women, and women’s employment. This guide primarily features content from nineteenth-century England, as well as several documents from the eighteenth and seventeenth centuries to demonstrate the continuity and development of forms and tropes in genre. This guide has been designed to help students create connections across each unit. For instance: most of these texts are written for a female readership: is that readership constructed differently between the genres? Between the readers of domestic health manuals versus essays on women becoming medical professionals? The small unit on women’s rights is designed to give students some background on basic laws affecting women’s lives. The second unit is on health and medicine and features texts on women’s and children’s health and domestic home medicine manuals. The third unit contains texts on women’s education and conduct and is designed to demonstrate the continuity between the two genres. The fourth unit is on women’s employment and features census materials, essays on women’s employment, and employment guides.
  3. 3. 3 Women’s Rights Anonymous: The Laws Respecting Women, As They Regard Their Natural Rights, Or Their Connections and Conduct: in which their interests and duties as daughters, wards, heiresses, spinsters, sisters, wives, widows, mothers, legatees, executrixes, &c. are ascertained and enumerated . . . London : J. Johnson , 1777. http://gateway.proquest.com/openurl?url_ver=Z39.88- 2004&res_dat=xri:gerritsen&rft_dat=xri:gerritsen:bookrec:Gerritsen-G1643 The Laws Respecting Women outlines laws that affect women, especially as it relates to titles, marriage, property, and children. Questions: ⦁ How are laws, conduct, and morality tied together in this text? ⦁ What is the effect of the anecdotal examples that are given?
  4. 4. 4 Women’s Rights 4 Anonymous: Appeal to the Men of Great Britain in Behalf of Women. London: Printed for J. Johnson and J. Bell, 1798. http://gateway.proquest.com/openurl?url_ver=Z39.88- 2004&res_dat=xri:gerritsen&rft_dat=xri:gerritsen:bookrec:Ger ritsen-G90 In this early attack on women's oppression, the author relies on logic, as well as the Bible, to argue for women's rights and to demonstrate society's misconceptions regarding women. Questions: ⦁ What types of arguments does the author make for women’s equality? ⦁ What types of allusions and references does she use? Are they effective?
  5. 5. 5 Health and Medicine 5 Anonymous : The American Lady’s Medical Pocket-book, and Nursery-adviser: containing rules for preserving the health of unmarried females, directions to pregnant and lying-in women, and an account of their diseases: together with instructions for the rearing of children from the hour of their birth: and an account of the diseases of infancy. Philadelphia : J. Kay , 1833. http://gateway.proquest.com/openurl?url_ver=Z39.88- 2004&res_dat=xri:gerritsen&rft_dat=xri:gerritsen:bookrec:Gerritsen-G66.1 The American Lady's Medical Pocket-book is a home medical handbook for women. The book is split into sections: health for unmarried women, health for pregnant women, health for infants, diseases of females, and diseases of infants. Questions: • Why do you think the book is categorized the way it is? • What types of things did the author bring up that you may not considered part of “health” before? • Why do you think they’re included here?
  6. 6. 6 Health and Medicine 6 Alcott, William A.: The Young Mother : or, Management of children in regard to health. Boston: Light & Stearns , 1836. http://gateway.proquest.com/openurl?url_ver=Z39.88- 2004&res_dat=xri:gerritsen&rft_dat=xri:gerritsen:bookrec:Gerritsen- G40.3 The Young Mother is a domestic manual for mothers on child rearing and health. Questions: • How does the author conceive of "health"? • What types of things is health composed of? • Is health solely what happens within the body?
  7. 7. 7 Health and Medicine 7 Anonymous: ”Quack medicines.” No. III.--Early management of children. The Magazine of domestic economy. Vol. 7 (1841) pg. 203-206. http://gateway.proquest.com/openurl?url_ver=Z39.88- 2004&res_dat=xri:gerritsen&rft_dat=xri:gerritsen:articler ec:Gerritsen-GP122_Volume_7-22 "Quack Medicines" is part of a series of magazine articles. This one is dedicated to warning mothers against giving their infants and children harmful medicines, including opium and Godfrey's Cordial. Questions: • How does the author construct health as a moral issue? • How does social class come up in the article? • How is ethnicity and religion used?
  8. 8. 8 Health and Medicine 8 “The first English School of Medicine for Women.” The Alexandra Magazine & English Woman’s Journal. Vol. 1, Iss. 14 (1865) pg. 321-328. http://gateway.proquest.com/openurl?url_ver=Z39.88- 2004&res_dat=xri:gerritsen&rft_dat=xri:gerritsen:articlerec:Gerri tsen-GP3_Volume_1_Issue_14-14 Journal article on the first medical school for women in England. Questions: • How does the article frame the benefits of a medical school for women? • How does it imagine women participating in medical care?
  9. 9. 9 Health and Medicine 9 Morrill, Charles: The Physiology of Woman and Her Diseases from Infancy to Old Age: including all those of her critical periods, pregnancy and childbirth: their causes, symptoms, and appropriate treatment, with hygienic rules for their prevention, and for the preservation of female health: also, the management of pregnant and parturient women ...: to which is added a treatise on womanhood and manhood, love, marriage, and hereditary descent ... in three books--complete in one volume. Boston : J. Campbell, 1870. http://gateway.proquest.com/openurl?url_ver=Z39.88- 2004&res_dat=xri:gerritsen&rft_dat=xri:gerritsen:bookrec:Gerritsen-G1992.1 Medical treatise on anatomy and diseases that affect women. Questions: • Who is the intended audience for this book? • How does the introduction connect gender and health? • Several of the books this guide, including this one, are organized by life stages. Why do you think that is?
  10. 10. 10 Health and Medicine 1 Anonymous: ”Women and Medicine.” The Woman’s Journal. Vol. 10, Iss. 24, 1879. pg. 191. http://gateway.proquest.com/openurl?url_ver=Z39.88- 2004&res_dat=xri:gerritsen&rft_dat=xri:gerritsen:articlerec:Gerritsen -GP205_Volume_10_Issue_24-5 Article written in a Boston periodical about women's role in healthcare for the country. Questions: • How does Dr. Richardson frame women's role in healthcare? • How do the surrounding articles and advertisements influence the way we might read this article?
  11. 11. 11 Health and Medicine Anonymous: “Hoe-handle Medicine.” The Woman’s Journal. Vol. 10, Iss. 47, 1879. pg. 370-371. http://gateway.proquest.com/openurl?url_ver=Z39.88- 2004&res_dat=xri:gerritsen&rft_dat=xri:gerritsen:articlerec:Gerritsen- GP205_Volume_10_Issue_47-33 Article in a Boston periodical that presents a parable about men’s health. Questions: • What does the parable in this article say about health? • Why might a parable about men’s health be featured in a woman’s magazine? • Do you think the same principle would have been applied to women? • How do the surrounding articles on the page help inform how we read this article?
  12. 12. 12 Health and Medicine Hamilton, Weston G.: A Compend of Domestic Medicine and Household Remedies, with the treatment of diseases of adult and infant ... Greensboro, N.C. : Phillips & Stout , 1887. http://gateway.proquest.com/openurl?url_ver=Z39.88- 2004&res_dat=xri:gerritsen&rft_dat=xri:gerritsen:bookrec:Gerrit sen-G1165.1 Domestic home health manual. Questions: • Why do you think domestic health manuals had such a long history of popularity? • How do manuals like this one help us historicize both the body and healthcare?
  13. 13. 13 Education and Conduct Brathwaite, Richard: The English Gentleman, and the English Gentlewoman, both in one volume couched, and in one modell portrayed : to the living glory of their sexe, the lasting story of their worth : being presented to present times for ornaments ; commended to posterity for presidents ; with a ladies love lecture and a supplement lately annexed, and entitled The Turtles Triumph. London: Printed by John Dawson, 1641. http://gateway.proquest.com/openurl?url_ver=Z39.88- 2004&res_dat=xri:gerritsen&rft_dat=xri:gerritsen:bookrec:Gerritsen-G341.1 Brathwaite's The English Gentleman, and the English Gentlewoman is an important seventeenth-century conduct book. Gentleman is categorized into sections on youth, disposition, education, vocation, recreation, acquaintance, moderation, and perfection; while Gentlewoman is divided into sections on apparel, behavior, complement, decency, estimation, fancy, gentility, and honor. Questions: • What type of advice does Brathwaithe offer? • How does that advice differ by gender? • Why might a document like this be important for researching social history?
  14. 14. 14 Education and Conduct Astell, Mary: A Farther Essay Relating to the Female-sex, containing six characters, and six perfections: with the description of self-love: to which is added, A Character of a Compleat Beau. London. Printed for A. Roper and E. Wilkinson etc., 1696. http://gateway.proquest.com/openurl?url_ver=Z39.88- 2004&res_dat=xri:gerritsen&rft_dat=xri:gerritsen:bookrec:Gerritsen- G103.2 Astell's seventeenth-century conduct book for women is organized by types of "characters": the character of a coquette, of modesty, of hypocrites, of piety, conceit, knowledge, etc. Questions: • What is the effect of distilling human behavior into the “characters” that Astell presents here? • How does Astell’s conduct book differ from Brathwaithe’s? How is it similar?
  15. 15. 15 Education and Conduct 1 More, Hannah: Essays on Various Subjects : principally designed for young ladies. London : printed for J. Wilkie, in St. Paul's Church-Yard, in the Strand , 1777. http://gateway.proquest.com/openurl?url_ver=Z39.88- 2004&res_dat=xri:gerritsen&rft_dat=xri:gerritsen:bookrec:Gerritsen-G1981.1 More argues that there are innate differences between men and women, and that each gender has different strengths and weaknesses—an argument Wollstonecraft and Macaulay would later dispute. Essays on Various Subjects is both a conduct book and a book for life advice for women. Questions: • More writes: "The prevailing manners of an age depend more than we are aware, or are willing to allow, on the conduct of women; this is one of the principle hinges on which the great machine of human society turns." What does she mean by this?
  16. 16. 16 Education and Conduct Wollstonecraft, Mary: Thoughts on the Education of Daughters: with reflections on female conduct, in the more important duties of life. London: Printed for J. Johnson, No. 72, St. Paul's Church-Yard, 1787. http://gateway.proquest.com/openurl?url_ver=Z39.88- 2004&res_dat=xri:gerritsen&rft_dat=xri:gerritsen:bookrec:Gerritsen- G3150 Wollstonecraft argues that perceived differences between men and women are due to the differences in the education that they receive. Questions: • Why does Wollstonecraft criticize the education that women receive in England? • What type of education does Wollstonecraft think women should receive? Why?
  17. 17. 17 Education and Conduct 1 Macaulay, Catharine: Letters on Education: with observations on religious and metaphysical subjects. London : Printed for C. Dilly, in the Poultry, 1790. http://gateway.proquest.com/openurl?url_ver=Z39.88- 2004&res_dat=xri:gerritsen&rft_dat=xri:gerritsen:bookrec:Gerritsen- G1079.4 Macaulay's Letters on Education argues that differences between men and women are not innate, but rather due to differences in education. Questions: • How does Macaulay engage in a nature/nurture argument? • Where does she land? • What are some educational practices that Macaulay argues for?
  18. 18. 18 Education and Conduct Edgeworth, Maria: Practical Education. London : J. Johnson, 1798. http://gateway.proquest.com/openurl?url_ver=Z39.88- 2004&res_dat=xri:gerritsen&rft_dat=xri:gerritsen:bookrec:Gerritse n-G772.3 Written by Maria Edgeworth and her father, Richard Lovell Edgeworth, Practical Education presents a theory of education that draws from John Locke, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, William Godwin, Joseph Priestly, and Catharine Macaulay, as well as the tradition of the conduct manual. Edgeworth's treatise hinges on the importance of early childhood experiences as formative events. Questions: • What are Edgeworth’s educational priorities? • What are some of the goals of Edgeworth’s theory of education?
  19. 19. 19 Education and Conduct More, Hannah: Strictures on the Modern System of Female Education: with a view of the principles and conduct prevalent among women of rank and fortune. New York: E. Duyckinck , 1813. http://gateway.proquest.com/openurl?url_ver=Z39.88- 2004&res_dat=xri:gerritsen&rft_dat=xri:gerritsen:bookrec:Gerritsen- G1982 More’s second work in this guide. This text presents a theory of education for women. Questions: • In what ways does Strictures differ from More’s Essays? • How do her educational theories compare with Wollstonecraft, Macaulay, and Edgeworth?
  20. 20. 20 Education and Conduct 2 Lelia Westwood: “Conduct on the Street.” The Young Woman’s Journal. Vol. 5, Iss. 6, 1894. pg. 281-285. http://gateway.proquest.com/openurl?url_ver=Z39.88- 2004&res_dat=xri:gerritsen&rft_dat=xri:gerritsen:articlerec:Gerritsen- GP233_Volume_5_Issue_6-16 Article on public conduct published in The Young Woman’s Journal. Questions: • Given that this article was published in a journal for women, why do you think the article also includes some information about proper conduct for men? • What information might the article be trying to convey to a female reader by including their conduct rules for men?
  21. 21. 21 Employment Great Britain. Poor Law Commissioners: Reports of Special Assistant Poor Law Commissioners on the Employment of Women and Children in Agriculture. London: W. Clowes , 1843. http://gateway.proquest.com/openurl?url_ver=Z39.88- 2004&res_dat=xri:gerritsen&rft_dat=xri:gerritsen:bookrec:Gerritsen-G1086.2 Information about women and children who work in agriculture. Questions: • Are there any jobs on this list that are surprising to you? • How does data like this help us understand rural and agricultural work life for people in the nineteenth-century?
  22. 22. 22 Employment “On the Obstacles to the Employment of Women.” The English Woman’s Journal. Vol. 4, Iss. 24 (1860) pg. 361-375. http://gateway.proquest.com/openurl?url_ver=Z39.88- 2004&res_dat=xri:gerritsen&rft_dat=xri:gerritsen:articlerec:Gerritsen- GP57_Volume_4_Issue_24-10 Article published in The English Woman’s Journal responding, in part, to the 1851 census on employment and what it means for women who want to work. Questions: • How does this article help us understand women’s attitudes toward work in the nineteenth-century? • What challenges did women face when seeking employment?
  23. 23. 23 Employment Drysdale, Charles R.: Medicine as a Profession for Women. London: C. Tucker , 1870. http://gateway.proquest.com/openurl?url_ver=Z39.88- 2004&res_dat=xri:gerritsen&rft_dat=xri:gerritsen:bookrec:Gerritsen- G736 Essay on women’s fitness for medical professions and how they might contribute to the field. Questions: • How does Drysdale imagine women contributing to medicine? • How might we think of this text alongside the domestic health manuals for women?
  24. 24. 24 Employment Huth, Alfred Henry: On the Employment of Women. London: S. Low, Marston, Searle, & Rivington , 1882. http://gateway.proquest.com/openurl?url_ver=Z39.88- 2004&res_dat=xri:gerritsen&rft_dat=xri:gerritsen:bookrec:Gerrits en-G1335 Huth deploys a myriad of arguments on why women shouldn’t seek employment. Questions: • What are Huth’s arguments in this text? • Does he deploy any arguments that you’ve seen before, in contemporary conversations?
  25. 25. 25 Employment 2 Census Statistics as Indicative of the Employment of Women in London. The Englishwoman's Year Book and Directory, 1883. http://gateway.proquest.com/openurl?url_ver=Z39.88- 2004&res_dat=xri:gerritsen&rft_dat=xri:gerritsen:articlerec:GP60_1883 0101_0101 Government census of labor statistics by types of employment. Questions: • Are there any occupations listed that surprised you? • Are there types of employment that this census seemed to miss? • What kind of new research questions does the census generate? • How might this information be used in a larger project?
  26. 26. 26 Employment Pfeiffer, Emily: Women and Work : an essay treating on the relation to health and physical development, of the higher education of girls, and the intellectual or more systematised effort of women. London: Trübner, 1888. http://gateway.proquest.com/openurl?url_ver=Z39.88- 2004&res_dat=xri:gerritsen&rft_dat=xri:gerritsen:bookrec:Gerritsen-G2191 Pfeiffer argues that women should have more employment opportunities, and education that will prepare them for professional employment. Questions: • What arguments against women working does Pfeiffer address in her essay? • How does she respond to them?
  27. 27. 27 Employment 2 Great Britain. Parliament, 1896. House of Commons.: A bill to limit the hours of employment of women as bar assistants on premises where intoxicating liquors may be sold for consumption on the premises. London: Eyre and Spottiswoode , 1896. http://gateway.proquest.com/openurl?url_ver=Z39.88- 2004&res_dat=xri:gerritsen&rft_dat=xri:gerritsen:bookrec:Gerritsen-G1085 Parliament bill calling for mandatory reduction in hours for women who work in bars. Questions: • Why might a bill like this one be proposed to Parliament? • What role does paternalism play here? • How do laws like this affect women more broadly?
  28. 28. 28 Employment Bateson, Margaret: Professional Women upon their Professions: Conversations. London: H. Cox , 1897. http://gateway.proquest.com/openurl?url_ver=Z39.88- 2004&res_dat=xri:gerritsen&rft_dat=xri:gerritsen:bookrec:Gerritsen-G167 Professional Women Upon Their Professions features testimonies from nineteenth century women about their work in professions such as acting, painting, education, medicine, nursing, printing, domestic training, librarianship, and journalism. Questions: • Pick one or two profiles to focus on: how do they understand their profession? • What kind of framework do they use to explain their employment?
  29. 29. 29 Employment 2 Philipps, Leonora: A Dictionary of Employments Open to Women: With Details of Wages, Hours of Work, and Other Information. London: The Women's Institute, 1898. http://gateway.proquest.com/openurl?url_ver=Z39.88- 2004&res_dat=xri:gerritsen&rft_dat=xri:gerritsen:bookrec:Gerritsen- G2195 Informational text on the types of employment available to women, along with brief information about qualifications and how to apply. Questions: • How do texts like these help us understand women’s professional opportunities at the turn of the century? • How might women have used a text like this to help navigate employment?
  30. 30. 30 Employment 3 Berry, Thomas W: Professions for Girls. London: T.F. Unwin , 1909. http://gateway.proquest.com/openurl?url_ver=Z39.88- 2004&res_dat=xri:gerritsen&rft_dat=xri:gerritsen:bookrec:Gerritsen-G233 Professions for Girls outlines types of employment available to women along with information about the profession and both interpersonal and professional qualifications that are needed. Questions: • What kinds of assumptions does the author make about the types of employment women are suited for? • Did any of the qualifications surprise you? Which ones and why? • How does this text differ from Leonora Philipps’s A Dictionary of Employments Open to Women? • Which one would be more useful to a woman looking for the job in the early twentieth-century?