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Chapter 10 Change Management

  1. CHAPTER 10 MANAGING CHANGES  Strategy in Managing Changes  Education process for Change & Improvement Actions  Model / Method of Change Management BY: UK RAAI A/P CHEN GB120172
  2. Definition: Refers to a set of basic tools or structures intended to keep any change effort under control with the goal to minimize the distractions and impacts of the change (Kotter, 2011). The process, tools and techniques to manage the people-side of change to achieve a required business outcome. (Prosci Inc.)
  3. 10.1 Strategies in Managing Change “Strategies for effective changes” Assess organizational readiness Develop future state vision Engage leader Communicate Transition staff Facilitate individual change Create organizational alignment Train Monitor and remediate Paton, R. A. & McCalman, J. (2000).
  4. STRATEGY 1: ASSESS ORGANIZATIONAL READINESS  Evaluate the high level impact of changes.  Identify the key point of risk.  Plans to address the key point of risk.  Identify the person involved and impacted in the process of changes.
  5. STRATEGY 2: DEVELOP FUTURE STATE VISION Explaining the changes Analyse and make the comparison of the outcome. Decide for future vision.
  6. STRATEGY 3: ENGAGE LEADER  Identify the gap between current and future.  Identify individuals that could help in changes program.  Develop a plan to gain the buy-in and support of those individuals most critical to success.
  7. STRATEGY 4: COMMUNICATION Develop a communication strategy and roll-out plan to create understanding and drive acceptance.
  8. STRATEGY 5: TRANSITION STAFF Develop plans for staff transition, deployment, separations and talent retention.
  9. STRATEGY 6: FACILITATE INDIVIDUAL CHANGES Build change adaptability skills and help individuals internalize and move through the change easily.
  10. STRATEGY 7: CREATE ORGANIZATIONAL ALIGNMENT Evaluate relevant programs and policies, to identify points of incongruence and develop plans for alignment.
  11. STRATEGY 8: TRAIN Develop a training strategy to create proficiency for operating under the new model.
  12. STRATEGY 9: MONITOR AND REMEDIATE Measure adoption and performance. Develop strategies to address problems.
  13. 10.2 Education process for Change & Improvement Actions The objective of education changes Factor of changes Change in education Improvement action in TVET
  14. OBJECTIVE OF EDUCATION CHANGES To reduce conflict. To enhance productivity. As the external and internal motivation.
  15. FACTOR OF CHANGES Technology Labour market changes Lifestyle FACTOR Economic sector changes Competition Political policy changes
  16. CHANGES IN EDUCATION Education as the main contributor to the development of the nations (Fagerlind & Saha, 1985). Focus on: i) Expanding and improving education needs (enhancing the skills and productivity). ii) Smart education (Pembestarian Pendidikan). iii) ICT engagement
  17. CHANGES IN EDUCATION Implication of changes : i) Improvement in economical, social and political sector. ii) Continuous innovation iii) Education reformation
  19. IMPROVEMENT ACTIONS in TVET SECTOR 1926 Trade School 1967 Transforma tion for Vocational School 1987 SPVM 1991 – 2000 Establishm ent of 12 Technical Secondary School (SMT) 1996 Vocational Secondary School (SMV) transforms into SMT 2002 SMT transforms into SMV 2002 Vocational subject in daily school system 2006 Modular Curriculum 2013 Vocational College (KV) 2016 Diploma Kemahiran Malaysia (DKM) Diploma Vokasional Malaysia (DVM)
  20. 10.3 Model / Method of Change Management Kurt Lewin Model of Change John Kotter’s Leading Change Model ADKAR Change Management Model Change Management Model by Dessler ACOT Model – Apple Classroom of Tomorrow
  21. KURT LEWIN CHANGE THEORY  Kurt Lewin change theory and Lewin's three step model is very much a significant part of change management strategies for managing change in the workplace in the 21st century.  Developed during the 1950's and the concept of 'Unfreezing-Transition-Freezing' still remains very relevant today.
  22. Three step change model phase Unfreezing Transition Freezing
  23. Unfreezing
  24. Transition Developing new behaviors, values, and attitudes, sometimes through organizational structure and process changes and development techniques. There may be a period of some confusion as we move from the old ways of doing things to the new.
  25. Freezing When the people, structure, and strategy element and things are looking well, it is time to lock things in. We act here to make sure that the improvements stick and continue being applied until the changes become the 'way we do things around here'.
  26. JOHN KOTTER’S LEADING CHANGE MODEL  The change management according to John Kotter, is about outlines the eight critical success factors from establishing a sense of extraordinary urgency, to creating short-term wins, to changing the culture ("the way we do things around here").  Kotter say's "Leaders who successfully transform businesses do eight things right (and they do them in the right order)."
  27. JOHN KOTTER’S 8 STEP OF LEADING CHANGE MODEL 1. Establishing a sense of urgency. . 2. Forming a powerful guiding coalition. 3. Creating a vision. 4. Communicating the vision. 5. Empowering others to act on the vision. 6. Planning for and creating short-term wins. 7. Consolidating improvements and producing still more change. 8. Institutionalizing new approaches. Read further at
  28. ADKAR CHANGE MANAGEMENT MODEL ADKAR describes the required phases that an individual will go through when faced with change. ADKAR is a foundational tool for understanding ―how, why and when‖ to use different change management tools.
  29. The five building blocks of successful change Awareness of the need for change Desire to participate and support the change Knowledge on how to change Ability to implement required skills and behaviors Reinforcement to sustain the change
  30. AWARENESS Awareness of the need for change for whole organization. Through communication activities within the organization. Let the people in the organization aware of: - What is the nature of the change? - Why is the change happening? - What is the risk of not changing?
  31. DESIRE Desire to support the change. Personal motivation to support the change. Organizational drivers to support the change.
  32. KNOWLEDGE Knowledge on how to change. Knowledge, skills and behaviours required during and after the change. Understanding on how to change.
  33. ABILITY Ability to implement new skills. Demonstrated ability to implement the change. Barriers that may inhibit when implementing the change.
  34. REINFORCEMENT Reinforcement to sustain the change. Mechanisms to keep the change in place. Recognition, rewards, incentives, successes.
  35. CHANGE MANAGEMENT by DESSLER (1995) Phase 1: Change towards productivity enhancement This change affects certain parts of the organization such as the change in the organizational structure, introducing new technologies and provide staff development program to increase the commitment and productivity.
  36. CHANGE MANAGEMENT by DESSLER Phase 2: Changes in the organization's strategic.  Changes made according to surrounding and involved whole organizations such as redefine organizational’s role, changes in the organization's core values​​, mission and vision remodelling and changes in organizational strategy and structure.
  37. CHANGE MANAGEMENT by DESSLER Phase 3: Reactive changes (with reaction)  These changes occur due to the direct reaction of customers and other interested parties (stakeholders).  Sensitivity of customers and stakeholders on environmental issues and ethics requires an organization to make changes.  Examples of changes: PPSMI (Studies in mathematics and science) which is changed into English language.
  38. CHANGE MANAGEMENT by DESSLER Phase 4: Changes resulting from the expected (awareness) Changes do not due to the insistence of customers but because of awareness among management that changes will be necessary to ensure the organization obtain competitive advantages.
  39. ACOT Model- Apple Classroom of Tomorrow During the mid-1980s, a time of great excitement about using technology to enhance education, thus educators at Apple Inc. proposed a simple experiment. They would create environments in which technology was used as routinely as paper and books—and then observe the effects on teaching and learning.
  40. ACOT MODEL STAGE WHAT TEACHER CAN DO FOR THE CHANGE? ENTRY Learn the basic of using the new technology. ADOPTION Use new technology to support traditional instruction. ADAPTATION Integrate new technology into traditional practice. APPROPRIATION Focus on cooperative project based and interdisciplinary work-incorporating the technology as needed and as one of many tools. INVENTION Discover new uses for technology tools.
  41. REFERENCES i. ADKAR Change Management: creating changes in individuals. Retrieved December 20, 2013, from ii. Apple Classrooms of Tomorrow- Today Learning in the 21st Century: Background Information. Retrieved December 18, 2013, from iii. Cameron, E. & Green, M. (2004). Making Sense of Change Management: A complete Guide to the Models, Tools & Techniques of Organizational Change. London: Kogan Page Limited. iv. Dessler, G. (1995). Managing organizations in an era of change. Texas: Dryden Press. v. Fagerlind, I. & Saha, L. J. (1985). Education and National Development: A Comparative Perspective. European Journal of Education. Vol. 20, No. 1. pp. 88-90. vi. Kotter, J. P. (1995). Leading Change: Why Transformation Efforts Fail. Harvard Business Review (March-April), 59-67. Boston: Harvard Business School Publishing Corp. vii. Kritsonis, A. (2005). Comparison of Change Theory. International Journal Of Management, Business, And Administration. Volume 8, Number 1, 2005. viii. Paton, R. A. & McCalman, J. (2000). Change Management: A Guide to Effective Implementation. California: SAGE Publications Ltd.