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Raimondo Villano : book Eye of the needle - p. 4 Culture - Caduceus

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Raimondo Villano : book Eye of the needle - p. 4 Culture - Caduceus

  1. 1. R.Villano - Eye of the needle: pharmaceutical meridians between secular ethics and Catholic moral 3 wonderful to my wife Maria Rosaria for his infinite loving patience for criticism and suggestions, for its tolerance and its support throughout the preparation of the book, my thanks and my love; My adorable son, Francis, small admirable scholar of Egyptian history, to participate active loving and emotional And because we know, memories, and it will hand; those who trust in the values for a true profession to improve quality of life.
  2. 2. R.Villano - Eye of the needle: pharmaceutical meridians between secular ethics and Catholic moral6 Copy no. _____________ The autor __________________________ © Copyright Raimondo Villano. © Research, creation, cover by Raimondo Villano. All right reserved. No part of this book shall be reproduced in publications and studies without root’s citation. No part of this book shall be stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted by ani means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without written permission from the publisher. Editorial: Prof. Dott. Maria Rosaria Giordano. Editors: mobile 338 59 60 222; e-mail: farmavillano@libero.it Advisor executive: Francesco Villano. Editions Chiron Found. - Praxys dpt. © 2010 Chiron Foundation, via Maresca 12, scala A - 80058 Torre Annunziata (Napoli) Phone: +39 81 861 22 99 Fax: +39 81 353 29 81 Website: www.chiron-found.org Sales: Prof. Dott. Annamaria Giordano mobile 347 61 71 669. E-mail: annamaria.g10@alice.it; http://www.chiron-found.org Print LP - Napoli. First Edition, July 2007. Second Edition, September 2008. Third Edition, June 2009. First published in English in April 2011. Finished writing the twenty-second in June 2007. Serialized. This volume, with no serial number and signature, shall be deemed counterfeit. ISBN 978-88-97303-01-5. CDD 177 VIL eye 2011. LCC BJ 1725. CHIRON FOUND. Praxys dpt
  3. 3. R.Villano - Eye of the needle: pharmaceutical meridians between secular ethics and Catholic moral 7 TABLE OF CONTENTS Presentation 25 Preface 27 History 33 The pharmacy and hieratic iatreic magismo between and paganism 35 God's time with the man 43 Galenic and Signature, monasticism and Fall of the Roman Empire 48 Alchemy and Arab-Islamic civilization 52 The era of St. Benedict and the School of Salerno 54 The development of the monasteries hospitality and ethos 59 From the awakening of the culture and customs of the university and the advent of the lords 61 Regimina, hospitals, corporations and Frederick Costitutiones 64 Alchemy and the Church bubonic plague 69 Humanism, Noble College, rebirth of magic, Florentine Recipe 74 Renaissance, New World, St. Giovanni Leonardi 83 Scientific development, black death, doctrine and systems iatrochemistry 90 Enlightenment, the scientific development of chemistry, revolutionary epoch 97 Napoleon’s heyday, positivism, breach of Porta Pia, the Industrial Revolution 103 From the Great War to World War II 111 From WWII to Paul VI 113 By John Paul II to Benedict XVI 115 Ethics 125 Oath of Hippocrates 127 Oath of Maimonides 127 Pharmacist’s Code of Conduct 129 Oath to the Profession of Pharmacist 144 The system Pharmacy 145 Drug Card 145 Code of Conduct Farmindustria 147 Erice Declaration on ethical principles of pharmacogenetic research 157 Rome Declaration on Combating counterfeit drugs 160 Berlin Declaration on Pharmacovigilance 161 Statements of principle and of international organizations of pharmacists 182 State of the art Speziali of the Republic of Siena (1355) 182 Saladin d’Ascoli: the apothecary, from “Compendium Aromatariorum” I Particula (XV sec.) 186 Iacono M. S.: “The true way to elect, to prepare medicaments et simple dial” 187 Iacono M. S.: “De l’officio de lo speciaro” (1559) 189 Fiorentino Cookbook: The Good Speziale 190 Fiorentino Cookbook: The Apothecary Shop of 190 Noble College Statutes - Chapter One (1787) 190 Statute Noble College - Monitoring Arrangements (1787) 191 Statute Noble College - Provisions on discipline and harmony (1787) 192 Religion 193 Pharmacist's Prayer 195
  4. 4. R.Villano - Eye of the needle: pharmaceutical meridians between secular ethics and Catholic moral8 Prayer of the Military Health 195 Prayer to St. John Leonardi Patron of Pharmacists 195 Invocation to St. John Leonardi 196 Address of John Paul II to the participants of the 1981 FOFI 196 Discorso di Giovanni Paolo II ai congressisti FOFI del 1981 197 Letter Apostolic S.S. John Paul II Salvifici Doloris 199 Address of John Paul II to FOFI (1986) 220 Health Care Workers in the Italian Church 222 P. B. Honings “Charter for Health Care Workers. Synthesis of Hippocratic ethics and Christian morality” 227 S.S. John Paul II: “Institution of the World Day of the Sick” 233 Pontificia Academia Pro Vita, V General Assembly "Final Declaration" 234 Pontificia Academia Pro Vita "The Christian conscience in support of the right to life" 236 Homily of His Holiness. John Paul II visited the parish of St. G. Leonardi Torre Maura 238 SS message. John Paul II to the Rector General of the Order of St. G. Leonardi 240 Promise of Catholic Pharmacists 242 Ex aedibus Congregationis de Cultu Divino et Disciplina Sacramentorum: Italiae 242 Society 243 The future of this: the implications of the drug on the human race 245 Towards the global information society 256 The protection of the right to life in contemporary society 262 Philosophical, moral and existential of new telecommunications systems 265 Technology 273 Policy pharmacovigilance 275 Concepts of privacy 280 Historiography of the major pharmaceutical institutions 283 Drugs and the Internet 297 Policies to combat counterfeiting of medicines 302 Reflections on recent criticism of the Institute of Pharmacy 305 Values of safety management in Pharmacy 319 Culture 321 The caduceus 323 The Hippocratic ethics and Christian morality 327 The patron saint of pharmacists and Protectors 331 Art and pharmacy 340 Readings satirical 344 Thoughts on some implications of contemporary historiography pharmaceutical 348 Role of information technology in the development and dissemination of study of the History of Pharmacy 351 Assumptions of multimedia design for the History of Pharmacy 359 Author 363 Profile 365 Pubblications 367
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  12. 12. R.Villano - Eye of the needle: pharmaceutical meridians between secular ethics and Catholic moral 23 “There have been some people from a speech or a reading have collected a sentence, a word, an ear that has fed them for the rest of life. When you hear a good ear, and hold fast Take it and say: this is mine!” Girolamo Savonarola (adaptation Gianfranco Ravasi in secular breviary)
  13. 13. R.Villano - Eye of the needle: pharmaceutical meridians between secular ethics and Catholic moral 25 Presentation he work of Raimondo Villano “Eye of the Needle: Pharmaceutical meridians between secular and Catholic moral ethics” is to fill a gap in treatment in an Italian field senpre most popular and, no doubt, of great prospects. Raimondo Villano, already a harbinger of original contributions, now provides this in his book to students of pharmaceutical sciences and pharmacology, a number of valuable insights and reflections. It is, therefore, Altamar meritorious work of Raimondo Villano thrash for a large crowd of readers and scholars in the field of medicine and the various problems at the same time, highlight the difficulties of promoting science for an audience already mature and tempered by the situation particularly serious, especially with regard to therapeutic aspects. This issue is framed in the proper form and is full of prospects. The chapters of the book of Villano are full of philosophy and the high culture and humanity of the author emerge here and there, with classical references and your knowledge of the subject allows him to go through the same property by the etiopathogenesis of language sociology. It is my hope that this book does not just go and use the analysis to the study of farmacogenesi but also promotes public awareness, all too often ignorant and helpless in the face of health problems: to this end, efforts will certainly reading of Raimondo's Villano excellent book. Naples, September 20, 2008 MD, PhD Giulio Tarro Chairman of committing on Biotechnologies and VirusSphere World Academy of Biomedical Technologies WABT (UNESCO, Paris) (Former student of A. B. Sabin and member of the Italian National Commission of Bioethics) T
  14. 14. R.Villano - Eye of the needle: pharmaceutical meridians between secular ethics and Catholic moral 27 Preface oing beyond the self to universal custom, superficiality and quiescence can mean profitable to compete in the Profession to loose the virtual image of the real distinction and mend your status more appropriate aperture public(1) . Rather than let me be dominated by feelings of powerlessness in the face of such self-evident observation, I have endeavored to develop this work so that fits into the track of awareness of his colleagues and trying to inspire them inspired by the ethics of responsibility expressed by Max Weber’s notion that “effort would never be reached unless there were those, and again, attempt the impossible(2) ”. The objective is, therefore, seeking to ensure the profession is also progressing with the instrument of culture lata in its most proper and the old cultus, from Coleraine, or cultivate, cultivating: the educated person, in fact, he has carefully cultivated self- respect. Acquired this care and self-respect, the cultured person becomes more likely, more and more programs designed to care for and respect of others, then yes, that culture is an indispensable tool to create that active citizenship rooted professional, productive and effective in daily is desirable that the ultimate goal. Are released, so those formidable energies capable of taking man out, keeping him conscious of his personal dignity, enriching him with deep humanity and place it with its uniqueness in the fabric of society and the profession(3) . Free of hubris in classical memory, but maybe not quite outdated, and with all the “overage” of modesty that I think deserves the approach to certain problems, a reading of the Meridian I think can be trained in order to help differentiate certain elementsprospective professional, social, cultural and technical area to be ones that, in terms of stringency, the concreteness, the fineness and consistency of argument, a significant advancement of the reflection of the professional design and creation of awareness at least potentially prodromal for works and “shares” as more desirable with the high-end work for the man(4) . First, adhering to the life education or training is not intended only as a time of learning but also as a work that, in contrast to the view that the mind of the learner is devoid of intrinsic qualities and container to be filled with the most knowledge, is inspired by the idea that education is the education of the memory of a function, to form working on valuable content on material with deep feeling. It is clear, citing an authoritative contemporary philosopher, Karl Popper, who with such moments of sense thought into the process of memory which, therefore, becomes memory judicious. With such substantial logical connection I think there is going to investigate other important issues _______________ (1) Raimondo Villano, presentation of training courses on Safety and Quality business, ethical and professional training courses for managers curated by Piero Renzulli and Raimondo Villano under the patronage of the President of the Republic and the UN Year of Worker Memorial , Pompei, Oct. 2000. (2) Visit the Representative of the President of Rotary Club International at Pompeii: Rotary Club speech by President Raimondo Villano Pompei, Pompei, 5 May 2001. (3) Visit the Representative of the President of Rotary Club International at Pompeii: President’s speech of Journalists of Campania Ermanno Corsi, Pompeii, May 5, 2001. (4) Antonio Carosella - Raimondo Villano “Man as an end: the activities of District 2100 of Rotary International-Italy ar 1998-99”, multimedia edition on CD-ROM (sponsored by Rotary District 2100 RI, Ed Eidos, 421 Mb - 554 files - pag. 3162; Sorrento, July 2000). G
  15. 15. R.Villano - Eye of the needle: pharmaceutical meridians between secular ethics and Catholic moral28 profession, or preparatory to it or confluent, after using the historical journey of several other locations(5) . It is desirable, first, that a path with the help of Church leading man of faith, but not only, to become aware or more aware of the possible ways of freeing the great crisis of spiritual values which surrounds us in life and in profession, and that it strengthened and extended to most if not all, the need to reinvigorate their commitment to the Lord with courage to carry on the Christian action or substantial enlightened lay apostolate(6) . Strive, therefore, as a humble branch of the Great Vine, the second lay Christifideles(7) , further open their hearts with good will so that his and others' lives are better ordered at the highest values. In addition, it is hoped that further action can be stimulated to arise under such conditions is that the moral theories, in front of an abundance of cultural systems in evolution, are not feeble attempts to make an absolute quota and their validity is not likely to be confined to a particular historical stage of a given society. It could create more targeted and reach such a way, through comparisons and construction processes, also at individual resolutions or actions in any way that the story does appear to be non-antagonistic ethics, relativizing the first absolutizes what the other, but rather the field in which the ethical demand makes sense(8) . From the jumble of the elements of the depth and thickness of talented colleagues, believe that love is much more than that I am privileged to know, can take further sap the strength of their ideas and the actions which can go towards new directions and perhaps even wider horizons, of course, by virtue and not in spite of an appreciable diversity of expression and essential, but in a particularly fruitful opportunities that make you feel more deeply that what little or much you can do for others produces enrichmentand increases in the size of his own humanity wonderfully (9) . By opting for a different choice, however, it seems worthwhile to take in mind the statements of Mahatma Gandhi, “is not the critic who counts, not the man that indicates why the sharp falls, or where the filmmaker could have done better. The credit belongs to the man who is in the arena, whose face is marred by dust and sweat, fighting valiantly, who errs and may fall again, because there is no conquest without fault or weakness that really fight for carried out, who knows the great enthusiasm and great faith, that strives for a noble cause, which at best knows in the end the triumph of high goals and, at worst, if he fails, at least fall gloriously, so that the his place shall never be close to the fearful and timid souls who know neither victory nor defeat”. _______________ (5) Abs remodeled by: Raimondo Villano, The actions of the Rotary Club for Youth, Pompeii, September 20, 2000. (6) Raimondo Villano - Boris Ulianich, abs by talk of considerations about the meaning of Christmas, Rotary Club, Ceremony Greetings, Pompeii, December 20, 2000. (7) S.S. John Paul II, Christifideles lay (8) Raimondo Villano, Reflections on the protection of life, (Rapporteur as the first signatory to the submission of the motion to Co.L. International Rotary International for the establishment of a worldwide day of celebration of the protection of life); District Conference Celebration of Family, Rotary International, Pompei, Casa del Pellegrino, 10 February 2001. “Men as an men” multimedia CD- ROM Edition (sponsored by Rotary District 2100 RI, Ed Eidos, 421 Mb - 554 files - pag. 3162; Sorrento, July 2000). (9) Meeting of the Coordinating Committee of the clubs in the area south of the Gulf of Naples on the Forum “The establishment of the new Civil and Criminal Court in Torre Annunziata”, Abs. with input from the Committee Secretary Raymond Villano, Castellammare di Stabia, Hotel Stabia, October 1993).
  16. 16. R.Villano - Eye of the needle: pharmaceutical meridians between secular ethics and Catholic moral 29 Eye of the Needle, then, is there to remind us how narrow and difficult passage through which pass the meridians, which are ideal for wireless help to heal such a warp, using a preliminary bonum otium of Horace’s memory and an essential cultural metabolism between faith and reason which, to paraphrase Goethe, I filled the interior of his colleagues ever higher feelings, desires that feed on deserve to be outsiders in their breasts and food intake any more worthy(10) . However, having the gift of faith, I am comforted by the belief that “reason is the need for infinite and culminates in the longing and the presentiment of this infinite posters(11) ”. Raimondo Villano _______________ (10) Raimondo Villano, Introduction, p.. 2 book cover of the CD of classical music "Two pianos wandering through the centuries" Emma Rose Petrillo & Santoro, Quick Sound, Napoli, 2000. (11) Theme of the Meeting of Rimini 2006 Communion and Liberation for the friendship of peoples.
  17. 17. R.Villano - Eye of the needle: pharmaceutical meridians between secular ethics and Catholic moral 31 “Be true to yourself. Not to be weary and become something, but works with zeal and perseverance what ever you are and become someone” List, motet
  18. 18. R.Villano - Eye of the needle: pharmaceutical meridians between secular ethics and Catholic moral 323 “Iwant to learn the timing of memory because you taught me, where are you, that my future is in our past (...) are lost in the wind like ashes signs of life” Ugo Ronfani THE CADUCEUS he caduceus is part of the most striking symbols of the ancient history of human culture, even among those now half-forgotten ancestral symbols that lie in current psychological but of every individual, among the most ancient are counted in the archaeological remains dating back to Mesopotamia and Indiathird millennium BC. Among the caduceus remember not only the oldest one in which depicts a couple belonged to the king of Mesopotamia Guda, ruler of the city of Lagash, but many boards of Indian Vedic civilization, those reported on certain Egyptian monuments (often the god of the dead Anubis is depicted carrying a caduceus), the caduceus of mythology associated with the Babylonian god Mingzida, as described in the documents preserved in Tibet and those found in many Greek and Roman temples. The word derives from the Latin caduceus caduceus, which in turn takes up with a slight deformation of the phonetic greek karykaion, karix adjective (or keerix) which means a herald, the term is part of the European intellectual vocabulary. It looks identical, except for normal adjustments to graphics and phonetic, in various languages (fr. caduceus, Engl. Caduceus, sp. Caduceus, but we find a version translated into German Heroldstab, literally stick dell’araldo) and indicates the stick or rod of the greek god Hermes(1) , Mercury to the Romans, in his capacity as herald or messenger of the gods. Hermes exhibited as a symbol for the settlement of disputes (for this was carried by heralds and ambassadors as a symbol of their function and as an emblem of their personal inviolability). The stick was also also a moral and medical significance because it represented the honest conduct and at the same time the physical health of the person. Mercury as messenger of the gods is also the mediator of the divine among men, and he knows to be close to ordinary mortals and implement their desires, their needs and is, therefore, instructed by Zeus-Jupiter to assist people in their transition from life to death, accompanying them in the mansions of Hades: for this reason, in fact, is called Hermes Psicopompo, “companion of souls” . Mercury with the caduceus symbol, in addition, also effective immediately pharmacology, therapy mercurial, precisely(2) . _______________ (1) Donatoglielo by Apollo in thanks for the discovery of his 50 oxen (rubatigli the same Hermes). (2) In this regard, Aulus Cornelius Celsus reports that Hippocrates claimed that the drug treatment had to act “and I quote, overalls, jucunda” in a quick, safe, pleasant. Before Mercury, however, the “magic” stick emblem was given to Hermes Trismegistus, the mythical progenitor of magic Egyptian art intended as a synthesis of universal knowledge in all its applications such as religion, medicine, the moral law, philosophy, natural sciences, mathematics. T
  19. 19. R.Villano - Eye of the needle: pharmaceutical meridians between secular ethics and Catholic moral324 There are many, then, versions of the caduceus: the symbol of Hermes-Hermes-Mercury, for example, consists of a staff with two snakes coiled-while that of Asclepius Aesculapius(3) often consists of a stick with a single coiled serpent. In 1200 BC the serpent in the Bible, mentioned numerous times, took the ambiguous symbolism of life and death, fertility and temptation, Moses had a stick with twisted bronze seraph with a power that restore life to dying: in fact, the power of snake was not intrinsic but conferred on him by a Higher Power. “He(4) removed the high places and broke the stele, cut down the sacred pole and tore the bronze serpent erected by Moses, in fact up to that time the Israelites were burning incense and called him Necustan” (King, 18: 4, 715/685 BCE), “For those who look back(5) was saved, not by what he saw, but by you, the Savior of all” (Wisdom 16:7 - the first century BC). In the book of Numbers (21, 8-9) about what happened in the Garden of Eden is shown that, for the intolerance to feed on manna in the desert, the Jewish people were punished by God with the bite of venomous snakes, at the insistence Moses, then God himself suggested a remedy: a bronze serpent on a stick by hoist. So the Jews bitten by snakes, watching the snake were healed, “Moses made a bronze serpent on a pole and lomise, if a serpent had bitten any man, if he looked to the bronze serpent, he lived”. Another episode is mentioned by John: “And as Moses lifted up the serpent, so must the Son of Man be lifted up, that whoever believes in him may have eternal life” (Jn 3:14-15). Even Homer in the Iliad mentions the staff of Hermes: “The rod by which God delights to delight the eyes of his death or those who sleep clock” (Canto XXIV). According to another tradition, Asclepius was placed by Zeus in the firmament as a star shape coil, cause or consequence of his portrait holding the snake. Moreover, in the fourth book of Apollo, considered the father of Asclepius(6) (Aesculapius to the Romans)(7) , gave the Caduceus to Hermes in exchange for money. Of all the Centaurs, violent and brutal, Chiron is characterized by wisdom and calmness, and even his birth is different. All other bikers, in fact, arose from the conjunction, sacrilegious, inter alia, of Ixion with Nephele, while Chiron was born of the relationship between Kronos and Filira. This daughter of Oceanus, was taken by Crono on a small island that had the same name but god, discovered by Rea, fled from the scene of her rape becoming stallion and, consequently, the child was born was monstrous : half-man half- horse, a centaur who was, however, a semi-god and therefore immortal. Filira, however, to the disgust of her son asked the gods to be transformed and became a linden (phylira). Chiron, then, is related to lime: plant with medicinal powers, calming and very popular in the ancient world. Chiron grew and became the most learned among the Centaurs.The myth gives him a long life and connects it to Apollo, to Asclepius, Achilles, Heracles. Apollo, in fact, he loved that Coronis was pregnant by him. The latter, however, betrayed him with Ischia and this was cursed by the god who commissioned his sister Artemis to kill her with his arrows. Soon, however, sir, Apollo was able to Asclepius also learned many of her knowledge and healing from his father Apollo (which was a gift from Athena, two vials with the blood of the Gorgon Medusa with the blood gushed from the left side and raise the dead while the other gave the death) and Chiron. _______________ (3) In the Capitoline Museum Asclepius, however, is represented only with a big stick forever symbolizing the snake. (4) Hezekiah. (5) The Brazen Serpent. (6) Chiron, dwelling on Mount Pelion in Thessaly, rich in medicinal herbs, the wisest and greatest of the Centauri, is a figure closely related to the medical world, dressing, herbs and medicinal substances.
  20. 20. R.Villano - Eye of the needle: pharmaceutical meridians between secular ethics and Catholic moral 325 According to classical mythology, then, the caduceus is born with Tiresias, soothsayer and magician punished with blindness for having seen the goddess Artemis in the bathroom, which meets in the woods two serpents in the act of love, hitting them with his wand and At that moment it takes to form caduceus. As a result, Tiresias transforms into a woman, suffering for ten years, the fate meet again after this period the two snakes, struck them again and resumes its original condition. According to some scholars, however, the caduceus is also identified in other mythologies with the axis mundi, the pillar around which the whole human race. As the emblem of Hermes, the caduceus, as the sign of the heralds, was originally a stick with white ribbons which have been transformed into snakes refers to the symbolism inherent in the shape of the snake itself, of power or rather, as Pliny says, ofintelligence and special feelings, mysterious life, speed, dualism between life and death. The two snakes, therefore, not only allude to the upward and downward direction, to the life and death, that is vital and fundamental to the two polarities that govern all life, including good and bad, male and female, day and night, but they also take many mystical meanings, alchemical, philosophical. The choice of the snake as the main element of the Caduceus, and has even more hidden meanings: on the one hand, it is related to its phenomenon of changes (such as reptiles to suit every drop out of old skin, so to heal the sick must build a new body) On the other hand, and referring to his sharp eye and his attention necessary prerogatives for physicians and for their supervision, other qualities of the chief doctor. According to other theories, the snake is an animal considered sacred because, mistakenly, immune disease. According to other theories, however, the snake was an important practice in ancient medicine: the temple in every town there was a sort of tunnel with snakes. The temple, in fact, was not only a place of worship, but also a place where they carried certain categories of patients: the Snake Pit was used to impress and, probably as a result of ad hoc potions, suffered a shocks that followed the vision of God that healed them. _______________ save Coronis when the child was already on the funeral pyre, he called Asclepius (Aesculapius in Latin) and entrusted to Chiron because the breed. Asclepius became so, the god of medicine. Chiron was raised and educated the son of Peleus and Thetis, Achilles in the Greek tradition that had specific powers of ancient medicine, in fact, a famous Athenian cup the late sixth century BCC. represents the hero as he is medicated Patroclus. Heracles eventually be responsible for the death of Chiron having hit with an arrow in the knee during a fight with the centaurs.Despite the medications that upset Heracles applied to his knee, the wound did not heal and caused terrible pain to the rider that could not die, being semi-divine nature. Chiron, however, with the approval of Zeus, he exchanged his immortal painful and useless condition with that of Prometheus, resulting in death. Sons of Aesculapius are Hygieia, goddess of health, Panacea, goddess of healing, and Podalirius Machaon, great doctors at the Achaeans under the walls of Troy. (7) The cult of Asclepius came to Rome, following all’infierire for three years of a deadly epidemic, the will stated in the Sibylline Books, “the alarmed priests in 291 BC Disease ... as much feral sent the fifth construction at Epidaurus Ogulnia hospital and sacred, dedicated to the worship of Aesculapius, the god to have lights. “ This form of a snake got into the Roman triremes, and came Tiber Island, and fell in qcqua, reached the island itself, and there disappeared, indicating that place as you were to build a temple dedicated to him on the hospital , which was executed by the Romans and is still home to a large health center that the new priests were called brothers do well. (Giancarlo Lord - In the sign of Aesculapius - Theory & Practice, Louis Armstrong, The Pharmacist FOFI, Year III, No. 10, May 23, 1996, Italpromo Libardi & Associates).
  21. 21. R.Villano - Eye of the needle: pharmaceutical meridians between secular ethics and Catholic moral326 The coiled serpent as a symbol of the medical art is found also among the Egyptians with the cobra on the crown of Isis, in Assyria with the Serpent of Fire, Mexico or Brazil with the hieroglyph of the rattlesnake. In certain regions of the East, moreover, the two snakes are Ida and Pingala and the stick central Sushumna, the three essential conducted, the latter anatomically runs along the spinal cord while the other two along its sides. The central stick, Sushumna, is the will or the consciousness that controls the snakes opposed Ida and Pingala. The other essential component of the matrix etheric or vital system, are the Chakras, energy centers (49 minor and 7 major) for the forces that circulate in the etheric matrix. Each chakra is associated with a nerve plexus through which you connect to adjacent organs. In ancient times the basic principle of each technique for healing (be it with herbs, drugs, needles, or other), precious stones, was in the ability of stimulation or sedation of the chakras of the body responsible for the revitalization unbalanced. It should be noted, then, an analogy between the Buddha and Mercury both are symbolized by a serpent. The winged serpent is also present in many different traditions, from the Indian with the trident of Shiva, in which the central rod represented Asvatta (the Tree of Life) and the two snakes Spirit and Matter (all three of the energies of the human body) to China by a winged dragon with the South American Quezalcoatl, the “feathered serpent”, and in any case, representing the union between heaven and earth, between the serpent el ‘bird and a symbol of the polarity of good and evil in balance held by a god who controls the force. The two snakes coiled in the opposite direction to the top and placed opposite one another, un’intreccio in which the male ancestry of solar is on the right while the female ancestry of the moon is to the left. Astronomically, the head and tail of the two reptiles are the points of the ecliptic when the Sun and Moon come together, almost in an embrace, metaphysically, the serpent represents the descent of primordial matter in the gross matter; physiologically, then, represents the vital currents that flow in the human body reported to the Universe, indicates, however, the ability to control the chaos and bring order into it, creating harmony between the different styles that revolve around the axis of the world, and finally reported to the human body, the reptile shows the healing power of him who is able to bring harmony in a sick body. The caduceus symbolizes the ability of reconciling opposites, creating harmony between different elements such as water, fire, earth and air, and for this reason, and in the symbolism of the pharmacopoeia, used frequently in chemistry as an indication of the synthesis of sulfur and mercury . In conclusion, the caduceus symbolizes the enigma of human complexity and its infinite possibilities of development and is universally recognized as the emblem of medicine, not only representing the “health” of the person but also the conduct of those who practice the noble art of medicine, so what is negative in earthly things becomes positive due to the caduceus and the struggle of two snakes facing each other and thus become meaningless substances originally saving, transformed into a remedy thanks to medical science. _________________ Abstract from: Raimondo Villano, Treaty of the History of Pharmacy (in preparation).
  22. 22. R.Villano - Eye of the needle: pharmaceutical meridians between secular ethics and Catholic moral 327 “Divinum est opus sedare dolorem” Hippocrates HIPPOCRATIC ETHICS AND CHRISTIAN MORALITY edicine and ethics are rooted in Hippocratic and appear in his works De physician and, then, that De decent ornatu from libraries of Pergamon, Ephesus and Alexandria are sent back to Byzantium in the tenth or eleventh century Byzantium and then reach the West. The relationship between doctor and patient is physical (perception pentasensoriale diagnostics) and old (relevant medical history and prognosis) and the disease, although not yet nosological entity but an existential experience of life and death, generation, however, an anthropological phenomenon on which will be based insight and knowledge more properly pathophysiology. Hippocratic medicine, also reveals children not only of philosophy but also the democratic environment of the Ionian cities, where it thrives tyranny: for that purpose, it develops a sort of Hippocratic iatrodemocrazia school that gives attention to all of the sick person, as well as in context of personal history even environmental geography, urban, social, work and home, taking charge of the entire existence of the sick(1) . The figure for the physician Hippocrates was the perfect union of man with the perfect student: quiet action, serenity in the trial, morality, honesty, love for their art and for the patient are the cornerstones of the personality of the doctor as it was conceived by Hippocrates. Any personal interest takes second place. It is certainly a superior and infallible as the priests of the ancient temples, but must overcome his fallibility with full commitment and diligence to make only minor errors. It must also be a philosopher but not to the point of being lured away from the real science is one that relies on sound practices.Her dress, finally, it must be decent and looks denote health. In the Hippocratic culture, philosophy will remain the cornerstone of general medical training, as evidenced by Galen and how to find for centuries in the ancient systems of medical schools. In his oath, then, outlines the physician Hippocrates and Medicine in the moral, ethos, which must consider the life and values as the patient and says, “I will not deadly drug to anybody, not even if asked, I never suggest to take . Equally I will not give women abortifacient remedies(2) . Hippocrates, then, from 460 to 360 BC he left a medical theory that connects the exact scientific observation and experience with high ethics and human in a vision that demonstrates the utility from the good done by the doctor handed down in the Christian camp in different ways in historical periods in papal documents of the Church, works in theological and pastoral medical texts(3) . _______________ (1) Cosmacini G., The Art-long history of medicine from antiquity to the present, Chapter V, GLF Editori Laterza, Laterza Economica 212, Roma-Bari, 1997, p.. 66. (2) In the Greece of the fifth and fourth centuries BC “Does not appear to be widespread refusal to administer abortion and even deadly poisons in the case that the terminally ill request it” (Vegetti, Hippocratic medicine, op. Cit, pag.311). (3) Dr. Med Gottfried Roth, Professor of Pastoral Care Medicine at the University of Vienna (from the Vatican website, the Roman Curia Pontifical Councils, documents: doc 10/05/1997). M
  23. 23. R.Villano - Eye of the needle: pharmaceutical meridians between secular ethics and Catholic moral328 There are, in fact, relations between the Corpus hippocraticum and theology for the fact that the Hippocratic writings are not only a proven system of care but also have notable similarities with the human image of the healthy and sick at the base of the Christian view. In our time, Pope Pius XII in 1954 has defined the meaning of ethical and medical works of Hippocrates: “...without doubt the noblest expression of a professional conscience, which requires first of all to respect life and to sacrifice for the sick and take into account also personal factors: self-control, dignity, privacy. He knew how to present moral norms and put them into a broad and balanced curriculum, so it was a gift to the most magnificent civilization that those who built empires(4) ”. Pope Paul VI on the same line, warned the doctors considering the advancement of medicine: “It is obvious that these new issues should not in any way prejudice the ideal physician who makes the medicine in a long tradition of several millennia, by the oath Hippocrates, a defender of life. Contamination of this cardinal principle would mean a fatal setback, which would have disastrous consequences. This you can better estimate of everyone else(5) ”. Pope John Paul I wrote the title of “illustrious” of imaginary letters to historical figures, including Hippocrates, who “was a contemporary of Socrates and a philosopher like him”. He calls it “the author of the famous oath ..., a moral code of everlasting value. I swear in accordance with what doctors to prescribe the appropriate treatment for their patients and to protect them from injustice, and above all handicaps. solemnly promise not to induce an abortion, commit themselves to only go into a home for help the sick, without accepting bribes. In addition they swear to uphold the sacredness of the secret training(6) ”. With this list of medical-ethical commitments Pope John Paul I legitimizes the inclusion of ethics in the ancient Greek way of thinking of the Christian doctor. Pope John Paul II, mentioned in 1978, when the Association of Italian Catholic Doctors, ethics, Hippocratic warned not to use medicines that “not only contradict the Christian ethic, but every natural ethics, and are in open contradiction with the professional duties expressed in the famous oath of the ancient pagan doctor(7) ”. In his speech to the members of the General Assembly of the World Union of Doctors, genetic manipulation, which reduces human life to an object, Pope John Paul II warned: “Let all the faithful to the Hippocratic oath doctors, who provide when they graduate(8) ”. In 1987 the Pope in his address to participants at the International Conference on the “humanization of medicine”, calls to the service men aware of their duty: “Be deeply convinced of this truth because of the long tradition dating back to the insights of Hippocrates himself(9) ”. In appointing members of the Pontifical Academy for Life is made expressly to mention to Hippocrates, “continued the Hippocratic tradition(10) ”. On November 26, 1994 Pope John Paul II mentioned again indicating the Hippocratic Code Vatican in which the Hippocratic Oath was written in the form of a cross, a symbol of the _______________ (4) Pius XII, Zur Geschichte der Medizin. Ansprache am Sep 19.1954. In Pius XII, Address to the doctors. S. 349 f., Rome, 1959. (5) Paul VI, Das Arzt nicht beeinträchtingen Liche Ideal. L’Osservatore Romano - deutsche Ausgabe - 19.1.1973. (6) PAPST Johannes Paul I, Illustrious, Padova, 1976. (7) PAPST Johannes Paul II, Weisung Wort und im Jahr 1979, Rom-Kevelaer 1979. (8) PAPST Johannes Paul II, Der Stuhl Apostolische 1983, S.1155, Rom-Köln 1983. (9) PAPST Johannes Paul II, Der Stuhl Apostolische 1987, S.1699, Rom-Köln 1987. (10) Pontificia Academia pro Vita, Rome 1994.
  24. 24. R.Villano - Eye of the needle: pharmaceutical meridians between secular ethics and Catholic moral 329 Christian conception of human nature, holiness, and also the mystery of human life(11) . In August 1893 Stohr makes repeated reference to Hippocrates, in part by a medicine “theurgy” of the Greeks, which has certain similarities with the therapeutic treatment of the soul and with regard to diet and general customs and habits of life(12) . In the mid- twentieth century, Albert Niedermayer summarizes the importance of Hippocrates: “... although he had been charged, may still be today, just two thousand years after the proclamation of the Gospel of Christ, an example and model for Christian doctors(13) . Anticipating an integral medicine Albert Niedermayer has clear ideas expressed his universal vision, and features the real doctor who combines fundamental elements in his conception of biological, anthropological, medical, human, social and ethical- metaphysical(14) . In 1997, Cardinal Fiorenzo Angelini, President of the Pontifical Council for Pastoral Assistance to Health Care Workers, shows that those who have read carefully the text of the Hippocratic he saw it in the teaching of Christ. There is an undeniable continuity between the content of the Hippocratic oath and that of Christian morality. The continuity is given by a common commitment in promoting and defending life from conception to natural death.Continuity even openly acknowledged by Pope John Paul II who, in the encyclical Evangelium vitae, speaks of “ancient and still relevant Hippocratic Oath, which states that every doctor to commit himself to absolute respect for human life and its sacredness”. They are in fact four, the lines of the Hippocratic Oath: a deep respect for nature in general, a unitary and integral human being, a rigorous relationship between personal ethics and professional ethics, vision exercise maximum participation of ‘art of medicine. There is, therefore, in the Hippocratic Oath, which introduces a clear preparatory to the Christian vision of life, which subscribes to, while enriching them, all four Hippocratic assumptions. However, only in full and complete defense of life that the position of the great greek doctor you predispositiva acceptance of the concept of Christian life as participation in the life of God, cast into eternity. And in that regard, there is a key point in which the thought of Hippocrates and the Christian coincide and it is to exclude any possibility of discrimination in the interior of the concept of life.Hippocrates takes on the promotion and defense of life and address as a criterion in the exercise of their profession and as a measure of his honesty and integrity as a doctor. He knew very well that accept distinctions possible, provide for exceptions to this principle would amount to make it fragile and vulnerable. And he is so convinced that his oath leads to a religious view of life. (...) There are two other aspects that are almost a turn-Christian Hippocratic ethics. They are: first, the need for the doctor, in the exercise of his profession, is to serve the sick, not that it is necessary to calculate concerned. A careful analysis of the Hippocratic Oath can reach a categorical conclusion: few professional groups can agree on basic principles of business as the category of those who serve the health, ie health care professionals. By identifying with the perpendicular lines of a cross in the Christian world view and his encounter with the vision-comparison or non-Christian views, we can imagine the health service and, therefore, to life, as the exact point where the two perpendicular meet. _______________ (11) Johannes Paul II, Address to the Holy Father on the occasion of the International Conference organized by the Pontifical Council for Pastoral Assistance to Health Care Workers and the Plenary of the Pontifical Academy for Life, Rome 1994. (12) Stöhr August, Die Naturwissenschaft auf dem Gebiete der Moral Katholischen a Pastoral, Herder, Freiburg - S141 B 1893 f.; Stöhr August, mit besonderer Berücksichtigung Pastoralmedizin de Handbuch der Hygiene der Her, Freiburg - B 1900. (13) A. Niedermeyer, Compendium der Pastoralmedizin, Wien 1953. (14) A. Niedermeyer, Grundriss der Sozialhygiene, Vienna - 1957 S. Bonn 30.
  25. 25. R.Villano - Eye of the needle: pharmaceutical meridians between secular ethics and Catholic moral330 Of course, even in this field, the novelty of Christianity is represented by the doctrine and practice on the exploitation of suffering when it despite every effort of science and any other lawful means, remains invincible. But in reality, few truths are just as rational as that of the exploitation of suffering, which makes development really appeal to all human resources enabling the highest and noblest expression. It is not true, therefore, that only faith can give strength to accept and value the pain. It can be confirmed decisively on this, but his support may take root in human intelligence and reason which is also a gift from God In early Christianity the Hellenic ideas have made their foundation and Christian character by the fact that the preamble of the Hippocratic Oath, Apollo Soter was replaced by Christus medicus. Because of a new diagnostic approach to the true causes of disease, the Semitic, Hellenistic naturalism and the staff were connected in early Christianity(15) . Under the unifying authority of the model of Christus medicus, no doubt attributed to the thinking of Hippocrates, developed a sense of ethical responsibility of the doctor and then there were of medical oaths preambles with a monotheistic character andconclusions with explicit reference to the instance with the transcendent, to God, before whom the oath was provided(16) . “Pharmacy, Church of the desperate, with a little god in every pill” Pablo Neruda, Ode _______________ (15) Pedro Lain Entralgo, Heilkunde in geschichtlicher Entscheidung, Salzburg 1956. (16) Gottfried Roth, Die monotheistischen Präambeln Schlußformeln und Glaube und in den ärztlichen Eiden.Wissennschaft 3 (1990) 115-121). _______________ Abstract from: Raimondo Villano, Treaty of the History of Pharmacy (in preparation).
  26. 26. R.Villano - Eye of the needle: pharmaceutical meridians between secular ethics and Catholic moral 361 “If have thousands of ideas and even one turns out to be good, I can be satisfied”
  27. 27. R.Villano - Eye of the needle: pharmaceutical meridians between secular ethics and Catholic moral 363 Author
  28. 28. Synthetic B h H U K Group of S already Pon Society His Noble Chem Collaborat Editor DPC (1985); cert Doctrine of (2010); Scie organizer an (2000), Sec Academy B (responsible Foundation Member sin in Commett Pompeii. C and founde Assistant ro Internation of Action by Crime-Task (Rm 2008); and Society Piccinini-R 2010); Tibe 2013); Rew sanitary, pr Zanichelli, present in i Nations (in Culture, un Intellectuals BAC. Vario Father. Some book (pres. Dr. Ledermann, edit., 2007) National C Mandelli 20 of homo fa Pharmaceu Logos and Council, 20 2002); Influ profile of t Born in 19 honorary me Healt Admi Universitas ( Knight SMO Study ISHP ntifical Tiber story Pharma mical Pharm es with impo C, which pub tified courses f the Church, ences of the nd chairman cretary Inter Biomedical T e company o for cancer r nce 1990, Se tees of Italy: arthage arch er Youngs P ole Pharmacy nals awards y Rotary Inte k Force Rota Legion Uni y (2011); Nat Research (Rm erin-Science ward by Certif rofessionals, with sponso talians Libr ncluding: Na niversity, mu s IBC-Camb ous books ar ks: Gobal so Renzulli, al , Presid. Inte ; Pharmaceu ommettee, 3 009); Time ca aber (pres. tical Activit theophany i 012). Among uence A/H1N the author 960. Roles:M ember (2013 inistration P (BR, Miami O of Malta, P History Ph rina, Studies acy, Italian maceutical C ortant nation blishes in m s of: Officina Theology. 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