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SUBMITTED TO – MR. VIKAS DIXIT MADE BY – RAHUL TRIPATHI CLASS – XII ROLL NO - 34 P.O – VIDUTNAGAR PIN – 224238
A state of having sufficient biological defenses to avoid infection, disease,or other unwanted biological invasion.Capability of the body to resist harmful microbes from entering the body. 2
CONTENTS PAGE NUMBER IMMUNITY 5 FLUID SYSTEM 6 GRANULOCYTES 7 AGRANULOCYTES 8 LYMPHOCYTES 9 DEFENCE MACHANISM 10 TYPES OF IMMUNITY 11 INNATE IMMUNITY 12 FIRST LINE OF DEFENCE 13 ADAPTIVE IMMUNITY 14 NATURAL ADAPTIVE IMMUNITY 15 ACTIVE ACQUIRED IMMUNITY 16 MUCOSAL IMMUNITY 17 TYPES OF MALT 19IMMUNITY CONFERRED BY VACCINES 20 SOME INTERESTING FACTS 21 BIBLIOGRAPHY 22 THANK YOU PAGE 23
This is to certify that Rahul Tripathi and of class XII hassuccessfully completed this Biology project on the topic“IMMUNITY” prescribed by Mr. Vikas Dixit Sir, duringacademic session 2012-2013 as per the guidelines issuesby Central Board of Secondary Education.Mr. Vikas Dixit External Examiner(P.G.T BIOLOGY) 4
Granulocytes Neutrophils: Neutrophils defend against bacterial or fungal infection , have a multilobed nucleus. The life span of a circulating human neutrophil is about 5.4 days. Eosinophils: Eosinophils primarily deal with parasitic infections. Eosinophils are also the predominant inflammatory cells in allergic reactions. They have a bi-lobed nucleus. Basophils: Basophils are chiefly responsible for allergic and antigen response by releasing the chemical histamine causing vasodilation. 7
Agranulocytes Lymphocytes: common in the lymph system and of three types: B cells, T cells and natural killer cells. Monocytes: they present pieces of pathogens to T cells so that the pathogens may be recognized again and killed. Monocytes eventually leave the bloodstream to become tissue macrophages. 8
• Positive events of the day seem to have a stronger helpful impact on immune function. Having a good time on Monday still had a positive effect on the immune system by Wednesday.• The frequent hand washing can break down the natural oils on the skin that serve as the first line (or layer) of defense for the immune system. • Studies show that people who lack humor in their lives tend to have less protective immune responses. • While the body needs some sunlight to produce vitamin D, too much sunshine can suppress the immune system. 21
To make this project I have taken source from the following books:- 1. Ramesh Gupta 2. Biology N.C.E.R.TI have taken source from internet too , and taken help of our biology teacherMr. Vikas Dixit sir. 22
We would like to thank our Biology sir Mr. Vikas Dixit,who provided us this opportunity to make a project on“IMMUNITY” which really helped us to understand theconcepts of Immunity of our body. 23