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•Manufacture of bricks is mostly a village industry.
•Bricks have been produced since the dawn of civilization in the sun
• The Great Wall of China was made of both burnt and sun dried bricks.
•Bricks have been used all over the world in every class and kind of
•In places where plenty of clay is available, brickwork is cheaper.
• The cost of construction work is less with bricks. Bricks resist fire and,
hence, they do not easily disintegrate.
•The atmospheric effects are resisted by bricks of good quality.
•Bricks are obtained by molding clay in the rectangular blocks of
uniform size and then by drying and burning these blocks.
• Bricks are very popular as they are easily
available,economical,strong,durable & reliable
• The brick should be uniform in shape and should be of standard size.
• The brick when broken should show a uniform compact and
homogeneous structure free from voids.
• The brick should be hard enough. No impression should be left when
• The brick should not break into pieces when dropped from a height of
• The brick when soaked in water for 24 hours should not show deposits
of white salts when allowed to dry in shade.
•The brick should have low thermal conductivity and should be sound
proof. The crushing strength of brick should not be below 5.5 N/mm2.
•The brick should be table moulded, well burnt and free from cracks
with sharp and square edges.
•The colour should be uniform and bright.
•The bricks should give a good metallic sound when struck with each
Properties of Bricks:
Types of Bricks:
The dimensions of conventional bricks vary from 21 to 25 cm in l
ength,10 to 13 cm in width and 7.5 to 10 cm in thickness in
But the commonly adopted size of conventional brick is
In different countries different sizes of bricks are used. Therefore
to uniform size of the brick throughout the country, ISI suggested a
uniform brick size which known as standard brick.
The nominal size of the brick is 20x10x10cm and the actual size
There are various types of bricks used in masonry.
1.Common Burnt Clay Bricks
2.Sand Lime Bricks (Calcium Silicate Bricks)
5.Fly ash Clay Bricks
Common Burnt Clay Bricks:
•Common burnt clay bricks are formed by pressing in molds. Then these
bricks are dried and fired in a kiln.
•Common burnt clay bricks are used in general work with no special
•When these bricks are used in walls, they require plastering or
•Sand lime bricks are made by mixing sand, fly ash and lime followed by
a chemical process during wet mixing. The mix is then molded under
pressure forming the brick. These bricks can offer advantages over clay
bricks such as:
•Their color appearance is grey instead of the regular reddish color.
•Their shape is uniform and presents a smoother finish that doesn’t require
•These bricks offer excellent strength as a load-bearing member.
Sand Lime Bricks:
•Burnt bricks are becoming more costly due to increasing fuel cost.
Therefore hollow cement block are increasingly used in construction.
•In this process, cement mortar is pressed in machine mould. The mould
is hollow in the center to reduce weight of the brick and cost.
•These bricks are very strong. They keep the house cool since they are
hollow in between and air is bad conductor of heat.
Fly Ash Clay Bricks:
•Engineering bricks are bricks manufactured at extremely high
temperatures, forming a dense and strong brick, allowing the brick to
limit strength and water absorption.
•Engineering bricks offer excellent load bearing capacity damp-proof
characteristics and chemical resisting properties.
•Fly ash clay bricks are manufactured with clay and fly ash, at about
1,000 degrees C.
•Some studies have shown that these bricks tend to fail poor produce
pop-outs, when bricks come into contact with moisture and water,
causing the bricks to expand.
Uses of bricks:
•Bricks are extensively used as a leading material of construction.
•A fire brick is used for lining the interiors of ovens, chimneys and
•Broken brick are used as a ballast material for railway tracks, and also
as a road metal.
•Bricks are extensively used for construction of load-bearing walls and
•Bricks are also used for face-work when artistic effect is required.
• The stones which are suitable for the construction of the structures
such as retaining walls, abutments, dams, barrages, roads etc are
known as building stones. Building stones should possess enough
strength and durability.
Stones have been considered as one of the popular building material
from the olden days due to their availability in abundance from the
COMMON USES OF BUILDING STONE:
Is used in foundations of buildings,
It is used in construction of dams, barrages, etc,
In its crushed (powdered form) it is used as artificial sand,
It is used as raw material for manufacturing of cement,
In its broken form it is used as material for construction of road and
It is used as decorative material in buildings,
It is also used as parts of buildings such as lintels and arches, etc,
It is also used as thin slabs for building roofing,
It is also used for ornamental works in buildings,
In its broken form it is in the manufacturing of concrete,
CHARACTERISTICS OF GOOD BUILDING
Hardness denotes several qualities of stones such as resistance to
cutting and resistance to abrasion (rub with each other). Specially
stones are used in case of roads and railway tracks. To check the
hardness of stones various tests are conducted in the laboratories. The
more important tests to check the hardness is Loss Angles Abrasion
test. It depends upon the nature of its constituent minerals.
Durability is the power of stone to resist atmospheric and other
It depends upon:
Resistance to weathering effects,
Place where it is used
(3) Porosity and Absorption:
Stone can hold water in two ways
Either through porosity or absorption
For building purposes, the better stones are those which are less porous
because they will absorb less moisture. Porous stones damaged easily.
Gases and acids in rain water dissolve some constituents of stone and
cause the stone decay.
In cold countries water freezes and expands and thus disintegrates the
When exposed to fire stone should be reliable (good in quality).
It is power of stone to sustain pressure or resistance to crushing force.
Average crushing strength of stone is 3 tons per square inch.
Appearance and color:
Highly colorful stones are preferred for architectural purpose but
those are soft and thus less durable. Therefore, lighter stones are
preferred than to darker ones.
Crystalline structures are more durable than non-crystalline structure
A good building stone should have good seasoning qualities. All the
stones contain some moisture which is known as quarry sap stones.
The period 3-6 months are enough for seasoning.
A good building stone should be fire resistant. Some stones such as
basalt and trap resist fire very well but some varieties of igneous and
metamorphic stones are very weak against fire.
CLASSIFICATION OF ROCKS (STONES)
OR VARIETIES OF STONES:
There are three main classes of rocks.
(1) CHEMICAL CLASSIFICATION:
Chemically stones are stones are classified into three groups.
(i) Argillaceous Rocks:
Argillaceous or clay stones are those stones which contain (alumina
Al2O3) (clay) as principal constituent. These stones are less durable
stones. All clay stones belong to this group.
The examples of argillaceous rocks are Slate, Laterite, etc.
(ii) Silicious Rocks:
The stones which contain (Silica SiO2) as principal constituent are
called silicious rocks. These stones are durable stones.
The examples of silicious rocks are granite, Quartzite and Sand stone
(iii) Calcareous Rocks:
The stones which contain calcareous material (CaCO3) as principal
constituent are called calcareous rocks. They also contain some
proportion of siliceous and clay matter.
The examples of calcareous rocks are marble stone and lime stone, etc.
(2) PHYSICAL CLASSIFICATION:
Physically rocks are classified as:
(i) Stratified Rocks:
The rocks which are split into thin slabs or layers easily are called
The examples of stratified rocks are Slate, Sand stone and Lime
(ii) Unstratified Rocks:
These rocks do not show sign of stratification and can not be easily
split into thin slabs or layers are called unstratified rocks. All igneous
rocks are essentially unstratified and metamorphic rocks may be
either stratified or unstartified.
The examples of unstratified rocks are Granite, Basalt .
These rocks have a tendency to be split up in a definite direction
Foliated structure is very common in case of metamorphic rocks.
(3) GEOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION:
Geologically stones are stones are classified into three groups.
(i) Igneous or Primary Rocks:
•These are primary rocks which are formed from molten magma.
They represent different structural features depending upon the
condition of solidification and composition. Generally igneous rocks
are strong and durable.
•These are also called unsratified or eruptive rocks.
•The examples of igneous rocks are granite, basalt, trap, etc.
– (ii) Sedimentary or Secondary Rocks:
• These are secondary rocks and are formed by the denudation and
deposition of previously existing rocks due to weathering actions.
Water (rain) is the most powerful and principal weathering agent.
The other destructive agents are frost, winds and chemical actions.
The destructive agents break up the surface of earth which gets
further broken up when carried down by rains and rivers. When the
velocity of water in the rivers those broken particles are deposited
in the river bed and thus sedimentary rocks are formed.
• These are also called aqueous and stratified rocks.
• The rocks which are formed by gradual deposition are called
• Examples: Lime stone, sand stone, etc.
(iii) Metamorphic or Tertiary Rocks:
Rocks which are formed due to metamorphic action of pressure or
internal heat or by both (or) alteration of original structure due to heat
and excessive pressure) are called Metamorphic Rocks.
Examples: Marble etc.
Practical classification is based on the usage. Practically stones have
been classified as granite, basalt, laterite, marble, limestone,
sandstone and slate.
Uses of stone as a building material are:
•In stone masonry in places where it is naturally available.
•As coarse aggregate in cement concrete (crushed form of rock).
•As a roofing material in the form of slates.
•As a flag or thin slab for paving.
•As a soling material in the construction of highways and runways.
•As ballast for railway tracks.
•As a veneer for decorative front and interior of buildings.
•Limestone for construction of important buildings like temples,
churches and mosques.
•Limestone for the manufacture of cement and as a flux in blast
• Aggregates provides the concrete with its body and strength act as
filler material to give the homogeneous mass of concrete along with
• Aggregate means mixing of cement& sand.
Types of aggregates:
It is the aggregate whose particles pass through 4.75mm mesh
sieve but are retained on 0.15 mm mesh sieve completely.
Sand,crushed stones,ashes,etc.are the examples of the fine
It is the aggregate whose particles completely pass through 75mm
mesh sieve and are entirely retained on 4.75 mm mesh sieve.
Broken rocks ,ballast, brick bats,gravels,etc are the examples of
the coarse aggregate
– Aggregates are insoluble in water.
– They are of moderate weight.
– They are not affected by weathering effect.
– They are strong and durable.
– They have resistance to corrosion.
– They have resistance to scratches.
– The aggregate should not contain any organic substances.
– The aggregate should not be porous.
– The aggregate should be well graded
– The surface texture of the aggregate should be rough.
– The particles of aggregate should be hard, strong,and durable.
• As a base material underneath
highways,walkways,airport,runways,parking lots and railroads.
• As a raw material used in combination with other resources to
construct many of the items we rely on to sustain our quality of
living. These include:
• Houses and apartments;Roads,bridges and parking lots; schools
and hospitals; commercial buildings, airports and runways.
Uses of Aggregates:
• The natural cement is obtained by burning and crushing the stones
containing clay,carbonate of lime and some amount of carbonate of
• The natural cement is brown in color and its best variety is known as
the roman cement.
Ingredients of cement:Al2O3 Alumina It makes the cement to set quickly
Sio2 Silica It provides strength
Cao Lime It provides strength
Fe2o3 Iron oxide Provide color,hardness and strength
Mgo Magnesia Provides hardness and color
Increase the initial setting time
Uses of cement:
(I) Construction of Building:
(III)Marine and water works:
• Concrete is one of the most commonly used building materials.
• Concrete is a composite material made from several readily available
constituents (aggregates, sand, cement, water).
• Concrete is a versatile material that can easily be mixed to meet a
variety of special needs and formed to virtually any shape.
•Ability to be cast
•Low tensile strength
•Low strength to weight ratio
Mixture of aggregate and paste 30 to 40%
portland cement 7% to 15% by Vol.
water 14% to 21% by Vol.
Aggregates 60% to 70%
•Dry powder of very fine particles
•forms a paste when mixed with water
•paste coats all the aggregates together
•hardens and forms a solid mass
•Needed for two purposes:
•chemical reaction with cement
•Only 1/3 of the water is needed for chemical reaction
•Extra water remains in pores and holes
•Results in porosity
•Good for preventing plastic shrinkage cracking and workability
•Bad for permeability, strength, durability.
Properties of fresh concrete
•Timber denotes wood which is suitable for building or carpentry
and for various engineering and other purposes.
•The word timber is derived from Timbrian, which means to
build. Timber thus denotes wood which is suitable for building
construction, carpenting or other engineering purposes.
Requirement of good timber:
(I) It should have dark uniform color.
(II)It should be dense.
(III)It should be workable, good machinability.
(IV)It should have uniform structure.
(V)It should be free from defects like knots, shakes, cracks, splits, wraps
(VI)There should not decay of timber due to fungi and insects like white
ants and termites.
(VII)IT should be fire-proof.
(VIII)It should be cheap.
(IX)It should be durable and effective.
•Appearance: A freshly cut surface of timber should exhibit a hard and
•Colour: The colour of the timber should be preferably dark. A light
colour indicates low strength.
•Hardness: A good timber should be hard, i.e., it should offer resistance
when it is being penetrated by another body. The chemical present in
heartwood and the density of wood imparts hardness to timber.
•Durability: A good timber should be durable. It should be capable of
resisting the action of fungi, insects, chemicals, physical agencies and
•Strength: A good timber should be strong for working as a structural
member such as joist, beams and rafter. It should be capable of taking
loads slowly or suddenly.
•Structure: The structure should be uniform and the medullary rays
should be hard and compact. The annual rings should be regular and
should be closely located.
Properties of timber:
•Mechanical wear: A good timber should not deteriorate easily due to
mechanical wear or abrasion. This property is essential for places where
timber would be subjected to traffic, like wooden floors and pavements.
•Toughness: A good timber should be tough. It should be capable of
offering resistance to shocks due to vibrations. Elasticity: This is the
property by which the timber returns to the original shape when load
causing deformation is removed. This property is essential when timber
is used for bows, carriage shaft, etc.
•Fire resistance: Timber is a bad conductor of heat. A dense wood offers
good resistance to fire and it requires sufficient heat to cause a flame.
•Defects: A good timber should be free from serious defects such as dead
knots, flaws and shakes.
•Fibres: Timber should have straight fibres.
•Shape: A good timber should be capable of retaining the shape during
conversion or seasoning.
•Smell: A good timber should have a sweet smell.
•Weight: A timber with heavy weight is considered to be sound and
Seasoning of timber:
• When timber is first felled it is known as green timber and has a very
high moisture content. Before timber can be used it must be dried.
Aim of seasoning is to dry out the wood to suitable moisture content
of 22% or less.
• Seasoning is the controlled process of reducing the moisture content
of the timber so that it is suitable for the environment and intended
use. After seasoning timber is easier to work with, because it is lighter,
harder and stronger.
22-20% Limit of air seasoned wood
20% Limit for the occurrence of dry rot
16% Outdoor furniture
12-14% Occasionally heated areas
11-13% Heated areas
9-11% Very heated areas
Seasoning can be done by the following
• Natural/Air seasoning: In this method, the seasoning of timber
is carried out by natural air and hence it is also sometimes
referred to as air seasoning.
• Following procedure is adopted in the air seasoning:
(a) The timber in the long form is not usually fit for the process of seasoning.
Hence it is cut and sawn into suitable sections of planks or scantling.
(b) The timber pieces can either be stacked horizontally or vertically.
(c) The ground, where stack is to be constructed, is cleared and it is leveled for
(d) The platform of stack is made slightly higher, about 300mm, than the
ground level. For this purpose, the rows of bricks or concrete pillars are
(e) The timber pieces are sorted out according to length and thickness. They are
then arranged in layers, one above the other. The care should be taken to see
that all members in a particular layer are of the same thickness. If this
precautions is not taken, there are chances for timber to become warped or
(f) Each layer is separated by spacers of sound dry wood. The usual dimensions
of spacers vary from 35mm x 25mm to 50mm x 35mm, the larger
dimensions being the width.
(g) The distance between spacers depends on the size of timber members to be
seasoned. It is less for thin sections and more for thick sections.
(h) The length of stack is equal to length of timber pieces. The width and height
of stack are restricted to about 1500mm and 3000mm respectively.
(i) The stack is to be protected from fast blowing wind, rain and extreme heat
of sun. hence the stack should preferably be covered by a roof of suitable
• Advantages of air seasoning:
(I) No expensive equipment is needed.
(II)Small labor cost once stack is made.
(III)Environmentally friendly-uses little energy.
• Disadvantages of air seasoning:
(I) Slow drying rate
(II)Large area of space required for a lot of timber
• Timber is stacked properly in the kiln by keeping open spaces for hot
air circulations. Initially temperature is maintained low slightly higher
than the room temperature. Successfully temp. is raised, humidity is
reduced and air circulation is made faster.
• Advantages of kiln seasoning:
(I) Quicker due to higher temp., ventilations and air circulations.
(II)Achieve a lower moisture content.
(III)Defects associated with drying can be controlled.
• Disadvantages of kiln seasoning:
(I) It is expensive
(II)It requires supervision by a skilled operator
(III)Uses a lot energy
Uses of timber:
(I) For making doors, windows, and ventilators.
(II)Used for flooring and roofing material.
(III)Used for making furniture.
(IV)Used in the manufacture of sport goods, musical instruments etc.
(V)Used in making coaches, wagons, buses, boats etc.
• Damp proofing in construction is a type of moisture control applied
to building walls and floors to prevent moisture from passing into the
interior spaces. Damp problems are one of the most frequent problems
encountered in homes.
• Damp proofing includes several ways:
• A damp-proof course (DPC) is a barrier in a masonry wall designed
to resist moisture rising through the structure by capillary action such
as through a phenomenon known as rising damp. The damp proof
course may be horizontal or vertical.
• A damp-proof membrane (DPM) is a membrane material applied to
prevent moisture transmission. A common example is polyethylene
sheeting laid under a concrete slab to prevent the concrete from
gaining moisture through capillary action.A DPM may be used for the
• Materials widely used for damp proofing
• Flexible materials like butyl rubber, hot bitumen, plastic sheets,
bituminous felts, sheets of lead, copper, etc.
• Semi-rigid materials like mastic asphalt
• Rigid materials like impervious bricks, stones, slates, cement mortar
or cement concrete painted with bitumen, etc.
• Mortar with waterproofing compounds
• Coarse sand layers under floors
• Continuous plastic sheets under floors
– A black or dark brown viscous material, composed principally
of high molecular weight hydrocarbons, having adhesive
properties, derived from petroleum either by natural or refinery
processes and substantially soluble in carbon disulphide.
•Asphalt is a sticky, black and highly viscous liquid or semi-solid form of
•It may be found in natural deposits or may be a refined product.
•it is a substance classed as a pitch.
•Until the 20th century, the term asphaltum was also used.
•The terms asphalt and bitumen are often used interchangeably to mean
both natural and manufactured forms of the substance
•The terms bitumen and asphalt are mostly interchangeable, except
where asphalt is used as an abbreviation for asphalt concrete.
•This article uses "asphalt/bitumen" where either term is acceptable.
•The terms asphalt and bitumen are often used interchangeably to mean
both natural and manufactured forms of the substance.
•In American English, asphalt (or asphalt cement) is the carefully refined
residue from the distillation process of selected crude oils.
• Outside the United States, the product is often called bitumen.
•Geological terminology often prefers the term bitumen.
•Common usage often refers to various forms of asphalt/bitumen as "tar",
such as at the La Brea Tar Pits.
•Another term, mostly archaic, refers to asphalt/bitumen as "pitch".
•The pitch used in this mixture is sometimes found in natural deposits
but usually made by the distillation of crude oil.
Bituments & Asphalt
• The word asphalt is derived from the late Middle English, in turn from
French asphalte, based on Late Latin asphalton, asphaltum, which is
the latinisation of the Greek (ásphaltos, ásphalton), a word meaning
In British English, the word 'asphalt' is used to refer to a mixture of
mineral aggregate and asphalt/bitumen (also called tarmac in
The earlier word 'asphaltum' is now archaic and not commonly used.
In American English, 'asphalt' is equivalent to the British 'bitumen'.
However, 'asphalt' is also commonly used as a shortened form of
'asphalt concrete' (therefore equivalent to the British 'asphalt' or
• The substance is completely soluble in carbon disulfide, and
composed primarily of a mixture of highly condensed polycyclic
• it is most commonly modeled as a colloid, with asphaltenes as the
dispersed phase and maltenes as the continuous phase (though there is
some disagreement amongst chemists regarding its structure).
• It is almost impossible to separate and identify all the different
molecules of asphalt, because the number of molecules with different
chemical structure is extremely large.
• Most natural bitumen's contain sulfur and several heavy metals, such
as nickel, vanadium, lead, chromium, mercury, arsenic, selenium, and
other toxic elements.
• Bitumen's can provide good preservation of plants and animal fossils.
• Asphalt/bitumen can sometimes be confused with "tar", which is a
similar black, thermoplastic material produced by the destructive
distillation of coal.
• During the early and mid-20th century when town gas was produced,
tar was a readily available product and extensively used as the binder
for road aggregates.
• The addition of tar to macadam roads led to the word tarmac, which is
now used in common parlance to refer to road-making materials.
• However, since the 1970s, when natural gas succeeded town gas,
asphalt/bitumen has completely overtaken the use of tar in these
• Natural deposits of asphalt/bitumen include lakes such as the Pitch
Lake in Trinidad and Tobago and Lake Bermudez in Venezuela,
Gilsonite, the Dead Sea, asphalt/bitumen-impregnated sandstones
known as bituminous rock and the similar "tar sands".
• Asphalt/bitumen can be separated from the other components in crude
oil (such as naphtha, gasoline and diesel) by the process of fractional
distillation, usually under vacuum conditions.
• A better separation can be achieved by further processing of the
heavier fractions of the crude oil in a de-asphalting unit, which uses
either propane or butane in a supercritical phase to dissolve the lighter
molecules which are then separated.
• Further processing is possible by "blowing" the product: namely
reacting it with oxygen.
• This makes the product harder and more viscous.
• Asphalt/bitumen is typically stored and transported at temperatures around
• Sometimes diesel oil or kerosene are mixed in before shipping to retain
liquidity; upon delivery, these lighter materials are separated out of the
• This mixture is often called "bitumen feedstock", or BFS.
• Some dump trucks route the hot engine exhaust through pipes in the dump
body to keep the material warm.
• The backs of tippers carrying asphalt/bitumen, as well as some handling
equipment, are also commonly sprayed with a releasing agent before filling
to aid release.
• Diesel oil is no longer used as a release agent due to environmental
• Naturally occurring deposits of asphalt/bitumen are formed from the
remains of ancient, microscopic algae (diatoms) and other once-living
• These remains were deposited in the mud on the bottom of the ocean
or lake where the organisms lived.
• Under the heat (above 50 °C) and pressure of burial deep in the earth,
the remains were transformed into materials such as asphalt/bitumen,
kerogen, or petroleum.
• Deposits at the La Brea Tar Pits are an example.
• There are structural similarities between asphalt/bitumen and the
organic matter in carbonaceous meteorites.
• However, detailed studies have shown these materials to be distinct.
• The primary use of asphalt/bitumen is in road construction, where it is
used as the glue or binder mixed with aggregate particles to create
• Its other main uses are for bituminous waterproofing products,
including production of roofing felt and for sealing flat roofs.
Rolled asphalt concrete
The largest use of asphalt/bitumen is for making asphalt concrete for
road surfaces and accounts for approximately 85% of the asphalt
consumed in the United States.
Asphalt concrete pavement material is commonly composed of 5%
asphalt/bitumen cement and 95% aggregates (stone, sand, and gravel).
Due to its highly viscous nature, asphalt/bitumen cement must be heated
so it can be mixed with the aggregates at the asphalt mixing plant.
Asphalt concrete paving is widely used in airports around the world.
Due to the sturdiness and ability to be repaired quickly, it is widely used
for runways dedicated to aircraft landing and taking off.
– Is a type of asphalt which differs from dense graded asphalt
(asphalt concrete) in that it has a higher asphalt/bitumen (binder)
content, usually around 7–10% of the whole aggregate mix, as
opposed to rolled asphalt concrete, which has only around 5%
– Mastic asphalt is heated to a temperature of 210 °C (410 °F) and is
spread in layers to form an impervious barrier about 20 millimeters
(0.8 in) thick.
• Asphalt Emulsion
– A number of technologies allow asphalt/bitumen to be mixed at
much lower temperatures.
– These involve mixing with petroleum solvents to form "cutbacks"
with reduced melting point, or mixtures with water to turn the
asphalt/bitumen into an emulsion.
– Asphalt emulsions contain up to 70% asphalt/bitumen and
typically less than 1.5% chemical additives.
– There are two main types of emulsions with different affinity for
aggregates, cationic and anionic.
– Asphalt emulsions are used in a wide variety of applications.
– Chipseal involves spraying the road surface with asphalt emulsion
followed by a layer of crushed rock, gravel or crushed slag.
• Asphalt/bitumen is used to make Japan black, a lacquer known
especially for its use on iron and steel.
• Asphalt/bitumen also is used in paint and marker inks by some graffiti
supply companies (primarily Molotow) to increase the weather
resistance and permanence of the paint and/or ink, and to make the
color much darker.
• Asphalt/bitumen is also used to seal some alkaline batteries during the
• In a general sense, lacquer is a somewhat imprecise term for a clear
or coloured wood finish that dries by solvent evaporation.
• It is also often a curing process as well that produces a hard, durable
• Petroleum production, alternatives and bioasphalt
• Naturally occurring crude Asphalt/bitumen impregnated in
sedimentary rock is the prime feed stock for petroleum production
from "Oil sands“.
• currently under development in Alberta, Canada. Canada has most of
the world's supply of natural asphalt/bitumen, covering 140,000
square kilometers (an area larger than England).
• Asphalt/bitumen can now be made from nonpetroleum-based
renewable resources such as sugar, molasses and rice, corn and potato
• Asphalt/bitumen can also be made from waste material by fractional
distillation of used motor oils, which is sometimes disposed by
burning or dumping into landfills.
• Nonpetroleum-based asphalt/bitumen binders can be made light-
colored. Lighter-colored roads absorb less heat from solar radiation,
and have less surface heat than darker surfaces, reducing their
contribution to the urban heat island effect.
• Wood is a product of trees, and sometimes other fibrous plants, used
for construction purposes when cut or pressed into lumber and timber,
such as boards, planks and similar materials.
• Wood can be very flexible under loads, keeping strength while
bending, and is incredibly strong when compressed vertically.
• Metal is used as structural framework for larger buildings such as
skyscrapers, or as an external surface covering.
• Corrosion is metal's prime enemy when it comes to longevity.
• There are many types of metals used for building.
– Steel is strong, flexible, and if refined well and/or treated lasts a
– Aluminium and tin have a lower density and better corrosion
– Brass was more common in the past, but is usually restricted to
specific uses or specialty items today.
– Titanium can be used for structural purposes, but it is much more
expensive than steel.
– Chrome, gold, and silver are used as decoration, because these
materials are expensive and lack structural qualities such as tensile
strength or hardness.
• The use of glass in architectural buildings has become very popular in
the modern culture. Glass "curtain walls" can be used to cover the
entire facade of a building, or it can be used to span over a wide roof
structure in a "space frame".
• These uses though require some sort of frame to hold sections of glass
together, as glass by its self is too brittle and would require an overly
large kiln to be used to span such large areas by itself.
• A major construction technique with the development of tensile
architecture and synthetic fabrics.
• Modern buildings can be made of flexible material such as fabric
membranes, and supported by a system of steel cables, rigid
framework or internal (air pressure.)
• Reference Books:
1) Elements of civil engineering by Rakesh Ranjan
2) Elements of civil engineering by B.C.Punamia
3) Basic Civil Engineering by L.G.Kulkarni