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  1. 1. • Physical growth • Physiological growth • Secondary sex characteristics • Cognitive development • Emotional development • Social development Adolescence age 13 to 18 Year Old
  2. 2. Adolescence • Is derived the Latin verb “Adolescere” which means to grow into maturity • It is a biosocial transition from childhood to adulthood • It is based on childhood experiences and accomplishments. • Adolescence refers to the behavioral characteristics of this period that are influenced by physical and cultural changes • Period of rapid physical and biological changes with may leads to competence, tension, frustration and feeling of insecurity
  3. 3. Adolescence is a period of stress and strain, storm and strife
  4. 4. Adolescence  It begins with the appearance of secondary sex characteristics and ends when somatic growth is completed and the individual is psychological mature.  Through formal operational thinking, adolescent can deal with a problem.
  5. 5. Physical growth: Height: •Height of grails will be maximum between the age 16-17 •By the age of 13, the adolescent triples his birth length. •Males gains 10 to 30cm in height. •Females gains less height than males as they gain 5 to 20cm. •Growth in height ceases at 16 or 17 years in females and 18 to 20in males
  6. 6. Physical growth Weight: •Growth spurt begins earlier in girls (10–14 years, while it is 12–16 in boys). •Males gains 7 to 30kg, while female gains 7 to 25kg. •Trunk broadens
  7. 7. • Digestive, circulatory and responding system fully develops • Body tissues, skeleton starts growing • Tissues other than bones continue to develop Physical growth
  8. 8. Appearance of secondary sex characteristics Secondary sex characteristics in girls • Increase in transverse diameter of the pelvis. • Development of the breasts. • Change in the vaginal secretions. • Growth of pubic and axillary hair. • Menstruation (first menstruation is called menarche, which occurs between 12 to 13 years). • Endocrine system temporary imbalance of the entire endocrine system in early adolescence and sex grounds become functional
  9. 9. Secondary sex characteristics in boys • Increase in size of genitalia. • Swelling of the breast. • Growth of pubic, axillary, facial and chest hair. • Change in voice. • Rapid growth of shoulder breadth. • Production of spermatozoa (which is sign of puberty). Appearance of secondary sex characteristics
  10. 10. Emotional development  This period is heightened emotions, glands function comes under socials pressure  Problem related to romance  Easily excited and explode emotionally( 14 years)  Temper tantrums, mood swing  Intense self consciousness  Day dreaming in common  Adolescent exhibits alternating and recurrent episodes of disturbed behavior with periods of quite one. He may become hostile or ready to fight, complain or resist every thing.
  11. 11. Adolescence period is also called: • Period of temporary insanity • Period of 4S (stress, storm, stream and strife) • Increased compassion patterns, love, anger, jealousy, • Emotion of love - Auto- egotism (self love) - Homo- sexuality - Hetero sexuality
  12. 12. Intellectual or mental characteristics • Development of intelligence • Increases in span of attention • Development of memory • Development of imagination • Widening of interest
  13. 13. Peers • As adolescence approaches, the family’s influence diminishes • The peer group becomes an important social force • The need for peer approval can affect decisions concerning participation in physical activity positively or negatively
  14. 14. Social development He needs to know "who he is" in relation to family and society, i.e., he develops a sense of identity. If the adolescent is unable to formulate a satisfactory identity from the multi-identifications, sense of self-confusion will be developed according to Erikson: Adolescent shows interest in other sex. He looks for close friendships.
  15. 15. Developmental task • Is a task which arises at on a certain period in the life of the individual, successful achievement of which leads to his/her happiness and to success with later task while failure leads to unhappiness and difficulty with later tasks. • Developmental task are based on the needs of the society. • The major task facing adolescents is to create a stable identity and become complete and productive adults. • A developmental task represents our culture's definition of "normal" development at different points in the life span.
  16. 16. Developmental tasks that enable adolescents to create an Identity. • Achieving new and more mature relations with others, both boys and girls, in their age group. • Achieving a masculine or feminine social role. • Accepting one's physique • Achieving emotional independence from parents and other adults • Preparing for marriage and family life • Preparing for an economic career. • Acquiring a set of values and an ethical system as a guide to behavior -- developing an ideology. • Desiring and achieving socially responsible behavior
  17. 17. Adolescent Developmental stages 1- Early( 10-14 years) 2- Middle( 15-17 years) 3- late(>17 years)
  18. 18. Central question Adolescent developmental stages Early Am I normal? Middle Who am I? “ where do I belong?” Late where I am going? o Coming to terms puberty o Struggle for autonomy commence o Same sex peer relationships o Mood swings o New intellectual powers o New sexual drives o Experimentation and risk- taking o Relationships have self- centered quality o Need for peer group acceptance o Emergence of sexual identity o Independence from parents o Realistic body image o Acceptance of sexual identity o Clear educational and vocational goals, own value system o Developing mutually caring and responsible relationship Major developmental issues
  19. 19. Main concern Early o Anxieties about body shape and changes o Comparison with peers Middle o Influence of peers o Tensions between family and individual over assertions of autonomy o Balancing demand of family and peers o Prone to fad behavior and risk taking o Strong need for privacy o Maintaining ethnic identity while striving to fit in with dominant culture late o Self- responsibility o Achieving economic independence o Developing intimate relationship. Adolescent developmental stages
  20. 20. Cognitive development Early o Still fairly concrete thinkers o Less able to understand subtlety o Daydreaming common o Difficulty identifying how their immediate behavior impacts on the future Middle o Able to think more rationally o Concerned about individual freedom and rights o Able to accept more responsibility for consequences of own behavior o Begin to take on greater responsibility within family as part of cultural identity Late o Longer attention span o Ability to think more abstractly o More able to synthesis information and apply it to themselves o Able to think into the future and anticipate consequences of their actions Adolescent developmental stages
  21. 21. Practice points Early o Reassure about normality o Ask more direct than open- ended questions o Base interventions needed on immediate or short- term outcomes o Help identify possible adverse outcomes if they continue the undesirable behavior Middle o Address confidentiality concerns o Always assess for health risk behavior o Focus intervention on short to medium term outcomes. o Relate behaviors to immediate physical and social concerns Late o Ask for open- ended questions o Focus interventions on short and long term goals o Address prevention more broadly Adolescent developmental stages
  22. 22. 1- primary or Physiological needs( oxygen, water, food, rest and sleep) • Rest needs is about 8 hours. • Separate physical education programs Needs of Adolescents
  23. 23. Needs of adolescents 2- secondary or socio- Psychological needs • A balance between security and freedom • Need for love • Need for approval • Need for self- expression • Different types of Co-curricular Activities are needed for providing new experiences and utilising energy • Sex education on the suitable basis is needed. • Unobtrusive adult guidance is needed
  24. 24. • Need for freedom from dependence • Need for association with the opposite sex. • Needs for self support • Need for philosophy of life Needs of Adolescents
  25. 25. An adolescent is a problem- individual. There are many problem around him and he needs help and guidance for their solution at every step. - Excessive energy: In take of food is increased the general health is also improved. The result is excessive energy. Our traditional schools do not provide such physical activities. Consequently the adolescent is restless. Various activities act as sublimation for the adolescent and they feel relieve.
  26. 26. • With the advent of adolescence the gonads come into activity for first time. The appearance of secondary sexual characteristics is to the same. They produce emotional upheaval in the adolescent. • The first appearance of menstrual course or nocturnal emission bewilders and shock the adolescent who is quit ignorant about it. the school should supply the right kind of information regarding sex at this stage. Due to ignorance about sex, many promising personalities are doomed
  27. 27. Aggressiveness or withdrawal • When an adolescent can not adjust himself with the world he grows to be aggressive or withdrawal from the field and his personality is arrested. If the conflict is too serious he regresses • The school should be provide sample opportunities to the children to express themselves properly. Co curricular activities, scouting students self- government and changed the methods of instruction can go along way in enabling the adolescent to adjust himself with the world.
  28. 28. Rebellious Attitude • The adolescent are no more children. They should be recognized as young men and women in the school as well as in the home. Their craving for the independence should be satisfied to some extent. They should be given some responsibility. • They turn to be very obedient if they be trusted. But things do not work smoothly in ordinary school and home. Their sense of independence and responsibility is seldom recognized. The result is rebellion against authority.
  29. 29. Physical awkwardness • Most of the adolescent have the sense of physical clumsiness. Consequently their movement stand to be awkward and unbalanced. They may be corrected in the playground and on the stage. Game and dancing will given them harmonious and balanced movement social service at the occasion of festival etc. practical work can help the children in this respect.
  30. 30. Excessive- day dreaming • Excessive- day dreaming is normal at this stage but when it grows to excessive it may be injurious as far as development of personality is concerned. • It is the ambition to be freedom from parental sovereign. The individual hates control of the parents. He seeks identity to himself. • The teacher should note that the adolescent are active and busy in their studies and other aspects of their life. • The children are indulging in excessive- day dreaming should be encouraged to be constructive and creative.
  31. 31. Economic independence • Money from parents for personal expense is a major problem.
  32. 32. Emotional Tension • Emotional development is at maximum and instable. • Self respect and personal pride make the individual emotionally bad . • He expect the things to be done as he aspires.
  33. 33. Personal appearance • This is the significant problem. The adolescent is worried about the appearance with modern and latest life style at any coast.
  34. 34. Morphological/ developmental problem • Over growth of hair or under growth of hair. • Over weight and under weight. • Skin color problems • Facial deformities, pimples, etc • Abnormal growth of genital and breast
  35. 35. Psychological problems • Ignorance about many basic facts leads to psychological problems like misconception about sexual feeling, sex related issues. • Misconception about child birth, reproduction • Misconception about coitus menstrual cycles. • Fear about sex and sexual issue.
  36. 36. Psychological problems • Guilt about sex related issue. • Complex about skin color, abilities, and beauty • Inexplicable conception about dress ad fashion codes. • Wrong and unrealistic ideologies about friendship and courtship • Attraction towards opposite sex • Exceptional vulnerability to suicide psychology.
  37. 37. Social • Intense closeness with brother sister and friends. • Unpredictable and volatile relationship with friend • Unrealistic social perception about violence, sex, love as influenced by media. • Fear/ imagination about marriage life
  38. 38. Educational • Tension of attending the classes, examination and test. • Low IQ feeling • Fear about failure in examination • Fear about low score • Worry about future career • Misconception about teacher.
  39. 39. Adolescents problem with reference to Indian context • Perplexity with regard to somatic variation • Problem related with intensification of sex- consciousness • Adjustment difficulties with parents • Childhood- adulthood conflict. • Adjustment difficulties with school discipline. • Adjustment difficulties with community
  40. 40. Causes of Emotional Disturbance • Main causes intense self-consciousness, strong feeling of inferiority, unhappy relation with parents, disgust or fear of first experience of sex emotion. • Change of the roles of the adolescent at home, school, society, from dependence to independence life with great responsibility leads to emotional disturbance. • Attitude of parents( still leading them as children high expectation of parents, community and society) • Difficulty to adjust with members of opposite sex.
  41. 41. • Political, religious and social controversy. • Failure to achieve designed success. • Too strict discipline or lack of understanding. • Uncertainly about future Causes of Emotional Disturbance
  42. 42. • Physical symptoms: Biting the teeth, licking lips, nail, pulling hair, Symptom of Emotional Disturbance
  43. 43. • Physiological symptoms: - Aggression, hyperactivity adult, shyness and withdrawing. Symptom of Emotional Disturbance
  44. 44. Education for Adolescents • Adjustment with school discipline: - School should assume responsibility for vocational guidance - School should not implant habits of unquestioning obedience which inhibits the growth of young people towards these dependence - Teacher need to be understanding, good counselors. Maintenance of emotional tolerance
  45. 45. • Training in the art of living together • Development of child’s entire personality • Recognize individual differences • Freedom of self development • Development of scientific attitude • Value of interdependence • Satisfaction of the urage for practical activity. • Physical exercise and activities. • Discouraging tight and sleeveless dress Education for Adolescents
  46. 46. Role of the teacher in solving the problems 1- proper physical development The teacher should plan for this aspect in following manner: • By organizing various types of physical exercises, sport and games. • By imparting the proper knowledge about physical and health education. • By organizing various extracurricular activities.
  47. 47. 2- proper mental Development The mental development of adolescent should be according to the following lines: o It should be according to the ability and aptitude of the pupil. o They should study both art and science o Excursion too various places may be organized o Modern methods of teaching should be used to teach various subjects. Role of the teacher in solving the problems
  48. 48. 2- proper mental development • All the school teacher should try to impart him necessary guidance as and when required. • They should be entrusted with responsibility so as to develop a feeling of responsibility in them. • There are individual differences among students. Every child should be able to find out subjects of his choice. Role of the teacher in solving the problems
  49. 49. 3- proper emotional Development The emotional development of adolescent should be as follow: • Try to sublimate the lower emotions of the child. • A healthy emotional atmosphere should be maintain at school. • Try to avoid frustration among the adolescents. • The teacher should play due regard to the personality of each child. • The adolescent should be imparted proper knowledge about sex. If this aspect is properly attended to it would lead to a better emotional development. Role of the teacher in solving the problems
  50. 50. 4- proper social development The social development of adolescent should be as follow: • He should have knowledge about social relation and the art of group living. Various group activities may be organized. • A right and rational attitude towards democracy should be develop in the school atmosphere. This would enable the child develop his own philosophy of life. Role of the teacher in solving the problems
  51. 51. Define Adolescence: Process or state of growing to maturity Process of growing from adulthood to old age When you get old When you are a child
  52. 52. Peer pressure is: Always negative Means conforming to your friends Increases throughout adolescence Has not effect on adults