FORMS OFENERGY
Introduction
DEFINITION                                           WORK  Energy is the ability to do work,  measured in joules (J).  Pow...
WARNING! We must not confuse energy with power. For example, in Spain, the wind energy power doubles the nuclear energy po...
TRANSFORMATION OF ENERGY  Primary energy is energy that has  not been subjected to any  transformation process.  Secondary...
ELECTRICITY  Nowadays electricity is the most  important secondary energy.  Electricitys extraordinary versatility  means ...
ENERGY CONSUMPTION  The energy stock is very difficult, so the energy production must be  adapted to fit the energy demand...
Petroleum
FORMATION Petroleum or crude oil is a fossil fuel formed by the accumulation of zooplankton and algae in the bottom of pre...
DISTRIBUTION  The extraction and distribution of petroleum (mainly by oleoduct and  oil tankers) is very difficult and dan...
REFINING AND USES                    Fuel for transport (48%): gasoline (petrol), diesel fuel                    (petrodie...
PRODUCTION The production of petroleum is concentred in bounded geographical areas, often in very troubled and unstable co...
CONSUMPTION Most of industrialized countries must import large quantities of petroleum, even those producing it. Nowadays ...
OPEC The ‘Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) is an oil cartel of countries which join together to co...
OPEC The OPEC, whose members are mostly dictatorships, dominates the global energy market and has the power to trigger a w...
PRIMARY ENERGY IN SPAIN(2008)                                    7.6%                                    renewable        ...
OIL PEAK  Peak oil is the point in time when the maximum rate of global petroleum  extraction is reached, after which the ...
Energy forms
CONVENTIONAL        ALTERNATIVES  ENERGIES            ENERGIES   Thermal power        Wind power   Combined cycle       So...
COAL Coal is a fossil fuel formed by the accumulation of plan matter deeply buried by sediment. Coal is the largest source...
KINDS OF COAL                            BROWN COAL         BLACK COAL        PEAT                                        ...
COAL       Open-pit mining refers to a method       of extracting coal from the earth by       their removal from an open ...
Undergorund mining methods arenecessary when coal veins occurdeep below the surface.
Underground mining, which is more labor-intensive, has often become uneconomicalbecause of the reduction in the price oftr...
THERMAL POWER STATION   SO2                        COAL CONVEYOR   NO2             COAL                                TUR...
PRODUCTION The Peoples Republic of China is the largest consumer of coal in the world generating 1.95 trillion MWh per yea...
CONSUMPTION OF COAL(thousand tons)
PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION OF COAL IN CHINA(thousand tons)                                              46%               ...
LE SYNGAS  Syngas (from synthetic gas) is the name given to a gas mixture resulted  from the gasification of coal.        ...
ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF THERMAL POWER                                                                       Large...
PRODUCTION DE GAZ NATUREL  A combined cycle power plant generates electricity from burning of natural  gas, a gas consisti...
COMBINED CYCLE POWER PLANT          NATURAL            GAS     GAS TURBINE    STEAM TURBINE                      (1 000 ºC...
ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF COMBINED CYCLE                                                                          N...
HYDROELECTRIC POWER STATION  Hydroelectric power comes from the gravitational force of falling dammed  water driving a wat...
THE THREE GORGES DAM  The Three Gorges Dam, located on the Yangtze river, in China, will be the  world’s largest capacity ...
ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF HYDROPOWER                                                                              S...
NUCLEAR FISSION  Nuclear fission is a nuclear reaction in which the nucleus of an atom splits  into smaller parts, produci...
URANIUM Uranium is used to fuel nuclear power plant. It is a very common mineral, but the extraction is uneconomical in mo...
ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION  1 kg uranium           =   100 coal wagons                                        (3,000 t)
NUCLEAR REACTORS IN THE WORLD
URANIUM ENRICHMENT  Natural uranium has a too low concentration of 235U (1%), the fissile  isotope.  It must be purified i...
PRESSURIZED WATER REACTOR (PWR)                 CONTAINMENT                  STRUCTURE                             STEAM  ...
BOILING WATER REACTOR (BWR)             CONTAINMENT              STRUCTURE              VESSEL                            ...
COST COMPARISON (M€)                       (800 MW)   (1,600 MW)
NUCLEAR PROPULSION  Many military submarines and aircraft carriers use small nuclear reactors  as their power plants. Thes...
RADIATION            RADON  Rn        13 μSv            EXPOSURE OF MEDICAL ORIGIN            10 μSv            TELLURIC R...
RADIATION  DOSE                     SYNTOMPS                   MORTALITY  > 5,000 μSv              Headache               ...
RADIOACTIVE WASTES  A nuclear power plant produces 24  TM of radioactive wastes every year:  23 Tm of depleted uranium and...
STOCK IN NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS  Several days later, the  radiation has decrased  enough to allow the transfer fo  the waste...
VITRIFICATION  Several years later, the radiation  is low enough to manipulate this  material.  It is vitrified in order t...
NUCLEAR FLAKS  A nuclear flask is a container that is used to transport active nuclear  materials. Each flask weighs more ...
DEEP GEOLOGICAL REPOSITORY  A deep geological repository is a nuclear waste repository excavated below  300 meters within ...
PLUTONIUM Plutonium, a by-product of nuclear power plants, is a key component in nuclear weapons. This is the reason some ...
DEPLETED URANIUM  Depleted uranium is a byproduct of uranium enrichement and spent  nuclear reactor fuel. It is very usefu...
MOX Mixed oxide, or MOX fuel, is nuclear fuel containing spent nuclear reactor fuel (plutonium, depleted uranium, etc.), w...
TRANSMUTATION Nuclear transmutation is the conversion of one chemical element or isotope into another. This occurs either ...
THREE MILES ISLAND  The Three Mile Island accident was  a partial core meltdown in a PWR in  Dauphin County, Pennsylvania ...
THREE MILES ISLAND  Public reaction to the event was  probably influenced by The China  Syndrome, a movie which had  recen...
CHERNOBYL The Chernobyl disaster was a nuclear accident that occurred in 1986 at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (RBMK) ...
REAKTOR BOLSHOY MOSHCHNOSTI KANALNIY (RBMK)                           STEAM                           STEAM               ...
LIQUIDATORS  Most of people who died were  liquidators, name given in the former  USSR to approximately 800,000  people wh...
CONTROVERSY The controversy which has surrounded the use of nuclear fission reactors to generate electricity for civilian ...
NUCLEAR WEAPONS      A-BOMB      H-BOMB   N-BOMB
ATOMIC BOMB (A-BOMB)                                                         Pu                        2H-3HDETONATOR    ...
HYDROGEN BOMB (H-BOMB)                         LIDDY              UM-                         3H
NEUTRON BOMB (N-BOMB)  A neutron bomb is a type of  thermonuclear weapon designed  specifically to release a large  neutro...
EFFECTS OF A 10 KT BOMB                          SEVERE                          DAMAGE ZONE                          (rad...
EFFECTS OF A 10 KT BOMB                          MODERATE                          DAMAGE ZONE                          (r...
EFFECTS OF A 10 KT BOMB                          LIGHT                          DAMAGE ZONE                          (radi...
EFFECTS ON HEALTH  • People may be subject to burn    injuries up to two miles away  • Observation of the thermal flash   ...
EUROPEAN PRESSURIZED REACTOR (EPR)  The EPR is a third generation pressurized water reactor (PWR) design.  The main design...
TOSHIBA 4S  The Toshiba 4S (Super Safe, Small  and Simple) is a micro nuclear  reactor design (10 MW).  The reactor would ...
NUCLEAR FISSION REACTORS IN CONSTRUCTION
NUCLEAR FUSION                          n n   + n                  + +  deuterium             helium                  n   ...
NUCLEAR FUSION  The nuclear fusion, which is a  phenomenon produced in stars or in  thermonuclear weapons, could be a  for...
ITER  The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) is an  Construction of the facility began in 2008 and fi...
ITER  The plasma, a gas of charged  particles, is heated to a temperature  of 150,000,000 ºC in order to give  the nuclei ...
ITER
ADVANTAGES OF DISADVANTAGES OF NUCLEAR ENERGY                                                                            ...
WIND ENERGY  Wind energy is the kinetic energy of the air in motion. The wind has been  used for thousands of years as a s...
WIND GENERATORS  A wind generator is used to produce electricity. There are different types of  turbines, but most of them...
WIND GENERATORS  Horizontal-axis wind turbines (HAWT) must be pointed into the wind.  Vertical-axis wind turbines (or VAWT...
SMALL WIND TURBINES  Small wind turbines are wind turbines which have lower energy output than  large commercial wind turb...
BACKUP ENERGY  Electricity generated from wind power can be highly variable at several  different timescales (from hour to...
WORKING HOURS
POWER PRODUCTION IN SPAIN (25/03/2011)
POWER PRODUCTION IN SPAIN (20/08/2010)
ELECTRICITY STORAGE Energy could be used to compress air at high pressure into storage tanks or caves.                   ...
WORLD WIND ENERGY POTENCIAL
OFFSHORE WIND POWER  Offshore wind power refers to the  construction of wind farms in bodies  of water to generate electri...
OFFSHORE WIND POWER  Lillgrund Wind Farm, located about 10 km off the coast of Sweden, has 48  wind turbines and a capacit...
WIND ENERGY PRODUCTION  In 2009 worldwide capacity of wind-powered generators was 159 GW.  Energy production was 340 TWh, ...
WIND ENERGY PRODUCTION (MW)
WIND ENERGY PRODUCTION (%)
ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF WIND POWER                                                                             Th...
SOLAR ENERGY  Solar power is the conversion of  sunlight into electricity, either directly  using photovoltaic systems, or...
SOLAR POWER FACTORS                      Solar fluctuations                      Astronomical factors (latitude, season, h...
SOLAR ENERGY POTENTIAL
PASSIVE SOLAR ENERGY  The most ancient and important kind  of solar energy is passive solar  energy, which doesn’t involve...
PASSIVE HOUSE IN WINTER          SOLAR         RADIATION           (34 º)                                BEDROOM          ...
PASSIVE HOUSE IN SUMMER             SOLAR            RADIATION              (65 º)                           BEDROOM      ...
SOLAR WATER HEATING  Solar water heating systems use heat from the sun to warm domestic hot  water. It must include an aux...
SOLAR WATER HEATING
SOLAR THERMAL ENERGY  It is the conversion of sunlight into  electricity using solar thermal power  systems.
PARABOLIC TROUGH POWER PLANT                      ABSORBER                        TUBE                                 PAR...
PARABOLIC TROUGH POWER PLANT  Andasol (Granada) is the largest parabolic trough power plant (50 MW).  It has a heat storag...
CONCENTRATING SOLAR THERMAL POWER PLANT SOLAR TOWER                         GENERATOR                                     ...
CONCENTRATED SOLAR POWER PLANT  PS10 and PS20, located in Sanlúcar la Mayor (Seville) are the largest  concentrated solar ...
PHOTOVOLTAICS  A solar cell is a device that converts the sunlight directly into electricity.  Assemblies of cells are use...
PHOTOVOLTAIC POWER PLANT  The largest photovoltaic power plant is in Amareleja (Portugal). It has a  power of 46 MW..
ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF SOLAR POWER                                                                            Ve...
BIOMASS Biomass is a renewable energy source that uses organic matter as fuel in order to produce energy. It is the most c...
PHOTOSYNTHESIS                                      SUNLIGHT  Although burning organic matter  produces CO2, it is the sam...
BIOMASS POWER PLANT   CO2                      STEAM                              CO2
TYPES OF BIOMASS  There are different types of biomass:   Natural biomass, produced without human intervention (deadwood ...
FIRST GENERATION BIOFUELS  First generation biofuels are made from crops usually grown for food.  Biodiesel results from o...
BIOFUELS PRODUCTION (2006)            ETHANOL         (40,000 m. litters)            BIODIESEL          (6,500 m. litters)
REPLACEMENT ENERGY TO FOSSIL FUEL?  It is impossible to replace completely  fossil fuel with first generation  biofuel.  W...
SECOND GENERATION BIOFUELS  Second generation biofuels uses  species whose exploitation is purely  energetic, so the yield...
THIRD GENERATION BIOFUELS  Third generation biofuel, also called  oilgae, is a biofuel from algae or  microalgae.  Algae a...
CONVERSION OF CO2 INTO BIOMASS BY MICROALGAE                                               FRESH WATER                    ...
ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF BIOMASS                                                                        Economical...
COGENERATION  Cogeneration is the use of a power  station to simultaneously generate  both electricity and useful heat. It...
COGENERATION IN A CEMENT FACTORY  LIMESTONE                     SAND              CLAY                            IRON    ...
GEOTHERMAL ENERGY  Geothermal energy is thermal  energy generated and stored in the  Earth. It originates from the origina...
GEOTHERMAL ENERGY  Geothermal energy is now better known for electricity generation.  Worldwide, about 10,715 megawatts (M...
MINI HYDRO  Mini hydro is the development of hydroelectric power on a scale serving a  small community.  A generating capa...
TIDAL POWER  Tidal power is a form of hydropower that converts the energy of tides into  electricity.                     ...
WAVE POWER Wave power is the transport of energy by ocean surface waves, and the capture of that energy for electricity ge...
Energy policy of Spain
Energy policyEnergy policy has long term consequences given thelong lead times for energy investments and the longlifespan...
Rule of Franco(1939-1975)                   Energy autarky                              (lignites, gasification…)         ...
Electricity production (GWh)
Electricity production (1975)                 NUCLEAR                        9%   32%                                HYDRO...
Felipe González administration(1982-1996)               ANTI-NUCLEAR              ELECTRICITY                MOVEMENT     ...
Antinuclear movement (EUROBAREMER 2010)                       ‘Risks of nuclear power as an                       energy s...
Antinuclear movement (EUROBAREMER 2010)        ‘The benefits of nuclear power as an energy        source outweigh the risk...
Science performance (PISA 2009)
The engineer José María Ryan is killed by ETA (1981)
Lemóniz Nuclear Plant (Biscay), stopped in 1984
400 000   1 700     4401 000 000   2 000     400
Oil prices ($)
Passengers cars per capita (Spain)
Unemployment (Spain)
Nuclear moratorium (1984)                               Santillán   Lemóniz I-II       Regodela                  Sayago   ...
1973                  Nuclear                          oil crisis            moratorium                                   ...
Spanish nuclear installations(2011)                                                Nuclear plant                          ...
Nuclear electricity generation (2011)
Electricity production (1996)               NUCLEAR                           25.4%                                HYDRO  ...
Aznar administration(1996-2004)                         Renewable energy                                    (Special regim...
Electricity production (2004)
Zapatero administration(2004-2012)                                     Coal aids                               Photovoltai...
Electricity production (2004)
Energy
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Energy

  1. 1. FORMS OFENERGY
  2. 2. Introduction
  3. 3. DEFINITION WORK Energy is the ability to do work, measured in joules (J). Power is the amount of work done per unit of time. The unit of power is the watt, defined as one joule per second. Energy is usually expressed as ENERGY kilowatt per hour, the energy consumed in one hour by an object doing a work of 1,000 joules per second. POWER
  4. 4. WARNING! We must not confuse energy with power. For example, in Spain, the wind energy power doubles the nuclear energy power; however, the nuclear energy doubles the wind power. ENERGY ENERGY POWER PROVIDED RESSOURCE (2008) WIND 16,000 MW 31,000 GWh NUCLEAR 8,000 MW 59,000 GWh
  5. 5. TRANSFORMATION OF ENERGY Primary energy is energy that has not been subjected to any transformation process. Secondary energy is an energy form which has been transformed from another one. Electrical energy is the most common example, being transformed from a primary energy, such as the heat or the movement.
  6. 6. ELECTRICITY Nowadays electricity is the most important secondary energy. Electricitys extraordinary versatility means it can be put to an limitless set of applications (transport, heating, lighting, communications…) 60 W 200 W
  7. 7. ENERGY CONSUMPTION The energy stock is very difficult, so the energy production must be adapted to fit the energy demand. Four family members (Spain, 2008) 4 MWh High-speed rail (Madrid-Barcelona) 26 MWh Ironwork (1 000 000 t) 400 000 MWh Spain (2008) 263 000 000 MWh
  8. 8. Petroleum
  9. 9. FORMATION Petroleum or crude oil is a fossil fuel formed by the accumulation of zooplankton and algae in the bottom of prehistoric seas. It was buried under heavy layers of sediment resulting in high levels of heat and pressure, which resulted in the formation of petroleum. This process takes hundreds of thousands of years, so petroleum is considered a non-renewable resource.
  10. 10. DISTRIBUTION The extraction and distribution of petroleum (mainly by oleoduct and oil tankers) is very difficult and dangerous. In 1988, a fire in Ppiper Alha, a North Sea In 1989, the oil tanker Exxon Valdez spilled oil production platform, killed 167 men. 500 000 barrels of crude oil in Alaska.
  11. 11. REFINING AND USES Fuel for transport (48%): gasoline (petrol), diesel fuel (petrodiesel), kerosene, fuel oil… Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG): butane, propane… Naphta for plastics Others: fuel oil for thermal power stations, asphalt, lubricants…
  12. 12. PRODUCTION The production of petroleum is concentred in bounded geographical areas, often in very troubled and unstable countries. Saudi Arabia 10 Mbbl/d
  13. 13. CONSUMPTION Most of industrialized countries must import large quantities of petroleum, even those producing it. Nowadays petroleum is the most valuable merchandise. United States 12 Mbbl/d
  14. 14. OPEC The ‘Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) is an oil cartel of countries which join together to control prices and limit competition.
  15. 15. OPEC The OPEC, whose members are mostly dictatorships, dominates the global energy market and has the power to trigger a world, crisis. All countres depend on it because they need to import large quantities of petroleum.
  16. 16. PRIMARY ENERGY IN SPAIN(2008) 7.6% renewable 10.7% nuclear 9.7% 47.6% coal petroleum 24.3% natural gas Spain needs to import huge quantities of petroleum because of the lack of freight trains. The petroleum dependance of Spanish economy is roughly 47% (in Europe 35%)
  17. 17. OIL PEAK Peak oil is the point in time when the maximum rate of global petroleum extraction is reached, after which the rate of production declines. It is an unavoidable phenomenon, but the development of China and India has speeded up the process.1850 1875 1900 1925 1950 1975 2000 2025 2050 2075 2100 2125 2150 2175 2200
  18. 18. Energy forms
  19. 19. CONVENTIONAL ALTERNATIVES ENERGIES ENERGIES Thermal power Wind power Combined cycle Solar power Hydropower Biomass Nuclear power ? Others
  20. 20. COAL Coal is a fossil fuel formed by the accumulation of plan matter deeply buried by sediment. Coal is the largest source of energy for the generation of electricity worlwide (41 % en 2006).
  21. 21. KINDS OF COAL BROWN COAL BLACK COAL PEAT ANTHRACITE (LIGNITE) (BITOMINOUS COAL) DOMESTIC HEATING THERMAL POWER IRONWORK
  22. 22. COAL Open-pit mining refers to a method of extracting coal from the earth by their removal from an open pit.
  23. 23. Undergorund mining methods arenecessary when coal veins occurdeep below the surface.
  24. 24. Underground mining, which is more labor-intensive, has often become uneconomicalbecause of the reduction in the price oftransport.
  25. 25. THERMAL POWER STATION SO2 COAL CONVEYOR NO2 COAL TURBINE HOPPER STEAM CO2 GENERATOR COOLING ASH TOWER HOPPER
  26. 26. PRODUCTION The Peoples Republic of China is the largest consumer of coal in the world generating 1.95 trillion MWh per year, or 68.7% of its electricity from coal as of 2006. A new thermal power station is set up every week. China 2 536 m.t
  27. 27. CONSUMPTION OF COAL(thousand tons)
  28. 28. PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION OF COAL IN CHINA(thousand tons) 46% of coal world production was consumed by China in 2009
  29. 29. LE SYNGAS Syngas (from synthetic gas) is the name given to a gas mixture resulted from the gasification of coal. THERMAL POWER STATION REACTOR H2O Syngas CO2 CO2 H20 02 GAS COAL H20 ANAEROBIC O2 VEIN COMBUSTION
  30. 30. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF THERMAL POWER  Large reserves (200 years) Greenhouse gases Cheap (CO2) Extremely pollutant Stability of production (SO2, NO2) Large power Non-renewable resource (1 000 MW)
  31. 31. PRODUCTION DE GAZ NATUREL A combined cycle power plant generates electricity from burning of natural gas, a gas consisting primarily of methane. It is found often associated with other hydrocarbon fuel, such as the petroleum. Russia 654 Gm3
  32. 32. COMBINED CYCLE POWER PLANT NATURAL GAS GAS TURBINE STEAM TURBINE (1 000 ºC) (200 ºC) STEAM CO2 GENERATOR GENERATOR COOLING TOWER
  33. 33. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF COMBINED CYCLE  Non-pollutant Greenhouse gases High energy efficient (CO2) Dependance on foreign and Stabiliy of production unreliable countries Large power Non-renewable (1 000 MW)
  34. 34. HYDROELECTRIC POWER STATION Hydroelectric power comes from the gravitational force of falling dammed water driving a water turbine and generator. The power extracted from the water depends on the volume and on the difference in height between the source and the waters outflow. GENERATOR RIVER DAM TURBINE
  35. 35. THE THREE GORGES DAM The Three Gorges Dam, located on the Yangtze river, in China, will be the world’s largest capacity hydroelectric power station with a total generating capacity of 22,000 MW. The annual generation will be 80,000 GWh. The dam displaced 1.3 million people.
  36. 36. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF HYDROPOWER  Stocks for irrigation Flooding control No greenhouse gases Hydrological and geological Non-pollutant requirements Accident hazards: Renewable Banqiao (1975), 26,000 kills High power Relocation of residents (1 000 MW)
  37. 37. NUCLEAR FISSION Nuclear fission is a nuclear reaction in which the nucleus of an atom splits into smaller parts, producing energy.
  38. 38. URANIUM Uranium is used to fuel nuclear power plant. It is a very common mineral, but the extraction is uneconomical in most of places. Kazakhstan 13 820 t
  39. 39. ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION 1 kg uranium = 100 coal wagons (3,000 t)
  40. 40. NUCLEAR REACTORS IN THE WORLD
  41. 41. URANIUM ENRICHMENT Natural uranium has a too low concentration of 235U (1%), the fissile isotope. It must be purified in order to obtain a powder (yellowcake) and later processed to produce the enriched uranium, that has a greater than 3% concentration of 235U. Natural uranium Yellowcake Enriched uranium (20,000 Tm) (230 Tm) (24 Tm)
  42. 42. PRESSURIZED WATER REACTOR (PWR) CONTAINMENT STRUCTURE STEAM GENERATOR TURBINE STEAM GENERATOR VESSEL COOLING TOWER
  43. 43. BOILING WATER REACTOR (BWR) CONTAINMENT STRUCTURE VESSEL TURBINE STEAM GENERATOR COOLING TOWER
  44. 44. COST COMPARISON (M€) (800 MW) (1,600 MW)
  45. 45. NUCLEAR PROPULSION Many military submarines and aircraft carriers use small nuclear reactors as their power plants. These vessels don’t need to stop for fuel like their conventional counterparts, being limited only by crew endurance and supplies.
  46. 46. RADIATION RADON Rn 13 μSv EXPOSURE OF MEDICAL ORIGIN 10 μSv TELLURIC RADIATION 5 μSv COSMIC RADIATION 4 μSv NUCLEAR PLANT (2 KM) 35 μSv 0.05 μSv
  47. 47. RADIATION DOSE SYNTOMPS MORTALITY > 5,000 μSv Headache 0% > 10,000 μSv Vomiting 5% Fatigue > 20,000 μSv Epilation 35% Fever > 80,000 μSv High fever 100% Severe diarrhea ANNUAL LIMIT ON INTAKE FUKUSHIMA (15 MARS 2011) CHERNOBYL (26 APRIL 1986) 500 μSv 8,217 μSv 3,000,000 μSv
  48. 48. RADIOACTIVE WASTES A nuclear power plant produces 24 TM of radioactive wastes every year: 23 Tm of depleted uranium and 732 kg of transuranium elements (plutonium, cesium, americium, neptunium…). Transuranium elements are very radioactive because of theirs gamma rays, often for million years. Exposure to high levels of radioactive wastes may cause serious harm or even death: burns to the skin and cancer and maybe other long-range effects (e.g. congenital malformations).
  49. 49. STOCK IN NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Several days later, the radiation has decrased enough to allow the transfer fo the wastes to the pool. The water in the pool works as a screen, so the stock is perfectly secure. However, its capacity is limited to 30 years maximum.
  50. 50. VITRIFICATION Several years later, the radiation is low enough to manipulate this material. It is vitrified in order to compress it (3 m3) and to avoid the dissolution in water, which is very dangerous to public health.
  51. 51. NUCLEAR FLAKS A nuclear flask is a container that is used to transport active nuclear materials. Each flask weighs more than 50 tonnes, and transports usually not more than 2.5 tonnes of spent nuclear fuel.
  52. 52. DEEP GEOLOGICAL REPOSITORY A deep geological repository is a nuclear waste repository excavated below 300 meters within a stable geologic environment.
  53. 53. PLUTONIUM Plutonium, a by-product of nuclear power plants, is a key component in nuclear weapons. This is the reason some countries with a lot of energy resources want to build nuclear power plants.
  54. 54. DEPLETED URANIUM Depleted uranium is a byproduct of uranium enrichement and spent nuclear reactor fuel. It is very useful because of its very high density (68% denser than lead). Civilian uses include counterweights in aircraft, radiation shielding in medical radiation therapy and containers used to transport radioactive materials. Military uses include defensive armor plating and armor-piercing projectiles.
  55. 55. MOX Mixed oxide, or MOX fuel, is nuclear fuel containing spent nuclear reactor fuel (plutonium, depleted uranium, etc.), which is processed in order to be used in modern nuclear power plants.
  56. 56. TRANSMUTATION Nuclear transmutation is the conversion of one chemical element or isotope into another. This occurs either through nuclear reactions (in which an outside particle reacts with a nucleus), or through radioactive decay (where no outside particle is needed). Artificial nuclear transmutation has been considered as a possible mechanism for reducing the volume and hazard of radioactive waste. 243Am ABSORTION 244Am OF A NEUTRON Radiactivity : Radioactivity : 10,000 years 10 hours
  57. 57. THREE MILES ISLAND The Three Mile Island accident was a partial core meltdown in a PWR in Dauphin County, Pennsylvania near Harrisburg (USA) in 1979. Containment did not fail, and just a small quantity of radioactive gases from the leak were vented into the atmosphere through specially designed filters under operator control (460 μSv). Radiation releases from the accident had no perceptible effect on cancer incidence in residents near the plant,
  58. 58. THREE MILES ISLAND Public reaction to the event was probably influenced by The China Syndrome, a movie which had recently been released and which depicts an accident at a nuclear reactor. The accident crystallized anti- nuclear safety concerns among the general public.
  59. 59. CHERNOBYL The Chernobyl disaster was a nuclear accident that occurred in 1986 at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (RBMK) in the Soviet Union (now Ukraine). It is considered the worst nuclear power plant accident in history. An experiment, combined with a series of human failures, resulted in a explosion in the reactor, which released a huge quantity of radiation (RBMK doesn’t have any containment structure). Roughly 4,000 people were killed: 57 in the explosion and the rest because of the cancer.
  60. 60. REAKTOR BOLSHOY MOSHCHNOSTI KANALNIY (RBMK) STEAM STEAM SEPARATOR SEPARATOR GRAPHITE CORE STEAM STEAM GENERATOR GENERATOR
  61. 61. LIQUIDATORS Most of people who died were liquidators, name given in the former USSR to approximately 800,000 people who were in charge of the removal of the consequences of the Chernobyl disaster on the site of the event. They included personnel of the reactors, firefighters, medical personnel, construction workers who constructed the sarcophagus over the exploded reactor, transport workers, the coal miners who pumped out the contaminated water to prevent its entrance into groundwater…
  62. 62. CONTROVERSY The controversy which has surrounded the use of nuclear fission reactors to generate electricity for civilian purposes results from the nuclear weapons, commonly associated with nuclear power.
  63. 63. NUCLEAR WEAPONS A-BOMB H-BOMB N-BOMB
  64. 64. ATOMIC BOMB (A-BOMB)  Pu 2H-3HDETONATOR UM- DETONATOR
  65. 65. HYDROGEN BOMB (H-BOMB) LIDDY UM- 3H
  66. 66. NEUTRON BOMB (N-BOMB) A neutron bomb is a type of thermonuclear weapon designed specifically to release a large neutron radiation rather than explosive energy. Although their extreme blast and heat effects are not eliminated, it is the enormous radiation released that is meant to be a major source of casualties. Such radiation is able to penetrate buildings and armored vehicles to kill personnel that would otherwise be protected from the explosion.
  67. 67. EFFECTS OF A 10 KT BOMB SEVERE DAMAGE ZONE (radius of 0.8 km)  Few buildings standing  Very few people survive (subterranean parking garages)  Very high radiation, increasing risks to survivors
  68. 68. EFFECTS OF A 10 KT BOMB MODERATE DAMAGE ZONE (radius of 1.6 km)  Most buildings severely damaged or collapsed  Serious injuries; early medical assistance can significantly improve number of survivors  Limited visibility for an hour because of dust raised by the shock wave
  69. 69. EFFECTS OF A 10 KT BOMB LIGHT DAMAGE ZONE (radius of 16 km)  Blown windows and doors  Mostly minor injuries highly survivable
  70. 70. EFFECTS ON HEALTH • People may be subject to burn injuries up to two miles away • Observation of the thermal flash can result in temporary or permanent eye injuries, even via peripheral vision • Exposure rates of 10,000 μSv during the first six hours post- detonation may be observed.. Radiation can be an important contributor to casualties some weeks or months after the explosion (5% of exposed people will die from cancer)
  71. 71. EUROPEAN PRESSURIZED REACTOR (EPR) The EPR is a third generation pressurized water reactor (PWR) design. The main design objectives are increased safety while providing enhanced economic competitiveness (MOX fuel, 1650 MW, etc.).
  72. 72. TOSHIBA 4S The Toshiba 4S (Super Safe, Small and Simple) is a micro nuclear reactor design (10 MW). The reactor would be located in a sealed, cylindrical vault 30 m underground, while the building above ground would be 11 m tall. This power plant is designed to provide 10 MW of electrical power continously for 30 years.
  73. 73. NUCLEAR FISSION REACTORS IN CONSTRUCTION
  74. 74. NUCLEAR FUSION n n + n + + deuterium helium n + + n n ENERGY + n n n tritium neutron
  75. 75. NUCLEAR FUSION The nuclear fusion, which is a phenomenon produced in stars or in thermonuclear weapons, could be a form of energy with the same advantages as nuclear fission reactors (high power, no pollution, no CO2, etc.) but without theirs disadvantages (radioactive waste, radiation leaks, dependence on uranium, etc.).
  76. 76. ITER The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) is an Construction of the facility began in 2008 and first plasma is expected in 2018. The total price of constructing the experiment is expected to be in excess of € 20 billion.
  77. 77. ITER The plasma, a gas of charged particles, is heated to a temperature of 150,000,000 ºC in order to give the nuclei enough energy to overcome their electrostatic repulsion. The plasma is confined using magnetic fields to contain the particles in a small enough volume for a long enough time for much of the plasma to fuse. The machine is expected to demonstrate the principle of getting more energy out of the fusion process (500 MW) than is used to initiate it (50 MW).
  78. 78. ITER
  79. 79. ADVANTAGES OF DISADVANTAGES OF NUCLEAR ENERGY  Long lifespan Heavy capital investment (60 years) (€ 4,000 millions) Construction time No greenhouses gases (10 years) Production bottlenecks Non-pollutant (E.g. vessels) Nuclear proliferation or Large reserves of uranium terrorism Cheap fuel Radioactive waste Severe accidents Stability of production (Chernobyl) High power Non-renewable (1,000 MW)
  80. 80. WIND ENERGY Wind energy is the kinetic energy of the air in motion. The wind has been used for thousands of years as a source of energy: Sailors capture it in the sails of their ships, and the Netherlands are famous for the windmills used for pumping water to drain polders forming agricultural land.
  81. 81. WIND GENERATORS A wind generator is used to produce electricity. There are different types of turbines, but most of them have a power of 2 MW.
  82. 82. WIND GENERATORS Horizontal-axis wind turbines (HAWT) must be pointed into the wind. Vertical-axis wind turbines (or VAWT) don’t need to be pointed into the wind to be effective, but the power is lower.
  83. 83. SMALL WIND TURBINES Small wind turbines are wind turbines which have lower energy output than large commercial wind turbines, such as those found in wind farms. They produce electricity at a rate of 300 to 10,000 watts.
  84. 84. BACKUP ENERGY Electricity generated from wind power can be highly variable at several different timescales (from hour to hour, daily, and seasonally), so it needs backup power resources, usually combined cycle power plants. It results in a lot of troubles: energy waste, breakdowns, etc. The instability and unpredictability are the main problem of wind energy. RATE OF WIND POWER PRODUCTION IN SPAIN (2008) 24 november 2008 16:47 48% 27 november 2008 16:22 1%
  85. 85. WORKING HOURS
  86. 86. POWER PRODUCTION IN SPAIN (25/03/2011)
  87. 87. POWER PRODUCTION IN SPAIN (20/08/2010)
  88. 88. ELECTRICITY STORAGE Energy could be used to compress air at high pressure into storage tanks or caves. TURBINE GENERATOR CAVE
  89. 89. WORLD WIND ENERGY POTENCIAL
  90. 90. OFFSHORE WIND POWER Offshore wind power refers to the construction of wind farms in bodies of water to generate electricity from wind. Better wind speeds are available offshore compared to on land, so offshore wind power’s contribution in terms of electricity supplied is higher.
  91. 91. OFFSHORE WIND POWER Lillgrund Wind Farm, located about 10 km off the coast of Sweden, has 48 wind turbines and a capacity of 110 MW.
  92. 92. WIND ENERGY PRODUCTION In 2009 worldwide capacity of wind-powered generators was 159 GW. Energy production was 340 TWh, which is about 2% of worldwide electricity usage. United States 35,000 MW (1.8 %)
  93. 93. WIND ENERGY PRODUCTION (MW)
  94. 94. WIND ENERGY PRODUCTION (%)
  95. 95. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF WIND POWER  The most economical of alternative energies Not very high prospects for No greenhouse gases technological advancements Non-pollutant Visual contamination Instability and unpredictability Renewable of production
  96. 96. SOLAR ENERGY Solar power is the conversion of sunlight into electricity, either directly using photovoltaic systems, or indirectly using solar thermal power systems. Earth receives from the sun a power of 170 millions of Gigawats, so the solar power potential is huge. Actually solar energy is the origin of every energy in Earth but the nuclear power, geothermal power and tidal power.
  97. 97. SOLAR POWER FACTORS Solar fluctuations Astronomical factors (latitude, season, hour…) Weather (clouds, fog, mist…)
  98. 98. SOLAR ENERGY POTENTIAL
  99. 99. PASSIVE SOLAR ENERGY The most ancient and important kind of solar energy is passive solar energy, which doesn’t involve the use of mechanical or electrical devices, but an appropriate building design: placement of room-types and equipment in the house, WINTER orienting the building to face the equator, adequately sizing windows to face the midday sun in the winter and be shaded in the summer…. SUMMER
  100. 100. PASSIVE HOUSE IN WINTER SOLAR RADIATION (34 º) BEDROOM PERGOLA LIVING ROOM STUDY S N
  101. 101. PASSIVE HOUSE IN SUMMER SOLAR RADIATION (65 º) BEDROOM PERGOLA LIVING ROOM STUDY S N
  102. 102. SOLAR WATER HEATING Solar water heating systems use heat from the sun to warm domestic hot water. It must include an auxiliary energy source (e.g. gas heating system) that is activated when the water in the tank falls below a minimum temperature setting such as 55°C. Israel is the per-capita leader in the use of solar hot water systems with over 90% of homes using them.
  103. 103. SOLAR WATER HEATING
  104. 104. SOLAR THERMAL ENERGY It is the conversion of sunlight into electricity using solar thermal power systems.
  105. 105. PARABOLIC TROUGH POWER PLANT ABSORBER TUBE PARABOLIC MIRROR GENERATOR TURBINE
  106. 106. PARABOLIC TROUGH POWER PLANT Andasol (Granada) is the largest parabolic trough power plant (50 MW). It has a heat storage formed by a mixture of molten salt in order to produce electricity during the evening, which doubles the annual operation hours (3,600 hours every year).
  107. 107. CONCENTRATING SOLAR THERMAL POWER PLANT SOLAR TOWER GENERATOR HELIOSTAT HELIOSTAT TURBINE
  108. 108. CONCENTRATED SOLAR POWER PLANT PS10 and PS20, located in Sanlúcar la Mayor (Seville) are the largest concentrated solar power plants in the world. They have a power of 11 and 20 MW respectively.
  109. 109. PHOTOVOLTAICS A solar cell is a device that converts the sunlight directly into electricity. Assemblies of cells are used to make solar pannels.
  110. 110. PHOTOVOLTAIC POWER PLANT The largest photovoltaic power plant is in Amareleja (Portugal). It has a power of 46 MW..
  111. 111. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF SOLAR POWER  Very high prospects for technological advancements More predictable than wind Very expensive, specially power phovoltaics No greenhouse-gases Very land-intensive Very low power Non-pollutant (120 W/m2) Renewable Instability of production
  112. 112. BIOMASS Biomass is a renewable energy source that uses organic matter as fuel in order to produce energy. It is the most common energy source in the world. It could be considered a way of solar energy storage, as the plants use the sunlight to grow.
  113. 113. PHOTOSYNTHESIS SUNLIGHT Although burning organic matter produces CO2, it is the same amount of carbone that had been absorbed by the plant by the photosynthesis. As a result, biomass can be considered a clean energy source. CO2 OXYGEN EAU
  114. 114. BIOMASS POWER PLANT CO2 STEAM CO2
  115. 115. TYPES OF BIOMASS There are different types of biomass:  Natural biomass, produced without human intervention (deadwood removal)  Residual biomass, a by-product resulting from the agriculture or industrial activities that use wood  Industrial biomass, that uses industrial crops to obtain biofuel
  116. 116. FIRST GENERATION BIOFUELS First generation biofuels are made from crops usually grown for food. Biodiesel results from oil contained in some crops (soya, oilseed rape) and bioethanol results from the fermentation of sugarcane or maize.
  117. 117. BIOFUELS PRODUCTION (2006) ETHANOL (40,000 m. litters) BIODIESEL (6,500 m. litters)
  118. 118. REPLACEMENT ENERGY TO FOSSIL FUEL? It is impossible to replace completely fossil fuel with first generation biofuel. We would need to grow crops in a space several times the surface on Earth in order to produce enough biofuel.
  119. 119. SECOND GENERATION BIOFUELS Second generation biofuels uses species whose exploitation is purely energetic, so the yield is much better. The most important is jatropha, a drought-tolerant plant grown to make biodiesel.
  120. 120. THIRD GENERATION BIOFUELS Third generation biofuel, also called oilgae, is a biofuel from algae or microalgae. Algae are low-input, high-yield feedstocks to produce biofuels. Based on laboratory experiments, it is claimed that algae can produce up to 30 times more energy per acre than land crops such as soybeans (the growth rate is 9 days). With the higher prices of fossil fuels (petroleum), there is much interest in algaculture (farming algae).
  121. 121. CONVERSION OF CO2 INTO BIOMASS BY MICROALGAE FRESH WATER MICROALGAE COMBINED CYCLE POWER PLANT BIOFUEL (EMISSIONS OF CO2) SEA WATER
  122. 122. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF BIOMASS  Economical in countries with a strong agrarian activity No greenhouse-gases Non-pollutant Increments of food prices Stability of production Consume of water Renewable Very land-intensive
  123. 123. COGENERATION Cogeneration is the use of a power station to simultaneously generate both electricity and useful heat. It is and example of decentralized energy. Cogeneration plants are fired by natural gas, biomass, industrial and municipal waste… This by-product heat is usually used in factories, hospitals, hotels, etc.
  124. 124. COGENERATION IN A CEMENT FACTORY LIMESTONE SAND CLAY IRON CONVEYOR RAW MEAL SILO CEMENT CO2 SILO CEMENT CLINKER COOKER MILL FUEL GENERATOR
  125. 125. GEOTHERMAL ENERGY Geothermal energy is thermal energy generated and stored in the Earth. It originates from the original formation of the planet, from radioactive decay of minerals and from volcanic activity. From hot springs, geothermal energy has been used for bathing since Paleolithic times and for space heating since ancient Roman times.
  126. 126. GEOTHERMAL ENERGY Geothermal energy is now better known for electricity generation. Worldwide, about 10,715 megawatts (MW) of geothermal power is online. Nesjavellir Geothermal Power Station in Iceland(120 MW)
  127. 127. MINI HYDRO Mini hydro is the development of hydroelectric power on a scale serving a small community. A generating capacity of up to 5 MW is accepted as the upper limit of what can be termed mini hydro.
  128. 128. TIDAL POWER Tidal power is a form of hydropower that converts the energy of tides into electricity. DAM GENERATOR SEA BAY TURBINE
  129. 129. WAVE POWER Wave power is the transport of energy by ocean surface waves, and the capture of that energy for electricity generation.The Aguçadoura Wave Farm in Portugal (2 MW)
  130. 130. Energy policy of Spain
  131. 131. Energy policyEnergy policy has long term consequences given thelong lead times for energy investments and the longlifespan covering several decades. Felipe González José María Aznar Zapatero Rule of Franco administration administration administration (1939-1975) (1982-1996) (1996-2004) (2004-2011)
  132. 132. Rule of Franco(1939-1975) Energy autarky (lignites, gasification…) Hydro-electric plants (Aldeadávila) First nuclear plants (José Cabrera)
  133. 133. Electricity production (GWh)
  134. 134. Electricity production (1975) NUCLEAR 9% 32% HYDRO COAL 59%
  135. 135. Felipe González administration(1982-1996) ANTI-NUCLEAR ELECTRICITY MOVEMENT OVERPRODUCTION NUCLEAR MORATORIUM
  136. 136. Antinuclear movement (EUROBAREMER 2010) ‘Risks of nuclear power as an energy source outweigh its benefits’
  137. 137. Antinuclear movement (EUROBAREMER 2010) ‘The benefits of nuclear power as an energy source outweigh the risks it pose’ 30% 51% INFORMED NOT INFORMED
  138. 138. Science performance (PISA 2009)
  139. 139. The engineer José María Ryan is killed by ETA (1981)
  140. 140. Lemóniz Nuclear Plant (Biscay), stopped in 1984
  141. 141. 400 000 1 700 4401 000 000 2 000 400
  142. 142. Oil prices ($)
  143. 143. Passengers cars per capita (Spain)
  144. 144. Unemployment (Spain)
  145. 145. Nuclear moratorium (1984) Santillán Lemóniz I-II Regodela Sayago Escatrón I-II The cost of the nuclear Trillo II moratorium was 729 000 pesetas (nowadays 8000 millions euros) Valdecaballeros I-II NUCLEAR PLANTS TECHNOLOGY CONSTRUCTION Lemóniz I-II PWR 1972 (Biscay) 2x930 MW (100%-90% finished) Valdecaballeros I-II BWR 1975 (Badajoz) 2x975 MW (70%-60% finished)
  146. 146. 1973 Nuclear oil crisis moratorium TRILLO PWR 1066 MW VANDELLÓS II PWR 1087 MW VALDECABALLEROS II BWR 975 MW VALDECABALLEROS I BWR 975 MW COFRENTES BWR 1110 MW LEMÓNIZ II PWR 930 MW LEMÓNIZ I PWR 930 MW ALMARAZ II PWR 983 MW ALMARAZ I PWR 973 MW ASCÓ II PWR 1027 MW ASCÓ I PWR 1032 MW VANDELLÓS I GCR 480 MW GAROÑA BWR 460 MWJOSÉ CABRERA (ZORITA) PWR 150 MW Franco UCD Felipe González Aznar Zapatero
  147. 147. Spanish nuclear installations(2011) Nuclear plant (1 or 2 reactors) U Uranium mining Nuclear fuel factory GAROÑA Storage facility of medium and low- level waste VANDELLÓS II 2 JUZBADO ASCÓ I-II TRILLO U SAELICES EL CHICO 2 ALMARAZ I-II COFRENTES EL CABRIL
  148. 148. Nuclear electricity generation (2011)
  149. 149. Electricity production (1996) NUCLEAR 25.4% HYDRO 37.9% COAL 1.4% 35.3% FUEL/GAS
  150. 150. Aznar administration(1996-2004) Renewable energy (Special regime) Backup energy (combined cycle) Freezing tariffs (tariff deficit)
  151. 151. Electricity production (2004)
  152. 152. Zapatero administration(2004-2012) Coal aids Photovoltaics bubble Energy overproduction
  153. 153. Electricity production (2004)

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