Mba i qt unit-1_basic quantitative techniques

Rai University
17 Jan 2015

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Mba i qt unit-1_basic quantitative techniques

  1. Course: MBA Subject: Quantitative Techniques Unit - 1
  2. Topics to be Covered • Introduction • Definitions • Evolution • Classification • Role of Quantitative Techniques in Business and Industry • Quantitative Techniques and Business Management • Advantages and Limitations
  3. Introduction • A person managing a production unit, where it is a farm, factory, or domestic kitchen, has to coordinate men, machines, and money against several constraints like that of time, cost and space, in order to achieve the organizations objectives in an efficient and effective manner. • The manager has to analyze the situation on a continuous basis, determine the objectives, identify the best options from the set of available alternatives, implement, coordinate, evaluate and control the situation continuously to achieve these objectives
  4. Definitions • Quantitative techniques are those statistical and programming techniques, which help decision makers solve many problems, especially those concerning business and industry • Quantitative techniques are those techniques that provide the decision makers with systematic and powerful means of analysis, based on quantitative data, for achieving predetermined goals
  5. Cont… • These techniques involve the use of numbers symbols, mathematical expressions, other elements of quantities, and serve as supplements to the judgment and intuitions of the decision makers
  6. Evolution • The utility of quantitative techniques has been realized long ago and the science of mathematics is probably as old as the human society • The evolution of industrial engineering, scientific methodologies the were prominent earlier in the natural sciences, were found applicable to management functions-planning, organizing and controlling of operations
  7. Evolution • 19th century, Frederick W. Taylor Proposed an application of a scientific method to an operations management problem- Productivity. Determined that the variable that was significant was the combined weight of the shovel (move) and its load. • Henry L. Gantt, devised a chart-to schedule production activities
  8. Classification • They can broadly be put under two groups 1) Statistical Techniques: Which are used in conducting the statistical inquiry concerning a certain phenomenon. It includes all the statistical methods beginning from the collection of data till the task of interpretation of the collected data. Collection, Classification, Summarizing, Analyzing , Interpretation of the data.
  9. Classification 2) Programming Techniques: Used by many decision makers in modern times.  First designed to tackle defense and military problems and are now being used to solve business problems.  It includes variety of techniques like linear programming, games theory, simulation, network analysis, queuing theory, and so on.
  10. Classification • Applications of Programming Techniques: 1)System under consideration are defined in mathematical language: Variable (Factors which are Controlled), Coefficients (Factors which are not controlled) 2)Appropriate mathematical expressions are formulated which describes inter-relations of all variables and coefficients. This is known as the formulation of the mathematical model. It describes the technology and the economics of a business through a set of simultaneous equations and inequalities 3)An optimum solutions is determined (Maximizing profit and Minimizing cost)
  11. Role of Quantitative Techniques in Business and Industry • Quantitative techniques specially operation research techniques have gained increasing importance since world war II in the technology of business administration. These techniques greatly help in tackling the intricate and complex problems of modern business and industry
  12. Role of Quantitative Techniques in Business and Industry Role can be well understood under the following heads 1)They provide a tool for scientific analysis 2)They provide solutions for various business problems 3)They enable proper deployment of resources 4)They help in minimizing waiting and servicing costs 5)They enable the management to decide when to buy and how much to buy
  13. Contd… 1) They assist in choosing an optimum strategy 2) They render great help in optimum resource allocation 3) They facilitate the process of decision making 4) Through various quantitative techniques management can know the reaction of integrated business systems
  14. Quantitative Techniques and Business Management I. It helps the directing authority in optimum allocation of various limited resources viz., men, machines, money, material, time etc… II. It is useful to the production management: selecting the building site for a plant, scheduling and controlling , locating, scheduling and calculating the optimum product-mix III. It is useful to the personnel management: optimum manpower planning, the number of persons to be maintained on the permanent or full time role, kept in a work pool intended for meeting the absenteeism.
  15. Quantitative Techniques and Business Management iv) It equally help the marketing management to determine – distribution points, warehousing should be located, their size, quantity to be stocked choice of customer, optimum allocation of sales budget to direct selling and promotion expenses with consumer preferences v) It is very useful to the financial management – finding long range capital, determining optimum replacement polices, workout profit plan, estimating credit and investment risk.
  16. Limitations a) The inherent limitation concerning mathematical expressions b) High costs are involved in the use of quantitative techniques c) Quantitative techniques do not take into consideration the intangible factors ie non- measurable human factors. d) Quantitative techniques are just the tools of analysis and not the complete decision making process
  17. •References Quantitative Techniques, by CR Kothari, Vikas publication Fundamentals of Statistics by SC Guta Publisher Sultan Chand Quantitative Techniques in management by N.D. Vohra Publisher: Tata Mcgraw hill