SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition

Whitten Bentley Dittman

C H A P T E R

3
Irwin/McGraw-Hill

INFORMATION
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SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition

Whitten Bentley Dittman

Chapter Three Information System Development
•
•...
SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition

Whitten Bentley Dittman

Chapter Map

Irwin/McGraw-Hill

Copyright © 2000...
SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition

Whitten Bentley Dittman

Process of System Development

A system developm...
SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition

Whitten Bentley Dittman

The CMM Process Management Model
The Capability ...
SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition

Whitten Bentley Dittman

Capability Maturity Model (CMM)
RISK
Level
5
OPT...
SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition

Whitten Bentley Dittman

Life Cycle versus Methodology

• A system life c...
SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition

Whitten Bentley Dittman

A System Life Cycle
Conversion

LIFE CYCLE STAGE...
SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition

Whitten Bentley Dittman

Principles of System Development

• Get the owne...
SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition

Whitten Bentley Dittman

Phases of a Representative Methodology

Irwin/Mc...
SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition

Whitten Bentley Dittman

Overlap of System Development Phases

ID

Task N...
SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition

Whitten Bentley Dittman

Project Identification and Initiation

• Problem...
SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition

Whitten Bentley Dittman

The PIECES Problem-Solving Framework

P

the nee...
SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition

Whitten Bentley Dittman

FAST System Development Phases

Irwin/McGraw-Hil...
SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition

Whitten Bentley Dittman

Cross Life Cycle Activities

Cross life cycle ac...
SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition

Whitten Bentley Dittman

Sharing Knowledge via a Repository

A repository...
SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition

Whitten Bentley Dittman

Alternative Routes through a Methodology

• Mode...
SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition

Whitten Bentley Dittman

Model-Driven Development Route
• Modeling is the...
SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition

Whitten Bentley Dittman

Model-Driven Development (MDD) Route

Irwin/McGr...
SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition

Whitten Bentley Dittman

Rapid Application Development Route
• Rapid appl...
SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition

Whitten Bentley Dittman

Rapid Application Development (RAD) Route

Irwin...
SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition

Whitten Bentley Dittman

Commercial Off-the-Shelf Software Route
• Commer...
SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition

Whitten Bentley Dittman

Commercial Off-the-Shelf (COTS) Software Route

...
SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition

Whitten Bentley Dittman

Hybrid: Rapid Architected Development

Irwin/McG...
SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition

Whitten Bentley Dittman

Hybrid: Multiple Implementation

Irwin/McGraw-Hi...
SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition

Whitten Bentley Dittman

Hybrid: Staged Implementation

Irwin/McGraw-Hill...
SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition

Whitten Bentley Dittman

Maintenance and Reengineering Route

Irwin/McGra...
SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition

Whitten Bentley Dittman

Automated Tools and Technology

• Computer-aided...
SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition

Whitten Bentley Dittman

CASE Tools

Computer-aided systems engineering (...
SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition

Whitten Bentley Dittman

CASE Architecture

Irwin/McGraw-Hill

Copyright ...
SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition

Whitten Bentley Dittman

ADE Tools

Application development environments ...
SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition

Whitten Bentley Dittman

Process and Project Managers
• A process manager...
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  • <number>
    Chapter 3 - Information System Development
    This repository of slides is intended to support the named chapter. The slide repository should be used as follows:
    Copy the file to a unique name for your course and unit.
    Edit the file by deleting those slides you don’t want to cover, editing other slides as appropriate to your course, and adding slides as desired.
    Print the slides to produce transparency masters or print directly to film or present the slides using a computer image projector.
    Each slide includes instructor notes. To view those notes in PowerPoint, click left on the View Menu; then click left on Notes View sub-menu. You may need to scroll down to see the instructor notes.
    The instructor notes are also available in hard copy as the Instructor Guide to Accompany Systems Analysis and Design Methods, 5/ed. Contact your Irwin/McGraw-Hill sales representative if you need a hard copy.
  • No additional notes
  • No additional notes.
  • Some textbooks use the term systems development life cycle. We elected not to use that term because it invokes negative connotation for many instructors. Some associate it with a pure waterfall development approach (which we consider unfair).
    We differentiate between development and operation (sometimes called production). This chapter focuses on development and different methodologies and strategies employed for system development.
  • Conversion Notes
    CMM was not covered in our competition at the time we wrote this material. We feel that it is very important. CMM is the information technology response to the total quality management initiative. CMM breathed new life into the importance of a system development process. The term “process” in CMM is equivalent to the term “methodology” as popularized in systems analysis and design methods.
    Teaching Tips
    Most organizations pursuing the CMM are targeting Level 3, that is, consistently using a standardized process or methodology to develop all systems.
    CMM Level 2 deals with project management. CMM Level 3 deals with what has come to be known as process management.
  • No additional notes
  • No additional notes.
  • Teaching Notes
    This slide formally differentiates between the life cycle and a systems development methodology that is used to to implement the development stage of the life cycle.
    A common synonym for “system operation” is “production.”
  • Teaching Tip
    Minicase #4, Century Tool & Die, has proven very effective for a class discussion of the principles of system development.
  • Conversion Notes
    For this edition, we adopted a more traditional naming convention for our phases. For those converting from our fourth edition, here is a mapping of the phases:Fourth EditionFifth EditionSurvey PhasePreliminary InvestigationStudy PhaseProblem AnalysisDefinition PhaseRequirements AnalysisConfiguration PhaseDecision AnalysisDesign PhaseDesignProcurement Phase(moved to a software procurement route)Construction PhaseConstructionDelivery PhaseImplementation
    Teaching Tips
    Draw your students’ attention to the following:
    Project and process management are ongoing (cross life cycle activities)
    Operations & Support are ongoing after implementation, and utilize smaller-scaled versions of the development phases to support maintenance and reengineering activities.
    The PIECES and Information Technology Architecture blocks are highlighted here because they are new and referenced soon after this figure appears in the text.
  • Teaching Notes
    Every project is different depending on the size, complexity, and development methodology or route. The key point to emphasize in the figure is that the phases occur in parallel. It is important that students not misinterpret that the phases in this chapter are sequential.
    Note that project and process management are illustrated as ongoing activities that last the duration of a project. (The next chapter will focus on project and process management as well as the construction and use of Gantt Charts such as the one above.)
  • Teaching Notes
    Emphasize that problems, opportunities, and directives can either be planned or unplanned.
  • Teaching Tips
    We really emphasize PIECES as a useful way to characterize all problems. Later, we teach our students to use PIECES to analyze requirements and solutions as well.
    It can be useful to apply the PIECES framework to a project from the instructor’s professional background.
  • Teaching Notes
    This is not meant to be interpreted as a “waterfall” model. The waterfall variation is covered later in the chapter.
    This is the key slide for the chapter. All subsequent variations and strategies are derived from this slide.
    Teaching Tips
    Make sure that the students recognize that this slide represents one methodology that the authors call FAST. There are many methodologies and variations on this slide.
    Notice that the full “life cycle” is illustrated. The development stage has simply been partitioned into seven phases followed by the operation and support stage of the life cycle.
    The diamonds reflect typical “go” or “no go” feasibility checkpoints consistent with the creeping commitment philosophy.
  • No additional notes.
  • Teaching Notes
    Some instructors prefer the term “dictionary” or “encyclopedia” depending on what their CASE tool calls its repository.
    The key point here is that system development documentation (“knowledge”) is shared via a repository as well as flowing between phases and people.
  • Teaching Notes
    In this edition, we have formally acknowledged the notion that there can be multiple strategies or “routes” through the traditional phases. Thus, “one size does not fit all projects.”
    We have included a few of the more common routes, but there are literally dozens of routes and hundreds of variations in many methodologies.A key precept is that, contrary to popular marketing and consulting hype, the routes are merely different implementations of the same basic phases already covered (usually cleverly disguised in proprietary languages and terminology). Different routes emphasize different phases, tools, and techniques.
  • Conversion Notes
    The model-driven “route” is most typically associated with “methodologies based on structured analysis and design, information engineering (data modeling), or object-oriented analysis and design (use-case, UML, etc.).
    Teaching Notes
    It was not the intent to teach the techniques in this chapter. That is why we elected not to include sample models that the students would not truly understand until they read the modeling chapters themselves.
    We introduce an “object” color in this slide that will be seen extensively in the object-oriented analysis and design appendices.
  • Teaching Notes
    The model-driven approach (with the notable exception of OOAD) is most commonly associated with the “waterfall” approach to system development. While often criticized for its time and effort intensity, model-driven strategies still work well with large and unstructured problem domains.
  • Conversion Notes
    The rapid application development “route” is most typically associated with prototyping, JAD, and incremental or iterative approaches to system development.
  • Teaching Notes
    The rapid application development approach is most commonly associated with an incremental or iterative approach to system development. It is very popular for smaller and relatively structured projects in which requirements are fairly well understood from the beginning of the project.
  • Conversion Notes
    This “route” is new to this edition.
    This route replaces the “procurement” phase of the previous edition’s methodology.
    COTS has become extraordinarily important to aspiring systems analysts because an ever-increasing percentage of all information systems are purchased, not built in-house.
    This edition of the textbook includes new chapters that specifically focus on software procurement and systems integration caused by software procurement.
    Teaching Tips
    Emphasize to students that tomorrow’s systems analysts will be as likely to participate in a software package selection and integration as they will in a traditional design-and-construction style project.
  • Teaching Notes
    This slide depicts a typical project to select a software package and then integrate that package into a business (and its other existing information systems).
    In the chapter, we specifically omitted ERP applications from this COTS route. ERP applications are so large and complex that their vendors typically provide a custom methodology (and consulting) to implement the ERP solution.
    The COTS route looks more complex because few software packages fulfill 100 percent of an organizations requirements. Thus, a COTS project does not preclude traditional analysis, design, and construction activities to supplement capabilities not provided by the chosen software package.
    Additionally, most software packages require customization that requires additional requirements analysis, design customization, and programming within the application’s embedded language.
  • Teaching Notes
    This is the first of three common hybrids presented in the chapter. It combines front-end RAD with back-end MDD methods.
    Some experts call this RAAD (rapid architected application development)
  • Teaching Notes
    This is the second of three common hybrids presented in the chapter. It is based entirely on MDD; however, multiple design/construction/implementation subprojects occur in parallel after the decision analysis phase.
    The disadvantage of this approach is that because the subprojects are implemented separately and in parallel, the subsystems may not work together as originally hoped. Thus, a full-system integration subproject may be needed at the end to ensure full-system integration.
    This approach can be useful for large projects with enough staff to assign to the multiple subjects.
  • Teaching Notes
    This is the last of three common hybrids presented in the chapter. Once again, as shown, the model-driven approach is used; however, the back-end phases are repeated in succession to produce “versions” of the final information system.
    Each version can be placed into operation to provide some value to the user community until the next version is released to provide incremental functionality.
    The illustrated hybrid is used by many independent software vendors (ISVs) as their standard approach to building a software product and then improving it with subsequent versions.
    Teaching Tip
    Another variation, not depicted, would allow each version to be developed using a RAD approach.
  • Teaching Notes
    The key point illustrated in this slide is that “maintenance and reengineering” during system operation and support is merely a smaller-scale version of the development methodology that was used to create a system in the first place.
    Notice that maintenance and reengineering projects do not have to start in the same phase.
    It is important to recognize that any given phase will not require the same amount of time in a maintenance and reengineering project as it would for a new system development project. Thus, any phase illustrated may require hours or days in a maintenance and reengineering versus days, weeks, or months in a new system development project.
  • Conversion Notes
    In this edition, we discontinued the distinction between upper- and lower-CASE technology using those adjectives. Instead, we used more modern terminology as follows:Fifth EditionFourth EditionCASEupper-CASEADElower-CASE
    All non-CASE or non-ADE automated tools were classified as “process and project managers.”
  • Conversion Notes
    In this edition, the term CASE is restricted to model-driven technology (either forward engineering, reverse engineering, or both).
    Teaching Tips
    Different CASE tools may refer to their repository as a dictionary or encyclopedia.
    Some CASE tools maintain a repository at a project-by-project level. Others provide or integrate into a project-independent repository to promote sharing of models and specifications between projects.
    Most CASE tools interface with one or more ADEs to provide round-trip engineering that supports the full life cycle.
  • Teaching Tips
    Map your course’s CASE (and ADE) environment into this diagram to help your students better understand the automated tools that will be taught in your course.
  • Conversion Notes
    In this edition, the term ADE is compatible with both model-driven and rapid application development methodologies. In contemporary literature, it is the basis for all RAD methodologies.
    Teaching Tips
    Different CASE tools may refer to their repository as a dictionary or encyclopedia.
    Many ADEs provide links to a repository to support sharing of program code.
    Most ADEs either interface with one or more CASE tool repositories or they provide rudimentary CASE-like modeling tools within the ADE. This allows developers to integrate RAD and MDD techniques as was demonstrated in the first hybrid route presented earlier in the chapter.
  • Teaching Notes
    Examples of process and project management technology will be covered extensively in Chapter 4.
  • Asi Chap003

    1. 1. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman C H A P T E R 3 Irwin/McGraw-Hill INFORMATION SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
    2. 2. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Chapter Three Information System Development • • • • • • • • • Describe the motivation for a system development process in terms of the Capability Maturity Model (CMM) for quality management. Differentiate between the system life cycle and a system development methodology. Describe eight basic principles of system development. Define problems, opportunities, and directives—the triggers for systems development projects. Describe the PIECES framework for categorizing problems, opportunities, and directives. Describe the traditional, basic phases of system development. For each phase, describe its purpose, inputs, and outputs. Describe cross life cycle activities that overlap all system development phases. Describe four basic alternative “routes” through the basic phases of system development. Describe how routes may be combined or customized for different projects. Differentiate between computer-aided systems engineering (CASE), application development environments (ADEs), and process and project management technology as automated tools for system development. Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
    3. 3. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Chapter Map Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
    4. 4. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Process of System Development A system development process is a set of activities, methods, best practices, deliverables, and automated tools that stakeholders (Chapter 1) use to develop and maintain information systems and software. Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
    5. 5. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman The CMM Process Management Model The Capability Maturity Model (CMM) is a framework to assess the maturity level of an organization’s information system development and management processes and products. It consists of five levels of maturity as measured by a set of guidelines called the key process areas. – Level 1—Initial: System development projects follow no prescribed process. – Level 2—Repeatable: Project management processes and practices are established to track project costs, schedules, and functionality. – Level 3—Defined: A standard system development process (sometimes called a “methodology”) is purchased or developed, and integrated throughout the information systems/services unit of the organization. – Level 4—Managed: Measurable goals for quality and productivity are established. – Level 5—Optimizing: The standardized system development process is continuously monitored and improved based on measures and data analysis established in Level 4. Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
    6. 6. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Capability Maturity Model (CMM) RISK Level 5 OPTIMIZED Level 4 MANAGED Level 3 DEFINED Level 2 REPEATABLE Level 1 INITIAL Irwin/McGraw-Hill COMPETITIVENESS Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
    7. 7. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Life Cycle versus Methodology • A system life cycle divides the life of an information system into two stages, systems development and systems operation and support. • A system development methodology is a very formal and precise system development process that defines (as in CMM Level 3) a set of activities, methods, best practices, deliverables, and automated tools that system developers and project managers are to use to develop and maintain information systems and software. Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
    8. 8. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman A System Life Cycle Conversion LIFE CYCLE STAGE System Development using System Development Methodology LIFE CYCLE STAGE Lifetime of a System System Operation and Support using Information Technology Obsolescence Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
    9. 9. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Principles of System Development • Get the owners and users involved. • Use a problem-solving approach. • Establish phases and activities. • Establish standards. • Justify systems as capital investments. • Don’t be afraid to cancel or revise scope. • Divide and conquer. • Design systems for growth and change. Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
    10. 10. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Phases of a Representative Methodology Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
    11. 11. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Overlap of System Development Phases ID Task Name 1 Dec Jan Implementation 9 Nov Construction 8 Oct Design 7 Sep Decision analysis 6 Aug Requirements analysis 5 Jul Problem analysis 4 Jun Preliminary investigation 3 May 2002 Project management 2 2001 Operations and support Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
    12. 12. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Project Identification and Initiation • Problems are undesirable situations that prevent the organization from fully achieving its purpose, goals, and/or objectives. • Opportunities are chances to improve the organization even in the absence of specific problems. • Directives are new requirements that are imposed by management, government, or some external influence. Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
    13. 13. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman The PIECES Problem-Solving Framework P the need to improve performance I the need to improve information (and data) E the need to improve economics, control costs, or increase profits C the need to improve control or security E the need to improve efficiency of people and processes S the need to improve service to customers, suppliers, partners, employees, etc. Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
    14. 14. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman FAST System Development Phases Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
    15. 15. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Cross Life Cycle Activities Cross life cycle activities are activities that overlap many or all phases of the methodology. – Fact-finding – Documentation and presentation – Feasibility analysis – Process and project management Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
    16. 16. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Sharing Knowledge via a Repository A repository is a database where system developers store all documentation, knowledge, and products for one or more information systems or projects. Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
    17. 17. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Alternative Routes through a Methodology • Model-Driven Development (MDD) • Rapid Application Development (RAD) • Commercial Off-the-Shelf Software (COTS) • Maintenance and Reengineering or hybrids of the above Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
    18. 18. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Model-Driven Development Route • Modeling is the act of drawing one or more graphical representations (or pictures) of a system. Modeling is a communication technique based upon the old saying, “a picture is worth a thousand words.” • Model-driven development techniques emphasize the drawing of models to help visualize and analyze problems, define business requirements, and design information systems. – Structured systems analysis and design — process-centered – Information engineering (IE) — data-centered – Object-oriented analysis and design (OOAD) — object-centered (integration of data and process concerns) Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
    19. 19. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Model-Driven Development (MDD) Route Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
    20. 20. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Rapid Application Development Route • Rapid application development (RAD) techniques emphasize extensive user involvement in the rapid and evolutionary construction of working prototypes of a system to accelerate the system development process. RAD is based on building prototypes that evolve into finished systems (often using time boxing) – A prototype is a smaller-scale, representative or working model of the users’ requirements or a proposed design for an information system. – A time box is a nonextendable period of time, usually 60-120 days, by which a candidate system must be placed into operation. Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
    21. 21. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Rapid Application Development (RAD) Route Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
    22. 22. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Commercial Off-the-Shelf Software Route • Commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) software is a software package or solution that is purchased to support one or more business functions and information systems. Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
    23. 23. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Commercial Off-the-Shelf (COTS) Software Route Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
    24. 24. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Hybrid: Rapid Architected Development Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
    25. 25. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Hybrid: Multiple Implementation Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
    26. 26. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Hybrid: Staged Implementation Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
    27. 27. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Maintenance and Reengineering Route Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
    28. 28. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Automated Tools and Technology • Computer-aided systems engineering (CASE) • Application development environments (ADEs) • Process and project managers Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
    29. 29. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman CASE Tools Computer-aided systems engineering (CASE) tools are software programs that automate or support the drawing and analysis of system models and provide for the translation of system models into application programs. – A CASE repository is a system developers’ database. It is a place where developers can store system models, detailed descriptions and specifications, and other products of system development. Synonyms include dictionary and encyclopedia. – Forward engineering requires the systems analyst to draw system models, either from scratch or from templates. The resulting models are subsequently transformed into program code. – Reverse engineering allows a CASE tool to read existing program code and transform that code into a representative system model that can be edited and refined by the systems analyst. Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
    30. 30. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman CASE Architecture Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
    31. 31. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman ADE Tools Application development environments (ADEs) are integrated software development tools that provide all the facilities necessary to develop new application software with maximum speed and quality. A common synonym is integrated development environment (IDE) – ADE facilities may include: • Programming languages or interpreters • Interface construction tools • Middleware • Testing tools • Version control tools • Help authoring tools • Repository links Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
    32. 32. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Process and Project Managers • A process manager is an automated tool that helps to document and manage a methodology and routes, its deliverables, and quality management standards. • A project manager is an automated tool to help plan system development activities (preferably using the approved methodology), estimate and assign resources (including people and costs), schedule activities and resources, monitor progress against schedule and budget, control and modify schedule and resources, and report project progress. Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved

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