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Guidelines to
Create an Ontology
Presenters :-
• Nisitha Manukulasuriya
• Rajith Premabandu
• Isuru Dilshan
1
Overview
• Designing a good Ontology
• Methods
• Basic Idea
• Ontology’s content
• Explanation of the guidelines by exampl...
Content
• What is an Ontology
• Why Ontology ?
• What is in Ontology
• Methodology
• Basic Ideas
• Building the Ontology
•...
What is an ontology
• “An ontology is a formal, explicit specification of
a shared conceptualization”
• conceptualization
...
Why ontology ?
• Share common understanding of the domain and
the related information
• To reuse knowledge
• To analyse do...
What is in Ontology
• Classes
• Relation
• Attributes
• Formal axioms
• Functions
• Instances 6
Methodology
• Define concept
• Organize them to taxonomy
• Define relations among the classes
• Define attributes and thei...
Basic ideas
• Yours will be different from mine
• Iterative process
• Initially, start with nouns and verbs
• A noun will ...
Building the ontology
• Determine the domain and the scope of the ontology
• Which domain are you thinking of?
• Is it goi...
Building the ontology …
• Sources to use
• Experts
• Ask everything want to know
• Always keep manners
• Grab their termin...
Building the ontology …
• Enumerate important terms
• List all nouns and verbs
• For each noun note down
• name, synonym, ...
Building the ontology …
• Classify the concepts in a hierarchy.
• Use either top-down or bottom-up or combination of
proce...
Building the ontology …
• Define relations
• Describe each hand made diagram and the relations
in detail
• Define attribut...
Building the ontology …
14
• Define attributes …
• Try to define range, value, precision, related classes
• Define instanc...
Taxonomy Evaluation
• Class definition evaluation
• Synonyms for the same concept do not represent
different classes
• A c...
Taxonomy Evaluation …
• Class Hierarchy
• Avoid class cycles
• Be careful of classifying classes where they do not
belong
...
Taxonomy Evaluation …
• Other Hints
• Forget the implementation level
• Do not use “reserved” words in your names
• Choose...
Up to here
• What is an Ontology
• Why Ontology
• What is in Ontology
• Methodology
• Building an Ontology
• Taxonomy Eval...
Example 1
E-Commerce Ontology
19
E-commerce Ontology
• What is e-commerce ?
• Description
• E commerce is used via computer networks such as
internet. Seve...
Noun
Name
Synonyms Acronyms Description Source
Organization Organisation
Association
Org A commercial or
industrial enterp...
Identify Concepts
• Concepts
• Organization
• Venture Capital Firm
• Venture Capital
• Person
• Company
• CEO
• Share
• Sh...
Identify Relations
23
Venture
Capital
amount:
currency
Company
Shares
price
:Currency issues
Shareholders
owns
Venture
cap...
Identify Attributes
• Class Venture Capital
• Amount : currency
• Period : date/time
• Class Company
• Name : string
• Add...
Identify Instances
• E.g.
• “Meg Whitman is the CEO of the B2C company ebay.com.”
25
Person
age:Integer
…CEO
Name:string
C...
Organization
Venture
capital Firm
Venture
Capital
amount:
currency
Person
age:Integer
…
CEO
Name:string
Shareholders
Share...
Taxonomy Evaluation
• Every Class refers to only one noun.
• Haven’t used reserved key words.
• Class hierarchy well-balan...
Up to now ……
• Identify Nouns
• Identify Verbs
• Define relations
• Identify Attributes
• Identify Instances
• Taxonomy Ev...
Example 2
Banking Ontology
29
Banking Ontology
• Description
• There are several processes in a banking domain. An
account holder owns several bank acco...
Banking Ontology
• Description …
• An account holder is uniquely identified by an
identification number and the address, m...
32
Noun Synonyms Acronyms Description Source
Account
holder
- AH Member which
administrates Global
accounts.
Description
B...
Identifying Concepts
• Cheque
• Cash
• EFT
• Method of Payment
• Transaction
• Payment
• Deposit
• Withdraw
• Compound int...
Identify Relations
34
Payment
amount:
currency
Method of
Payment
Is done
via
Account
holder
id:String
Bank
account
accNo:S...
Defining attributes
• Class Cheque
• cheque number: String
• amount: currency
• Date: Date/Time
• Payee: String
• Bank: St...
36
Account
holder
id:String
Bank
account
accNo:String
Savings
Current
minBal:float
Personal
houseExpence
:double
Education...
37
Synonyms for same concept do not represent
different classes
Keep a balance with subclasses
Avoid class cycles
Be caref...
Gene Ontology
38
Summary
• Guidelines
• What is an Ontology
• Why Ontology ?
• What is in Ontology
• Methodology
• Basic Ideas
• Building t...
References
• A Simplified Guideto Create an Ontology
• Julita Bermejo
• ASLab R-2007-004 v 0.1 Draft
• May 22, 2007
• An O...
References …
• http://www.geneontology.org
• Accessed on: 21 January 2012
• http://musicontology.com
• Accessed on: 20 Jan...
Any Questions ?
42
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Guidelines to create an ontology

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Designing a good Ontology
Methods
Basic Idea
Ontology’s content
Explanation of the guidelines by examples

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Guidelines to create an ontology

  1. 1. Guidelines to Create an Ontology Presenters :- • Nisitha Manukulasuriya • Rajith Premabandu • Isuru Dilshan 1
  2. 2. Overview • Designing a good Ontology • Methods • Basic Idea • Ontology’s content • Explanation of the guidelines by examples 2
  3. 3. Content • What is an Ontology • Why Ontology ? • What is in Ontology • Methodology • Basic Ideas • Building the Ontology • Taxonomy Evaluation • E commerce Ontology Example • Banking Ontology Example 3
  4. 4. What is an ontology • “An ontology is a formal, explicit specification of a shared conceptualization” • conceptualization • explicit • formal • shared • “An ontology is a formal, explicit specification of a shared conceptualization” • conceptualization • explicit • formal • shared 4
  5. 5. Why ontology ? • Share common understanding of the domain and the related information • To reuse knowledge • To analyse domain knowledge 5
  6. 6. What is in Ontology • Classes • Relation • Attributes • Formal axioms • Functions • Instances 6
  7. 7. Methodology • Define concept • Organize them to taxonomy • Define relations among the classes • Define attributes and their values • Define instances • Define axioms and function 7
  8. 8. Basic ideas • Yours will be different from mine • Iterative process • Initially, start with nouns and verbs • A noun will be a class, attribute or instance • A verb will be the relation • Iterations are needed to further clarification 8
  9. 9. Building the ontology • Determine the domain and the scope of the ontology • Which domain are you thinking of? • Is it going to be just one, or will you need different sub ontologies to make it clearer? • Who will use the ontology? 9
  10. 10. Building the ontology … • Sources to use • Experts • Ask everything want to know • Always keep manners • Grab their terminology • Documents • literatures, documents, technical information, etc. • Highlight underlying nouns and verbs • Existing ontologies • You are not the first one to think about that domain • Existing ontologies can be fully or partially reused 10
  11. 11. Building the ontology … • Enumerate important terms • List all nouns and verbs • For each noun note down • name, synonym, a natural language description, source • Decide whether the noun is a class, attribute or instance • Verbs will end up as relations • The iterative process will may uncover some other concepts too 11
  12. 12. Building the ontology … • Classify the concepts in a hierarchy. • Use either top-down or bottom-up or combination of processes • Hierarchical relations • Subclass • Disjoint decomposition • Exhaustive decomposition • Partition 12
  13. 13. Building the ontology … • Define relations • Describe each hand made diagram and the relations in detail • Define attributes • Well defined type is an attribute, not a class • Attach the attribute to the most general class/concept that can have that property • Define attribute type 13
  14. 14. Building the ontology … 14 • Define attributes … • Try to define range, value, precision, related classes • Define instances • A specific noun • Described in detail
  15. 15. Taxonomy Evaluation • Class definition evaluation • Synonyms for the same concept do not represent different classes • A class is not only real entities in the domain • Keep a balance with subclasses 15
  16. 16. Taxonomy Evaluation … • Class Hierarchy • Avoid class cycles • Be careful of classifying classes where they do not belong • Careful with your classification • Careful with incompleteness of taxonomies • Redundancy 16
  17. 17. Taxonomy Evaluation … • Other Hints • Forget the implementation level • Do not use “reserved” words in your names • Choose a naming convention • Limit the scope 17
  18. 18. Up to here • What is an Ontology • Why Ontology • What is in Ontology • Methodology • Building an Ontology • Taxonomy Evaluation 18
  19. 19. Example 1 E-Commerce Ontology 19
  20. 20. E-commerce Ontology • What is e-commerce ? • Description • E commerce is used via computer networks such as internet. Several organizations involve in this process. Venture capital firm supplies Venture Capital ,financial support to establish such companies. Venture capital invests a large amount of currency to enable startup for a company. Company is also an organization that issues shares and shareholders buy shares to own a part of the company. A Share is an unit of capital that has price. CEO is a person who manages the company. A Company consists of B2B and B2C companies. A B2B transaction has an amount which is higher than B2C transactions. 20 Listing NounsListing Verbs
  21. 21. Noun Name Synonyms Acronyms Description Source Organization Organisation Association Org A commercial or industrial enterprise with a group of people ,systematically structured to accomplish an overall common goal. Description Person Human Unspecified individual with certain capabilities & responsibilities separate from others. Description Venture Capital Financial support Funding VC Money provided by investors to start up firms in early stages of high potential .high risk growth companies. Description Venture Capital Firm Venture Capitalist Firms that provides start up or capitals / loans to promising ventures for long term growth potential. Description Company Firm Corporation CO Corp Any business organization which has focus of gaining profits. Description 21 Unspecified individual with certain capabilities & responsibilities separate from others. Money provided by investors to start up firms in early stages of high potential high risk growth companies Firms that provides start up or capitals / loans to promising ventures for long term growth potential. A commercial or industrial enterprise with a group of people, systematically structured to accomplish an overall common goal. Any business organization which has focus of gaining profits Describe nouns
  22. 22. Identify Concepts • Concepts • Organization • Venture Capital Firm • Venture Capital • Person • Company • CEO • Share • Share Holders • B2B • B2C 22
  23. 23. Identify Relations 23 Venture Capital amount: currency Company Shares price :Currency issues Shareholders owns Venture capital Firm supplies CEO Name:string manages
  24. 24. Identify Attributes • Class Venture Capital • Amount : currency • Period : date/time • Class Company • Name : string • Address : string • Property Names : string • Profit : currency • Capital: currency 24
  25. 25. Identify Instances • E.g. • “Meg Whitman is the CEO of the B2C company ebay.com.” 25 Person age:Integer …CEO Name:string Company B2C manages Instance Of Meg Whiteman Instance Of ebay.com
  26. 26. Organization Venture capital Firm Venture Capital amount: currency Person age:Integer … CEO Name:string Shareholders Shares price :Currency Company B2CB2B price: currency managesissues owns 26 supplies
  27. 27. Taxonomy Evaluation • Every Class refers to only one noun. • Haven’t used reserved key words. • Class hierarchy well-balanced. • Classes Don’t have Cycles. • Used a Standard. 27
  28. 28. Up to now …… • Identify Nouns • Identify Verbs • Define relations • Identify Attributes • Identify Instances • Taxonomy Evaluation 28
  29. 29. Example 2 Banking Ontology 29
  30. 30. Banking Ontology • Description • There are several processes in a banking domain. An account holder owns several bank accounts. These accounts are identified with a unique account number. There are two types of accounts, current and savings. Bank account offers two kinds of loans. They are personal and educational loans. Bank account has compound interest and simple interest. A payment can be done to a bank account via cheque , cash or EFT. A payment has a date. When a payment is done a transaction is occurred. A transaction is a deposit or withdraw. 30 Listing NounsListing Verbs
  31. 31. Banking Ontology • Description … • An account holder is uniquely identified by an identification number and the address, monthly expense, NIC number are recorded. Current accounts should maintain a minimum balance and a penalty is calculated for the decrease of the minimum balance. Bank account calculate interest in various time periods. This vary with the bank. A cheque has a cheque number, amount, date, payee, bank name. A cash payment is done by the currency used. ETF payment has a sender and receiver account numbers. 31 Listing NounsListing Verbs
  32. 32. 32 Noun Synonyms Acronyms Description Source Account holder - AH Member which administrates Global accounts. Description Bank Account - BA financial account recording the financial transactions between the customer and the bank and the resulting financial position of the customer with the bank Description Savings Account - A bank account that earns interest Description Current Account - These accounts are maintained by the corporate clients that may be operated any number of times in a day. Description Describe nouns
  33. 33. Identifying Concepts • Cheque • Cash • EFT • Method of Payment • Transaction • Payment • Deposit • Withdraw • Compound interest • Simple interest • Interest 33 • Bank Account • Account Holder • Savings Account • Current Account • Loan • Personal Loan • Educational Loan
  34. 34. Identify Relations 34 Payment amount: currency Method of Payment Is done via Account holder id:String Bank account accNo:String Bank account accNo:String Loan amount:double period:int offer Payment amount: currency Transaction ammount: double date:date occurs
  35. 35. Defining attributes • Class Cheque • cheque number: String • amount: currency • Date: Date/Time • Payee: String • Bank: String • Name: String • Class Account holder • identification number :String • address :String • monthly expense :currency • nic No:String 35
  36. 36. 36 Account holder id:String Bank account accNo:String Savings Current minBal:float Personal houseExpence :double Educational purpose:String Compound calIntrest() Simple calIntrest() Payment amount: currency Cheque chequeNo: String Cash ammount: double EFT amount: double sendAcknole dgement() Transaction ammount: double date:date Deposit Withdraw Method of Payment Loan amount:double period:int Interest rate:float Is done via has a
  37. 37. 37 Synonyms for same concept do not represent different classes Keep a balance with subclasses Avoid class cycles Be careful of classifying classes where they do not belong Careful with your classification Careful with incompleteness of taxonomies Do not use reserved words Redundancy Taxonomy Evaluation …
  38. 38. Gene Ontology 38
  39. 39. Summary • Guidelines • What is an Ontology • Why Ontology ? • What is in Ontology • Methodology • Basic Ideas • Building the Ontology • Taxonomy Evaluation • E Commerce Ontology Example • Banking Ontology Example 39
  40. 40. References • A Simplified Guideto Create an Ontology • Julita Bermejo • ASLab R-2007-004 v 0.1 Draft • May 22, 2007 • An Ontology-based Method and Tool for Cross- Domain Requirements Visualization • Nirav Ajmeri, Kumar Vidhani, Manoj Bhat, Smita Ghaisas Tata Research Development and Design Centre A Division of Tata Consultancy Services 40
  41. 41. References … • http://www.geneontology.org • Accessed on: 21 January 2012 • http://musicontology.com • Accessed on: 20 January 2012 • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Axiomatic_system • Accessed on: 22January 2012 • http://www.iqlue.com/Ontology.pdf • Accessed on: 21 January 2012 41
  42. 42. Any Questions ? 42
  43. 43. 43

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