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Integumentary System
Chapter 5
• Skin & Accessory organs:
Hair & hair follicles
sebaceous (oil) glands
sudoriferous (sweat) glands
nails
Functions of the Integumentary
System
1. Protection: from exterior elements
2. Sensation: feeling
3. Excretion of wastes: ...
 Skin structure 3 main layers
1. Epidermis:outer, thinner layer connected to the
basement membrane
2. Dermis:inner, thic...
List & Describe the 4 Cells in
Epidermis
 Found on pg. 152 in textbook
 5 Minutes to locate & write…GO!
Cells of the Epidermis
 Keratinocytes – produce the strong protein
keratin.
 Melanocytes – produce the brown pigment
mel...
General Epidermis Info
 Basement membrane= located right
underneath the stratum basale and
connects epidermis to the derm...
Layers of the Epidermis
Figure 5.2b
Epidermis
 outermost layer
 Made of keratinized stratified squamous
tissue, so it:
 Lacks blood vessels
 Is mostly dea...
5 layers of the Epidermis
 Pg 154 in textbook
Stratum basale
 innermost layer
 directly above the
basement membrane
 location
• Merkel Cells
• Melanocytes
 Simple c...
Stratum spinosum
 composed of many
layers of rounded
cells with large nuclei
 Langerhans’ cells are
abundant in this lay...
Stratum granulosum
 composed of 3-5 layers of
flattened granular cells
 Cells start keratinization
process here the
pro...
Stratum lucidum
 translucent layer
 Not shown in
book…why?
 Because only
located in thick skin
of soles and palms
Stratum corneum
 Top layer
 composed of dead
epithelial cells being
flaked off (keratinized)
 Functions include:
 Wate...
Dermis
 inner layer
 Much thicker than the epidermis
 Dermis aka. “True Skin”
 Contains nerve endings, muscle fibers, ...
Dermis: 2 Layers
1. Papillary Layer
 Arranged in ridges
 The fingertips and toe tips
 Ridges allow us to grip things
Dermis: 2 Layers…cont’d
2. Reticular Layer
 Collagenous fibers: make our skin tough
 Elastic fibers: make our skin stret...
Subcutaneous layer or hypodermis
 adipose tissue and blood vessels
 beneath the dermis
 Function – insulation
Cutaneous Sensation
1. Light touch
detection:
Meissner’s Corpuscles
 located in dermal
papillae of dermis
Cutaneous Sensation
2. Pressure detection =
Pacinian Corpuscles
 located deep in dermis
and subcutaneous
regions
Hair
 Shaft: visible part of the hair
 Medulla: inner core of
the hair
 Cuticle: layer covering
medulla
 Cortex: Super...
No need to know for test…
 Just an Interesting FACT:
 Straight hair has a rounded follicle
 Wavy hair has a flattened f...
Are you ready
to be grossed
out?...................…
Eye Lash Mites
Skin Color
 3 pigments contribute to skin color
 Melanin – yellow to reddish-brown to black
pigment, responsible for ski...
Pigment
More about Melanin:
 Is produced by melanocytes in stratum
basale layer
 People of different races have essentia...
 The quantity of Melanin produced
depends on 3 factors:
1. Heredity: MOST IMPORTANT
• enzyme tyrosinase is absent at birt...
Albinism
Carotene
Hemoglobin
Nails cont’d…
 Tightly packed hard, keratinized epidermal
cells
 Functions = manipulation and protection
Ripley’s Believe It or Not Lady
Sudoriferous Glands
Two types
1. Eccrine  more common, mainly in forehead,
palms, & soles. These function right at birth....
Sebaceous Glands
 -Connected to every hair follicle
 -Secrete sebum (oil) into hair follicle
Function – sebum keeps skin...
Ceruminous Glands
 Associated with ears
 Produces cerumen (earwax)
Integumentary System Notes
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Integumentary System Notes

  1. 1. Integumentary System Chapter 5
  2. 2. • Skin & Accessory organs: Hair & hair follicles sebaceous (oil) glands sudoriferous (sweat) glands nails
  3. 3. Functions of the Integumentary System 1. Protection: from exterior elements 2. Sensation: feeling 3. Excretion of wastes: sweat 4. Synthesis of Vitamin D in sunlight 5. Temperature regulation: release/retain heat 6. Coloration: pigment of skin 7. Water proof: water does not enter inside 8. Growth and repair: regenerate
  4. 4.  Skin structure 3 main layers 1. Epidermis:outer, thinner layer connected to the basement membrane 2. Dermis:inner, thicker layer 3. Hypodermis / subcutaneous layer (Sub Q): Under the dermis (adipose tissue)
  5. 5. List & Describe the 4 Cells in Epidermis  Found on pg. 152 in textbook  5 Minutes to locate & write…GO!
  6. 6. Cells of the Epidermis  Keratinocytes – produce the strong protein keratin.  Melanocytes – produce the brown pigment melanin  Langerhans’ cells –macrophages that help activate the immune system response  Merkel cells – function as touch receptors in association with sensory nerve endings
  7. 7. General Epidermis Info  Basement membrane= located right underneath the stratum basale and connects epidermis to the dermis
  8. 8. Layers of the Epidermis Figure 5.2b
  9. 9. Epidermis  outermost layer  Made of keratinized stratified squamous tissue, so it:  Lacks blood vessels  Is mostly dead  There are 5 distinct layers  MITOSIS does occur in bottom layers
  10. 10. 5 layers of the Epidermis  Pg 154 in textbook
  11. 11. Stratum basale  innermost layer  directly above the basement membrane  location • Merkel Cells • Melanocytes  Simple cuboidal  Cells undergo mitosis here
  12. 12. Stratum spinosum  composed of many layers of rounded cells with large nuclei  Langerhans’ cells are abundant in this layer
  13. 13. Stratum granulosum  composed of 3-5 layers of flattened granular cells  Cells start keratinization process here the process of cells formed in the stratum basale moving up, flattening, dying, and becoming hard and waterproof
  14. 14. Stratum lucidum  translucent layer  Not shown in book…why?  Because only located in thick skin of soles and palms
  15. 15. Stratum corneum  Top layer  composed of dead epithelial cells being flaked off (keratinized)  Functions include:  Waterproofing  Protection from abrasion and penetration
  16. 16. Dermis  inner layer  Much thicker than the epidermis  Dermis aka. “True Skin”  Contains nerve endings, muscle fibers, hair follicles, sudoriferous glands, sebaceous glands, and blood vessels.  Does not continually shed and regenerate itself
  17. 17. Dermis: 2 Layers 1. Papillary Layer  Arranged in ridges  The fingertips and toe tips  Ridges allow us to grip things
  18. 18. Dermis: 2 Layers…cont’d 2. Reticular Layer  Collagenous fibers: make our skin tough  Elastic fibers: make our skin stretchable.  Reticular fibers: gives skin its strength & resilience  Location of smooth muscle called arrector pili Stands hair on end when “goose bumps”
  19. 19. Subcutaneous layer or hypodermis  adipose tissue and blood vessels  beneath the dermis  Function – insulation
  20. 20. Cutaneous Sensation 1. Light touch detection: Meissner’s Corpuscles  located in dermal papillae of dermis
  21. 21. Cutaneous Sensation 2. Pressure detection = Pacinian Corpuscles  located deep in dermis and subcutaneous regions
  22. 22. Hair  Shaft: visible part of the hair  Medulla: inner core of the hair  Cuticle: layer covering medulla  Cortex: Superficial portion of hair  Root: in dermis
  23. 23. No need to know for test…  Just an Interesting FACT:  Straight hair has a rounded follicle  Wavy hair has a flattened follicle  Kinky or curly hair has a kidney shaped follicle
  24. 24. Are you ready to be grossed out?...................…
  25. 25. Eye Lash Mites
  26. 26. Skin Color  3 pigments contribute to skin color  Melanin – yellow to reddish-brown to black pigment, responsible for skin colors, related to genetics • Freckles and pigmented moles – result from local accumulations of melanin  Carotene – yellow to orange pigment  Hemoglobin – reddish pigment responsible for the pinkish hue of the skin
  27. 27. Pigment More about Melanin:  Is produced by melanocytes in stratum basale layer  People of different races have essentially the same # of melanocytes, but the amount of melanin produced varies
  28. 28.  The quantity of Melanin produced depends on 3 factors: 1. Heredity: MOST IMPORTANT • enzyme tyrosinase is absent at birth, then melanocytes are unable to produce melanin and a condition known as albinism is formed 2. Sunlight Exposure • Causes melanocytes to increase melanin production and darkening skin color 3. Hormones: ACTH (Adrenocorticotropic Hormone ) and MSH (melanin stimulating hormone) • Hypersecretion of either hormone may darken the skin
  29. 29. Albinism
  30. 30. Carotene
  31. 31. Hemoglobin
  32. 32. Nails cont’d…  Tightly packed hard, keratinized epidermal cells  Functions = manipulation and protection
  33. 33. Ripley’s Believe It or Not Lady
  34. 34. Sudoriferous Glands Two types 1. Eccrine  more common, mainly in forehead, palms, & soles. These function right at birth. - no odor in secretion Secretion = water plus salts and wastes (urea and uric acid) 2. Apocrine Mainly in armpits, groin, & breasts. Don’t function until puberty. These cause the “cold-sweat” during stress. -odor in secretion
  35. 35. Sebaceous Glands  -Connected to every hair follicle  -Secrete sebum (oil) into hair follicle Function – sebum keeps skin and hair soft Disorders  acne = overproduction of sebum – ducts clog and inflame
  36. 36. Ceruminous Glands  Associated with ears  Produces cerumen (earwax)

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