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Convergence

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Convergence

  1. 1. CONVERGENCE
  2. 2. CONVERGENCE  Convergence can be identified as two different/disparate disciplines or technologies working together.  Nicholas Negroponte first identified convergence.  He envisioned that the worlds of IT , television and movies and print and publishing would come together and work.  Convergence implies the integration of telecommunication, broadcasting and Internet network services.
  3. 3.  Examples : 1. Fax Machine is the result of convergence of Telecommunications technology (phone part of fax machine using which we dial the destination at which fax has to be sent/received),Optical scanning technology (scans the paper), and Printing technology (prints the scanned paper at the receiver’s end). 2. VOIP (Voice Over Internet Protocol) Using Internet to make calls.
  4. 4. CATEGORIES OF CONVERGENCE  Network Convergence: Data Networks are moving from the traditional data packet store-and-forward mechanism to a real-time communication infrastructure . Due to this ever rising need for higher bandwidth ,quality of service and policy management.  Application Convergence: Interoperate across different vendor systems. From a high-end videoconferencing system we can talk to a low-end desktop.  Payload Convergence: Varied types of data is carried in the same communication format.
  5. 5.  Protocol Convergence : Movement away from multiple protocols to a single protocol (like IP) networks.  Physical Convergence : When the equipment over which the packets travel is the same regardless of the service requirements. Example: Edge network can be used for multimedia and web traffic.  Device Convergence : Single network device that supports various different networking. Example :Router used for wired and wireless networks  Technological convergence is the tendency that as technology changes, different technological systems sometimes evolve toward performing similar tasks. Example :IPTV , Voice over IP
  6. 6.  Digital convergence refers to the convergence of four industries into one conglomerate, ITTCE (Information Technologies, Telecommunication, Consumer Electronics, and Entertainment). Previously separate technologies such as voice (and telephony features), data (and productivity applications), and video can now share resources and interact with each other synergistically.  Media convergence "the flow of content across multiple media platforms”. Media convergence, in reality, is more than just a shift in technology . It is a process not an outcome.
  7. 7. APPLICATIONS OF E-COMMERCE  Document automation in supply chain and logistics  Domestic and international payment systems  Automated online assistant  Newsgroups  Online shopping and order tracking  Online banking  Online office suites  Shopping cart software  Teleconferencing  Electronic tickets  Social networking
  8. 8. E-COMMERCE MECHANISM Two Methods: 1. Shopping cart software : Online presentation of goods for sale. Selecting all the goods in the cart and paying once for the selected items. Features : Credit Card Adequacy, navigation system for consumers, order management ability, consumer account management ,flexible shipping, inventory management. 2. Online Telephony : Technology that allows the consumer to call by phone on the same line which they are using for Internet connection. Known as VOIP (Voice Over Internet Protocol )

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