SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition

Whitten Bentley Dittman

C H A P T E R

3
Irwin/McGraw-Hill

INFORMATION
...
SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition

Whitten Bentley Dittman

Chapter Three Information System Development
•
•...
SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition

Whitten Bentley Dittman

Chapter Map

Irwin/McGraw-Hill

Copyright © 2000...
SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition

Whitten Bentley Dittman

Process of System Development

A system developm...
SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition

Whitten Bentley Dittman

The CMM Process Management Model
The Capability ...
SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition

Whitten Bentley Dittman

Capability Maturity Model (CMM)
RISK
Level
5
OPT...
SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition

Whitten Bentley Dittman

Life Cycle versus Methodology

• A system life c...
SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition

Whitten Bentley Dittman

A System Life Cycle
Conversion

LIFE CYCLE STAGE...
SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition

Whitten Bentley Dittman

Principles of System Development

• Get the owne...
SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition

Whitten Bentley Dittman

Phases of a Representative Methodology

Irwin/Mc...
SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition

Whitten Bentley Dittman

Overlap of System Development Phases

ID

Task N...
SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition

Whitten Bentley Dittman

Project Identification and Initiation

• Problem...
SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition

Whitten Bentley Dittman

The PIECES Problem-Solving Framework

P

the nee...
SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition

Whitten Bentley Dittman

FAST System Development Phases

Irwin/McGraw-Hil...
SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition

Whitten Bentley Dittman

Cross Life Cycle Activities

Cross life cycle ac...
SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition

Whitten Bentley Dittman

Sharing Knowledge via a Repository

A repository...
SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition

Whitten Bentley Dittman

Alternative Routes through a Methodology

• Mode...
SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition

Whitten Bentley Dittman

Model-Driven Development Route
• Modeling is the...
SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition

Whitten Bentley Dittman

Model-Driven Development (MDD) Route

Irwin/McGr...
SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition

Whitten Bentley Dittman

Rapid Application Development Route
• Rapid appl...
SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition

Whitten Bentley Dittman

Rapid Application Development (RAD) Route

Irwin...
SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition

Whitten Bentley Dittman

Commercial Off-the-Shelf Software Route
• Commer...
SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition

Whitten Bentley Dittman

Commercial Off-the-Shelf (COTS) Software Route

...
SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition

Whitten Bentley Dittman

Hybrid: Rapid Architected Development

Irwin/McG...
SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition

Whitten Bentley Dittman

Hybrid: Multiple Implementation

Irwin/McGraw-Hi...
SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition

Whitten Bentley Dittman

Hybrid: Staged Implementation

Irwin/McGraw-Hill...
SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition

Whitten Bentley Dittman

Maintenance and Reengineering Route

Irwin/McGra...
SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition

Whitten Bentley Dittman

Automated Tools and Technology

• Computer-aided...
SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition

Whitten Bentley Dittman

CASE Tools

Computer-aided systems engineering (...
SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition

Whitten Bentley Dittman

CASE Architecture

Irwin/McGraw-Hill

Copyright ...
SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition

Whitten Bentley Dittman

ADE Tools

Application development environments ...
SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition

Whitten Bentley Dittman

Process and Project Managers
• A process manager...
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  1. 1. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman C H A P T E R 3 Irwin/McGraw-Hill INFORMATION SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
  2. 2. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Chapter Three Information System Development • • • • • • • • • Describe the motivation for a system development process in terms of the Capability Maturity Model (CMM) for quality management. Differentiate between the system life cycle and a system development methodology. Describe eight basic principles of system development. Define problems, opportunities, and directives—the triggers for systems development projects. Describe the PIECES framework for categorizing problems, opportunities, and directives. Describe the traditional, basic phases of system development. For each phase, describe its purpose, inputs, and outputs. Describe cross life cycle activities that overlap all system development phases. Describe four basic alternative “routes” through the basic phases of system development. Describe how routes may be combined or customized for different projects. Differentiate between computer-aided systems engineering (CASE), application development environments (ADEs), and process and project management technology as automated tools for system development. Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
  3. 3. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Chapter Map Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
  4. 4. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Process of System Development A system development process is a set of activities, methods, best practices, deliverables, and automated tools that stakeholders (Chapter 1) use to develop and maintain information systems and software. Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
  5. 5. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman The CMM Process Management Model The Capability Maturity Model (CMM) is a framework to assess the maturity level of an organization’s information system development and management processes and products. It consists of five levels of maturity as measured by a set of guidelines called the key process areas. – Level 1—Initial: System development projects follow no prescribed process. – Level 2—Repeatable: Project management processes and practices are established to track project costs, schedules, and functionality. – Level 3—Defined: A standard system development process (sometimes called a “methodology”) is purchased or developed, and integrated throughout the information systems/services unit of the organization. – Level 4—Managed: Measurable goals for quality and productivity are established. – Level 5—Optimizing: The standardized system development process is continuously monitored and improved based on measures and data analysis established in Level 4. Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
  6. 6. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Capability Maturity Model (CMM) RISK Level 5 OPTIMIZED Level 4 MANAGED Level 3 DEFINED Level 2 REPEATABLE Level 1 INITIAL Irwin/McGraw-Hill COMPETITIVENESS Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
  7. 7. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Life Cycle versus Methodology • A system life cycle divides the life of an information system into two stages, systems development and systems operation and support. • A system development methodology is a very formal and precise system development process that defines (as in CMM Level 3) a set of activities, methods, best practices, deliverables, and automated tools that system developers and project managers are to use to develop and maintain information systems and software. Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
  8. 8. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman A System Life Cycle Conversion LIFE CYCLE STAGE System Development using System Development Methodology LIFE CYCLE STAGE Lifetime of a System System Operation and Support using Information Technology Obsolescence Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
  9. 9. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Principles of System Development • Get the owners and users involved. • Use a problem-solving approach. • Establish phases and activities. • Establish standards. • Justify systems as capital investments. • Don’t be afraid to cancel or revise scope. • Divide and conquer. • Design systems for growth and change. Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
  10. 10. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Phases of a Representative Methodology Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
  11. 11. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Overlap of System Development Phases ID Task Name 1 Dec Jan Implementation 9 Nov Construction 8 Oct Design 7 Sep Decision analysis 6 Aug Requirements analysis 5 Jul Problem analysis 4 Jun Preliminary investigation 3 May 2002 Project management 2 2001 Operations and support Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
  12. 12. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Project Identification and Initiation • Problems are undesirable situations that prevent the organization from fully achieving its purpose, goals, and/or objectives. • Opportunities are chances to improve the organization even in the absence of specific problems. • Directives are new requirements that are imposed by management, government, or some external influence. Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
  13. 13. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman The PIECES Problem-Solving Framework P the need to improve performance I the need to improve information (and data) E the need to improve economics, control costs, or increase profits C the need to improve control or security E the need to improve efficiency of people and processes S the need to improve service to customers, suppliers, partners, employees, etc. Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
  14. 14. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman FAST System Development Phases Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
  15. 15. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Cross Life Cycle Activities Cross life cycle activities are activities that overlap many or all phases of the methodology. – Fact-finding – Documentation and presentation – Feasibility analysis – Process and project management Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
  16. 16. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Sharing Knowledge via a Repository A repository is a database where system developers store all documentation, knowledge, and products for one or more information systems or projects. Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
  17. 17. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Alternative Routes through a Methodology • Model-Driven Development (MDD) • Rapid Application Development (RAD) • Commercial Off-the-Shelf Software (COTS) • Maintenance and Reengineering or hybrids of the above Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
  18. 18. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Model-Driven Development Route • Modeling is the act of drawing one or more graphical representations (or pictures) of a system. Modeling is a communication technique based upon the old saying, “a picture is worth a thousand words.” • Model-driven development techniques emphasize the drawing of models to help visualize and analyze problems, define business requirements, and design information systems. – Structured systems analysis and design — process-centered – Information engineering (IE) — data-centered – Object-oriented analysis and design (OOAD) — object-centered (integration of data and process concerns) Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
  19. 19. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Model-Driven Development (MDD) Route Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
  20. 20. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Rapid Application Development Route • Rapid application development (RAD) techniques emphasize extensive user involvement in the rapid and evolutionary construction of working prototypes of a system to accelerate the system development process. RAD is based on building prototypes that evolve into finished systems (often using time boxing) – A prototype is a smaller-scale, representative or working model of the users’ requirements or a proposed design for an information system. – A time box is a nonextendable period of time, usually 60-120 days, by which a candidate system must be placed into operation. Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
  21. 21. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Rapid Application Development (RAD) Route Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
  22. 22. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Commercial Off-the-Shelf Software Route • Commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) software is a software package or solution that is purchased to support one or more business functions and information systems. Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
  23. 23. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Commercial Off-the-Shelf (COTS) Software Route Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
  24. 24. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Hybrid: Rapid Architected Development Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
  25. 25. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Hybrid: Multiple Implementation Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
  26. 26. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Hybrid: Staged Implementation Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
  27. 27. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Maintenance and Reengineering Route Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
  28. 28. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Automated Tools and Technology • Computer-aided systems engineering (CASE) • Application development environments (ADEs) • Process and project managers Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
  29. 29. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman CASE Tools Computer-aided systems engineering (CASE) tools are software programs that automate or support the drawing and analysis of system models and provide for the translation of system models into application programs. – A CASE repository is a system developers’ database. It is a place where developers can store system models, detailed descriptions and specifications, and other products of system development. Synonyms include dictionary and encyclopedia. – Forward engineering requires the systems analyst to draw system models, either from scratch or from templates. The resulting models are subsequently transformed into program code. – Reverse engineering allows a CASE tool to read existing program code and transform that code into a representative system model that can be edited and refined by the systems analyst. Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
  30. 30. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman CASE Architecture Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
  31. 31. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman ADE Tools Application development environments (ADEs) are integrated software development tools that provide all the facilities necessary to develop new application software with maximum speed and quality. A common synonym is integrated development environment (IDE) – ADE facilities may include: • Programming languages or interpreters • Interface construction tools • Middleware • Testing tools • Version control tools • Help authoring tools • Repository links Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
  32. 32. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Process and Project Managers • A process manager is an automated tool that helps to document and manage a methodology and routes, its deliverables, and quality management standards. • A project manager is an automated tool to help plan system development activities (preferably using the approved methodology), estimate and assign resources (including people and costs), schedule activities and resources, monitor progress against schedule and budget, control and modify schedule and resources, and report project progress. Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved

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