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Ten Trends ! scholarship ! professional development ! literacy and numeracy ! positive psychology ! assessment for learning ! enterprise education ! data and student ! outdoor education progress ! parental engagement ! scientiﬁc management
Assessment for LearningAssessment for Learning (AfL) meansusing evidence and feedback to identifywhere pupils are in their learning, wherethey need to go and how best to getthere.
“Inside the black box” (Black and Wiliam, 1998)summarises the main findings from 250 assessmentarticles (covering nine years of internationalresearch). It identifies five key factors that improvelearning through assessment:
The Curriculum TheAssessmentThe Differentiation The Evaluation
The Curriculum TheAssessment! Starting event ! Outcome(s) to test! Sequence ! Formative assessments ! Final test/taskThe Differentiation The Evaluation! Extension, Enhancement ! What did we learn?! Support ! What should we do better?
What kind of learner are you? Engage children in discussion about their own learning behaviour, during lessons or sessions and in plenaries. Questions that encourage children to reﬂect on themselves as learners include, for example: What have you learned? What have you achieved? What do you feel good about/proud of? What do you like doing/learning? What do you do well? What do you ﬁnd hard? What don’t you know/understand? What do you want to do/improve/learn? What do you need to do to make that possible? What help do you need? What ways helped you learn this? What ways did you learn best/prefer? What do you think of yourself as a learner? Before using such questions you will want to discuss what these questions mean for the children you work with. • Does it vary with age? • How would you make these ideas accessible to different age groups, and to children with special educational needs, children from different cultural backgrounds and children with English as an additional language (EAL)?
Classroom talk Traditional questioning Teacher asks a question Children put their hands up Teacher takes an answer Teacher accepts, rejects or develops the answer Teacher asks a further questionResearch going back for decades has shown that, in classrooms, teachers control the majority of the talk – selecting who will speak, when they will speak and for how long. T eachers also do most of the talking in classrooms.The most common form of teacher–child discourse in classrooms is that shown above. Such exchanges often close down learning opportunities because children are steered towards a correct answer that the teacher is seeking. The effectiveness of teacher–learner exchanges depends on the quality of the questioning (or alternatives to questioning).
Extending classroom talk T eaching through dialogue enables adults and children to build on ideas in sustained talk. When Strategies for encouraging extended dialogue: teaching through dialogue, teachers andAnother feature of practitioners encourageclassroom discourse that Allow thinking time before taking responses children to listen to each other, share ideas andhas been identified through consider alternatives; toresearch is the brevity of Use ‘think, pair, share’ (30 seconds to think, 1 build on their own andmany children’sresponses. In a comparative minute to share with a partner) others’ ideas to developstudy of classrooms in the coherent thinking; toUK, Russia, India and the Do not respond immediately after a child has express their views fully; and to help each otherUSA, Alexander (2001)has argued for a greater replied – often they will say more reach common understandings. T eachingemphasis on developingdialogic talk, where Challenge the response – ‘T me why …’, ‘But ell through dialogue canextended responses from what about …?’ take place when a teacherchildren are expected, or practitioner talks withencouraged Ask the child to elaborate – ‘Can you say an individual child, orand supported. when two children are more?’ talking together, or when the whole class is joining in in a discussion. Evaluations of the use of interactive whiteboards in Y 5 and 6 found that ears their use led to children talking for longer in their responses and using a range of extended vocabulary in their explanations.
Professional development! Must be about improving or updating specialist/subject knowledge! Must help us improve our skills in practice! Must have evaluation alongside development! Must be sizeable!...So we need a different paradigm: ! consultancy ! artisan
Seligman! Identiﬁed as the founder of Positive Psychology! Attempting to leave behind a psychology obsessed with illness and depression! Trying to ﬁnd out what is related to Happiness! Trying to understand how people can improve their happiness! Developed online tests which help to identify individuals strengths! Promotes the idea of recognizing and enjoying your strengths, so that you can build on them
Learning to behave! The three crucial parts of learning to behave for the pre- teen are: the ability to the ability to balance your deferred maintain needs against the gratiﬁcation attention needs of everyone else S.Palmer, 2006
Hug (or wink)! Students at Pennsylvania State were assigned to two groups. The ﬁrst had to hug others at least 5 times a day over 4 weeks: front-to-front, non-sexual hugs using both arms. The others did not. ! The huggers (averaging about 49 a week) became much happier! The guys who found it uncomfortable at ﬁrst found ways to start, such as with success on the sports ﬁeld! Later, the researchers found winking and complimenting also work J M Clipman, 1999
Be optimistic! Professor Laura King asked participants in an experiment to visit her lab for 4 consecutive days, and to spend 20 minutes writing about their best possible future selves ! Compared with those who just wrote about their lives, the participants had happier moods and even reported fewer physical ailments several months later! Those who persist derive more beneﬁt! Why? Because it asks a question relevant to your lives, it starts the process of building today and, through the medium of writing, it helps you discover and structure your ideas L.A.King, 2001
But, 6 yearslater... only 1 in 5 had completed a four- year US degree