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Plant Design –Piping &Equipment Team – Scope of Work
Piping is used in commercial and industrial applications for fluid ha...
i. Horizontal Drum Piping
Tank Piping
i. Piping at Tankage
Column Piping
i. Piping at Towers
Compressor Piping
i. Reciproc...
vi. Maintenance Requirements
Spacing Consideration
i. Basic Objectives of Spacing Design
ii. Deviations from Spacing Stand...
Heat Exchangers
The most common type of industrial heat exchanger is the shell and tube type where one stream,
usually the...
Air coolers, or fin fans, are utilized globally in modern process facilities. Air is quickly moved
past the tube exterior ...
Towers and Vertical Vessels
Towers and vertical vessels are vertical cylindrical pressure vessels usually containing a ser...
Pipe Supports and Hangers
In the majority of industrial jobs, pipe supports are designed and fabricated by the engineer,
h...
Plot Plan
Consideration of plot plan layout in this chapter is related to an Oil Refinery or Chemical Plant,
however, the ...
Larger plants will have a separate Utility Diagram which shows all utility lines servicing process
lines and equipment. Ut...
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Plant design piping & equipment team scope of work

  1. 1. Plant Design –Piping &Equipment Team – Scope of Work Piping is used in commercial and industrial applications for fluid handling where the wish is to transmit a fluid from one point to another. You need to look no further than your home to come across a variety of piping systems including water, sewage and possibly gas Plant Design Consists of Creating 1. Piping Layout 2. Equipment Layout 3. Spacing Considerations 4. Equipments List 5. Pipe Supports 6. Isometrics 7. General Arrangement Drawings By Using the Input document like Plot Plan, Process Flow Diagram, Piping and Instrumentation Diagrams Piping Specification and Line Lists, Equipment Data Sheet , Valve list & Pipe Rack Piping layout In terms of types, Area likes Pump piping, Exchanger Piping, Drum Piping, Tank Piping Column Piping, Compressor Piping, Rack Piping and Underground Piping Pump Piping i. Pump Piping ii. Piping at Pumps – Suction iii. Piping at Pumps – General iv. Piping at Double Suction Pumps v. Piping at Parallel Pumps vi. Check List for Pump Piping Exchanger Piping i. Vertical Reboiler Piping ii. Piping at ACHE -Air Cooled Heat Exchanger Drum Piping
  2. 2. i. Horizontal Drum Piping Tank Piping i. Piping at Tankage Column Piping i. Piping at Towers Compressor Piping i. Reciprocating Compressor Piping ii. Centrifugal Compressor Piping iii. Piping Notes Steam Piping i. Steam Piping ii. Steam Traps iii. Steam Tracing Rack Piping i. Pipe Spans ii. Grouping of Lines on a Rack iii. Multi Level Racks iv. Routing Hot Lines on a Rack v. Pipe Routing Priorities vi. Trenched Piping Underground Piping i. Underground Piping Nozzle Orientation i. Nozzle Orientation at a Column /Drum Equipment Layout i. Equipment Layout ii. Equipment Stacking iii. General Layout iv. Horizontal Pumps – Location and Layout v. ACHE Location
  3. 3. vi. Maintenance Requirements Spacing Consideration i. Basic Objectives of Spacing Design ii. Deviations from Spacing Standards iii. Horizontal Drum Spacing and Location iv. Tank Spacing v. Spacing at Compressors Equipments List Pumps A centrifugal pump is a kinetic machine converting mechanical energy into hydraulic energy through centrifugal activity. A centrifugal pump is one of the simplest pieces of equipment. Its purpose is to convert energy of an electric motor or engine into velocity or kinetic energy and then into pressure of a fluid that is being pumped. The energy changes occur into two main parts of the pump, the impeller and the volute. The impeller is the rotating part that converts driver energy into the kinetic energy. The volute is the stationary part that converts the kinetic energy into pressure. Liquid enters the pump suction and then the eye of the impeller. When the impeller rotates, it spins the liquid sitting in the cavities between the vanes outward and imparts centrifugal acceleration. As the liquid leaves the eye of the impeller a low pressure area is created at the eye allowing more liquid to enter the pump inlet. i. Centrifugal Pumps ii. ANSI End Suction Pump iii. API 610 End Suction Pump iv. Horizontal Pumps v. Positive Displacement Pumps (PD Pumps) vi. Vertical Inline Pumps vii. Double Suction Pumps viii. SteamTurbines
  4. 4. Heat Exchangers The most common type of industrial heat exchanger is the shell and tube type where one stream, usually the one that leaves the most deposit i.e. water, flows through the tubes and the other stream goes through the shell side. This is because the tubes are easier to clean than the shell. Provision must be made to withdraw the tubes for cleaning and this area must be kept free of piping and other obstructions. Shell and tube exchangers are manufactured in accordance with the TEMA (Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association) code i. Shell and Tube Exchangers ii. Stacked Shell and Tube Exchangers iii. Double Pipe Exchangers iv. Plate Heat Exchangers v. Reboilers vi. Horizontal Reboiler vii. Vertical Reboiler Fin Fans (Air Coolers)
  5. 5. Air coolers, or fin fans, are utilized globally in modern process facilities. Air is quickly moved past the tube exterior by way of a large fan system. As the product travels through the tubes, this process transfers the heat from the product into the atmosphere. An air cooler or fin fan unit is constructed of several hundred to several thousand externally finned tubes. Tube dimensions typically range from 1” (25.4mm) to 1.5” (38mm) in diameter and up to 75’ (23m) in length. i. Air Cooled Heat Exchanger (ACHE) ii. Air Cooled Heat Exchanger (Rack Mounted) iii. Grade Mounted Air Coolers Horizontal Vessels and Drums Horizontal vessels and drums are relatively large diameter cylindrical pressure vessels used for a variety of process functions. Their height above grade is usually determined by the NPSH requirements of the pumps in the liquid outlet line or the gravity flow requirements to other equipment. And they are supported by the use of saddles. i. Horizontal Vessels ii. Horizontal Drum iii. Vessel Boots and Weirs Storage Tanks Tanks are usually cylindrical and they vary greatly in size from 2ft to 200ft diameter mostly flat bottomed with either an open or conical top, some of the large tanks used in refineries have a floating top where the roof floats on top of the liquid to eliminate vapour loss i. Storage Tanks ii. Types of Tank Roofs iii. External Floating Roof Tank Drainage
  6. 6. Towers and Vertical Vessels Towers and vertical vessels are vertical cylindrical pressure vessels usually containing a series of trays or plates designed to ensure mixing between a rising gas or vapour and a falling liquid stream. A vertical tower is similar to a horizontal drum in that it comprises of a shell and two dished heads, one at the top and one at the bottom, the tower is supported by a skirt welded to the bottom head. i. Towers ii. Vertical Vessels iii. Column Reboilers Compressors Reciprocating Compressor A gas compressor is a mechanical device that increases the pressure of a gas by reducing its volume. Compressors are similar to pumps: both increase the pressure on a fluid and both can transport the fluid through a pipe. As gases are compressible, the compressor also reduces the volume of a gas. Liquids are relatively incompressible, so the main action of a pump is to transport liquids. i. Reciprocating Compressors ii. Centrifugal Compressor
  7. 7. Pipe Supports and Hangers In the majority of industrial jobs, pipe supports are designed and fabricated by the engineer, however, most supports are also available commercially from a pipe support supplier such as Anvil, Lisega, AAA etc. Piping is supported either from above by the use of hangers or from below by resting supports. When routing piping indoors, run the piping close to structural steel in order to attach the pipe support steel to it.When piping is run outdoors in groups, as in the case of a refinery, or chemical plant, it is usually supported on a piperack. If run individually there are a number of standard support designs that are in common use.In the majority of industrial jobs, pipe supports are designed and fabricated by the engineer, however, most supports are also available commercially from a pipe support supplier such as Anvil, Lisega, AAA etc. The design of pipe supports is covered in the various piping codes. Below is an excerpt from B31.1, note the reference to MSS SP-58 which is the standard covering ‘Pipe Hangers and Supports – Materials, Design and Manufacture’. i. Pipe Supporting Systems ii. Recommended Pipe Spans iii. Pipe Spacing iv. Pipe Shoes v. Base Ells and Dummy Legs vi. Pipe Guides vii. Pipe Restraints (Limit Stops) viii. Rod Hangers ix. Variable Spring Hangers x. Constant Load Hangers Input Documents for Creating Plant Design Plot Plan, Process Flow Diagram, Piping and Instrumentation Diagrams, Piping Specification and Line Lists, Equipment Data Sheet , Valve list & Pipe Rack
  8. 8. Plot Plan Consideration of plot plan layout in this chapter is related to an Oil Refinery or Chemical Plant, however, the outlined procedures can be applied to any industrial plant. Consideration of plot plan layout in this chapter is related to an Oil Refinery or Chemical Plant. However, the majority of Process Plants require a plot plan with somewhat less stringent and less complicated arrangements. Equipment spacing requirements will vary with the type of plant and location. Plot plans are considered key documents to projects and are normally initiated in the pre-contract, conceptual and development stages of a proposal. After the contract is awarded for engineering, plot plans are developed at a rather rapid pace with very limited information. This early stage plot plan usually is very limited in detail, containing only enough dimensional data to define the outer limits of the available property selected for plant development. Located within the boundaries of the available property, rough equipment sizes and shapes are pictorially positioned, along with anticipated pipe rack configurations, structure shape and rough sizes. The plot plan at this level of detail is then used for constructability evaluation and is normally submitted to the client for approval. Piping and Instrumentation Diagram (P&ID) The Piping and Instrumentation Diagram is the road map for completing Piping Layout/Arrangement Drawings. The Piping and Instrumentation Diagram (P&ID) is developed from the Process Flow Diagram (PFD) and is a schematic drawing representing the process equipment, showing nozzles, all pipes and in-line fittings (valves, tees, reducers, strainers, sight glasses, drains, vents, sample points, control valves etc.) instruments and control loops (but not instrument piping), and some electrical data such as tracing and motor drives.
  9. 9. Larger plants will have a separate Utility Diagram which shows all utility lines servicing process lines and equipment. Utility lines would consist of steam, condensate, water, air and possibly inert gas etc. In a small plant all process and utility piping would be included in the P&ID. Pipe Racks The main arterial system of a process plant are the pipe-racks, which carry the pipes. In process areas they are above head height (normally 15ft (5m)), whereas, in offsite facilities, rack elevations are anything from just above grade to 3ft (1m). The main arterial system of a process plant is the pipe-rack, which consists of an overhead structure supporting the process pipes which are connecting equipment, and the lines entering and leaving a unit. Utility lines, supplying steam, water, air, gas to process equipment are also on the rack as are relief valve headers, instrument lines and electrical cables. This documents will be revised shortly with more information
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