2. HISTORY OF HYDROPOWER
The first hydroelectric power dam in the world was built in
Appleton, Wisconsin in 1882.
In India, Jamshed ji Tata built the first hydroelectric power dam
in the Western Ghats of Maharashtra in the early 1900s to supply
power to Bombay’s Cotton and Textile Mills.
He took the British Government’s permission to build dams,
namely the Andhra, Sirowata, Valvan and Mulshi hydel dams in
the Western Ghats to generate electricity using high rainfalls in
the hills as storage.
3. Hydroelectric power
•India ranks 5th in terms of exploitable hydro-potential on
•In 2012, India is the 7th largest producer of hydroelectric
power with 114,000 GW hours
•With installed capacity of 37 GW , it produces 3.3% of the
4. Hydropower is a renewable, non-polluting and environment
friendly source of energy.
Oldest energy technique known to mankind for conversion of
mechanical energy into electrical energy.
Contributes around 22% of the world electricity supply
The Working Group of the Planning Commission for the Twelfth
Plan has estimated a total requirement of 1403 Billion Units(BU)
per annum by the end of 12th Five Year Plan (2016–17) out of
which share of hydro generation is expected to be 12%. As per
Planning Commission, the capacity addition for the 12th Five Year
Plan on an all-India comprises 10,897 MW for Hydro.
5. •The public sector has a predominant share of 97% in this
•National Hydroelectric Power Corporation (NHPC),
•Northeast Electric Power Company (NEEPCO),
• Satluj Jal Vidyut Nigam (SJVNL),
• are a few public sector companies engaged in
development of Hydroelectric Power in India.
6. •The hydro power plants at Darjeeling and Shimsha
(Shivanasamudra) were established in 1898 and 1902
respectively and are among the first in Asia.
•It is the most widely used form of renewable energy.
•The present installed capacity as on September 30, 2013 is
approximately 39,788.40 MW which is 17.39% of total
electricity generation in India.
7. •Bhakra Beas Management Board (BBMB), an illustrative state
owned enterprise in north India, has an installed capacity of 2.9
GW and generates 12,000-14,000 million units per year. The cost
of generation of energy after four decades of operation is about
•BBMB reservoirs annually supply water for irrigation to
12.5 million acres (51,000 km2; 19,500 sq mi) of agricultural land
of partner states, enabling northern India in its green revolution.
12. The movement of water can be used to make electricity.
water is created by the force of water moving from a higher
to a lower elevation through a large pipe (penstock). When the
reaches the end of the pipe, it hits and spins a water wheel or
The turbine rotates the connected shaft, which then turns the
generator, making electricity.
14. its function is to convert the K.E of moving water into
The water strikes and turns the large blades of a turbine, which
is attached to a generator above it by way of a shaft.
15. BASIC PRINCIPAL
Heart of the hydroelectric .
The basic process is to rotate a series of gaint magnets inside
coils of wire. This process moves electrons, which
produces electrical current.
• As the turbine turns, the excitor sends an electrical current
to the rotor. The rotor is a series of large electromagnets
that spins inside a tightly-wound coil of copper wire, called
the stator. The magnetic field between the coil and the
magnets creates an electric current.
18. POWER HOUSE AND EQUIPMENTS:-
In the scheme of hydropower the role of power house is to
protect the electromechanical equipment that convert the
potential energy of water into electricity.
Following are the equipments of power plant:
2.Turbine 6.Protection System
3.Generator 7.DC emergency Supply
4.Control System 8.Power and current transformer
• A hydroelectric power plant operates under the
Water flow rate: 1.25 m3/s
River inlet: 1 atm., 4.7°C
Discharge: 1 atm., 5.1°C, 254 m below intake.
Assuming that water intlet and discharge ducts
have the same areas, and that no heat is
transferred to or absorbed from the
• density of water = 0.998 g/cm³ = 998 kg/m³
1.25m³ x 998 kg/m³ = 1248 kg
PE of the water is 1248 kg x 9.81 x 254 =
E lost due to heating is
E = 4.17 kJ/(kg.K) x 1248 kg x 0.4K = 2082 kJ
E gained = 3108 kJ - 2082 kJ = 1026 kJ
eff = 1026/3108 = 33%
23. Station Operator State Generator
Tehri Dam THDC Uttarakhand 4 x 250, 4 x 100,
4 x 250
Koyna MahaGenco Maharashtra 4 x 70, 4 x 80, 2 x
20, 4 x 80, 4 x
Srisailam Dam APGenco Andhra Pradesh 6 x 150, 7 x 110 1,670
Nathpa Jhakri SJVNL Himachal
6 x 250 1,500
Sharavathi KPCL Karnataka 10 x 103.5, 2 x
27.5, 4 x 60
Sardar Sarovar Sardar Sarovar
Gujarat 6 x 200, 5 x 140 1,450
Bhakra Dam BBMB Punjab 5 x 108, 5 x 157 1,325
Kalinadi KPCL Karnataka 2 x 50, 1 x 135, 5
x 150, 3 x 50, 3 x
Chamera Dam NHPC Himachal
3 x 180, 3 x 100,
3 x 77
26. NAME COUNTRY INSTALLED CAPACITY
Three Gorges Dam People's Republic of China 22,500
Itaipu Dam Brazil 14,000
Guri Venezuela 8,850
Tucuruí Brazil 8,370
Grand Coulee United States 6,809
Longtan Dam People's Republic of China 6,426
Krasnoyarsk Russia 6,000
Robert-Bourassa Canada 5,616
Churchill Falls Canada 5,428
29. In the last 30 years, the proportion of
hydroelectric capacity in the Indian power
system has considerably reduced.
Dropped from 46% in 1970 to 40% in 1980, 29%
in 1990 and 25% in 2008.
Indian power supply industry has always
experienced the situation of shortages both in
energy and peaking requirements. To tide over
the shortage in shortest possible time, more
dependence was placed on sources of power
generation with shorter gestation period.
30. Future of hydroelectric power in India
The Working Group of the Planning Commission
for the Twelfth Plan has estimated a total
requirement of 1403 Billion Units(BU) per
annum by the end of 12th Five Year Plan
(2016–17), out of which share of hydro
generation is expected to be 12%. As per
Planning Commission, the capacity addition
for the 12th Five Year Plan on an all-India
comprises 10,897 MW for Hydro.
31. Acceptability in Society
Hydropower, while being projected as a clean and renewable
energy source, has time and again been resisted vociferously
in North East India in recent times because of the obvious and
unintended social and environmental impacts.
The anticipated negative impacts of the associated dam and
reservoir construction have cast a threat to the security of the
indigenous people in terms of water, food, livelihood, energy
and above all, the related socio-economic concerns.
This is all the more due to the uncertainties flowing from an
inadequate understanding of the possible geo-environmental
impacts in a highly sensitive terrain. To cope and live with the
potential negative ramifications of hydropower projects, a
comprehensive hydropower policy with emphasis on long-term
environmental and social security and sustainability is
1) No fuel required
2) Cost of electricity is constant
3) No air-pollution is created
4) Long life
5) Cost of generation of electricity
6) Can easily work during high peak daily loads
7) Irrigation of farms
8) Water sports and gardens
9) Prevents floods
1) Disrupts the aquatic ecosystems
2) Disruption in the surrounding areas
3) Requires large areas
4) Large scale human displacement
5) Very high capital cost or investment
6) High quality construction
7) Site specific
8) Effects on environment
9) Safety of the dams
Hydroelectric power has always been an important part of the
world’s electricity supply, providing reliable, cost efficient,
electricity, and will continue to do so in the future.
Hydropower has environmental impacts, which are very different
from those of fossil fuel power plants. The actual effects of dams
and reservoirs on various ecosystems are only now becoming
The future demand of hydro electricity will depend on future
demand for electricity, as well as how societies value the
environmental impacts of hydro electric power compared to the
impacts of other sources of electricity.