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Artificial inteligence

presentation slide on Artificial Intelligence

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Artificial inteligence

  1. 1. welcome
  4. 4. W AT IS A.I. ? H INTRODUCTION A.I. is a branch of computer science that studies the computational requirements for tasks such as perception, reasoning and learning and develop systems to perform those tasks The field of Artificial intelligence strives to understand and build intelligent entities A.I. Strong A.I. M/C can think and act like human W eak A.I. Some thinking like features can be added to M/C
  5. 5. T URING T ST E * Proposed by Alan Turing(1950), a British Computer Scientist. * Intelligence is defined as the ability to achieve human level performance in all cognitive tests, sufficient to fool a human interrogator. * The test was devised in response to the question,” Can a computer think ?” . * Result was +ve if interrogator can not tell if responses are coming from the M/C or Human.
  6. 6. DEFINITIONS * A.I is a branch of computer sciences dealing with symbolic, Nonalgorithic-Methods of problem solving. * AI works with pattern matching methods which attempt to describe objects , events or processes in terms of their qualitative features and Relationship. logical and computational
  7. 7. W hat is Intelligence ?  To respond to situations very flexibly.  To make sense out of ambiguous or contradictory messages.  To recognize relative importance of different elements of situations  To find similarities between situations despite difference  To draw distinctions between situations despite similarities which may link them.
  8. 8. HISTORY 1943 – McCulloh and Pitts, Boolean circuit model of brain. 1950 – Turing’ s computing machine and intelligence. 1950’ s – Early AI programs including Samuel’ s checker program, Newell and Simon’ s logic theorist, Gelisnters geometry engine 1956 – Dartmouth conference.
  9. 9. HISTORY 1952-69 – “Look, Ma, no hands!” era. 1958 – McCarthy moves to MIT, LISP was born. 1965 – Robinson’s complete algorithm for logical reasoning. 1966-74 – AI discovers computational complex. 1969-79 - Early development in knowledge based systems.
  10. 10. HISTORY 1980-88 : Expert system industry booms. 1988-93 : Expert system industry busts. 1985-88 : Neural networks return to popularity. 1995 (present) : Agents… Agents… Agents.
  11. 11. Representation Facts about the world have to be represented in some way. Usually languages of mathematical logic are used. Common Sense, Knowledge and Reasoning This is an era in which AI is farthest from human level. While there has been considerable progress, e.g. in development systems of non monotonic reasoning and theories of action
  12. 12. APPLICATIONS OF A.I. Expert systems. Natural Language Processing (NLP). Speech recognition. Computer vision. Robotics. Automatic Programming.
  13. 13. EXPERT SYSTEMS An Expert System is a computer program designed to act as an expert in a particular domain (area of expertise). Domain of E.S. Knowledge base Facts Heuristics P hases in E xpert System Expert systems currently are designed to assist experts, not to replace them, They have been used in medical diagnosis, chemical analysis, geological explorations etc.
  14. 14. Natural Language Processing The goal of N is to enable people and computers to LP communicate in a natural (humanly) language(such as, English) rather than in a computer language. The field of N is divided in 2 categories LP —  Natural Language understanding.  Natural Language generation.
  15. 15. Speech $ Recognition The primary interactive method of communication used by humans is not reading and writing, it is speech. $ The goal of speech recognition research is to allow computers to understand human speech. So that they can hear our voices and recognize the words we are speaking. $ It simplifies the process of interactive communication between people and computers, thus it advances the goal of NLP.
  16. 16. Computer Vision People generally use vision as their primary means of sensing their environment, we generally see more than we hear, feel or smell or taste. The goal of computer vision research is to give computers this same powerful facility for understanding their surrounding. Here A.I helps computer to understand what they see through attached cameras.
  17. 17. Robotics A Robot is a electro-mechanical device that can by programmed to perform manual tasks or a reprogrammable multi functional manipulator designed to move materials, parts, tools, or specialized devices through variable programmed motions for performance of variety of tasks. An ‘ inte llig e nt’ robot includes some kind of sensory apparatus that allows it to respond to change in it’ s environment.
  18. 18. FUTURE (+) The day is not far when you will just sit back in your cozy little beds and just command your personal Robot's to entirely do your ruts . He will be a perfect companion for you. Just enjoy the Technology.
  19. 19. FUTURE (-) But wait, don’ t be happy. . ! It may end in other way too. Some day there will be a knock to your door. As you open it, you see a large number of Robots marching into your house destroying everything you own and looting you. This is because ever since there is an advantage in the Technology, it attracts anti-social elements. This is true for Robots too. Because now they will have full power to think as human, even as of anti-social elements. So think trice before giving them power of Cognition.
  20. 20. CONCLUSION In it’ s short existence, AI has increased understanding of the nature of intelligence and provided an impressive array of application in a wide range of areas. It has sharpened understanding of human reasoning, and of the nature of intelligence in general. At the same time, it has revealed the complexity of modeling human reasoning providing new areas and rich challenges for the future.
  21. 21. -Presented by Intekhab
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