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Smart Grid Seminar Report
Technical seminar report
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1 . I ntr oduc ti on
A smart grid delivers electricity from suppliers to consumers using two-way
digital technol...
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The Smart Grid is planned to have the following key characteristics:
 Self-healing: A grid, which is able to ra...
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  1. 1. www.pediain.com 2013 Smart Grid Seminar Report Technical seminar report
  2. 2. P age | 1 1 . I ntr oduc ti on A smart grid delivers electricity from suppliers to consumers using two-way digital technology to control appliances at consumers' homes to save energy, reduce cost and increase reliability and transparency. It is capable of assessing its health in real-time, predicting its behavior, anticipatory behavior, adaptation to new environments, handling distributed resources, stochastic demand, and optimal response to the smart appliances. It is a tool that allows electric utilities to focus on evolving true business drivers by enabling cost containment, end-to-end power delivery control, and a more secure infrastructure. The grid is considered to have observability with nodes data integration and analysis to support advances in system operation and control. This includes power delivery integration and high level utility strategic planning functions. The existing transmission and distribution systems use techniques and strategies that are old and there is limited use of digital communication and control technology. To achieve improved, reliable and economical power delivery information flow and secure integrated communication is proposed. The Smart Grid with intelligent functions is expected to provide self- correction, reconfiguration and restoration, and able to handle randomness of loads and market participants in real time, while creating more complex interaction behavior with intelligent devices, communication protocols, standard and smart algorithms to achieve complex interaction with smart communication and transportation systems.
  3. 3. P age | 2 The Smart Grid is planned to have the following key characteristics:  Self-healing: A grid, which is able to rapidly detect, analyze, respond and restore from perturbations.  Empower and incorporate the consumer: The ability to incorporate consumer equipment and behavior in the design and operation of the grid.  Tolerant of attack: A grid that mitigates and stands resilient to physical and cyber security attacks.  Provides power quality needed by 21st century users: A grid that provides a quality of power consistent with consumer and industry needs.  Accommodates a wide variety of generation options: A grid that accommodates a wide variety of local and regional generation technologies (including green power).  Fully enables maturing electricity markets: Allows competitive markets for those who want them.  Optimizes assets: A grid that uses IT and monitoring to continually optimize its capital assets while minimizing operations and maintenance costs. Overall, the Smart Grid design goals are to provide grid observability; create controllability of assets, enhance power system performance and security; and reduce costs of operations, maintenance, and system planning. Benefits of the Smart Grid with bring forth the following:  Improved system performance meters.  Better customer satisfaction.  Improved ability to supply information for rate cases, visibility of utility operation / asset management
  4. 4. P age | 3  Availability of data for strategic planning, as well as better support for digital summary  More reliable and economic delivery of power enhanced by information flow and secure communication  Life cycle management, cost containment, and end-to-end power delivery is improved in the smart grid design  Improved ability to supply accurate information for rate cases- with compounding impact in regulatory utilities  Input visibility of utility operation to asset management Impact access to historical data for strategic planning.
  5. 5. P age | 4 2. S MART GRI D Generating plant Transmission Line Substation Distribution System End User A SMART GRID deliverselectricity from supplier to consumers using two- way digital technology to control appliances at consumers¶ homes to save energy, reduce cost and increase reliability and transparency. It overlays the electricity distribution grid with an information and net metering system. Power travels from the power plant to your house through an amazing system called the power distribution grid.Such a modernized electricity networks is being promoted by many governments as a way of addressing energy independences, global warming and emergency resilience issues. Smart meters may be part of smart grid, but alone do not constitute a smart grid.
  6. 6. P age | 5 A smart grid includes an intelligent monitoring system that keeps track of all electricity flowing in the system. It also incorporates the use of superconductive transmission lines for less power loss, as well as the capability of the integrating renewable electricity such as solar and wind. When power is least expensive the user can allow the smart grid to turn on selected home appliances such as washing machines or factory processes that can run at arbitrary hours. At peak times it could turn off selected appliances to reduce demand.
  7. 7. P age | 6 2.1 FUNCTIONS SUPPORTED BY THE SMART GRID ARCHITECTURE For the functional scope of the Smart Grid architecture[2], eight functional scenarios have been defined. A short description of each case is provided in the following subsections. 2.1.1 Variable-Tariff-Based Load The key idea of this is a variable price profile given to the customer day ahead before the delivery by a retailer. This profile is considered fixed after transmission to the customer and, as such, the customer can rely on it. The price profile will look different for each day, reflecting market conditions that vary from day to day. These variations will likely further increase with expanding generation from fluctuating sources like wind power and photovoltaics. Generally, this concept allows for integration of loads as well as of generation units at the customer site as it is up to the customer which devices are allowed to be managed according to the variable tariff. To enable in-home energy management, a suitable domestic system is required together with an automatic home management device coupled to an intelligent meter. 2.1.2 Energy Usage Monitoring and Feedback In the ³Action Plan for Energy Efficiency´, the European Commission estimates the EU-wide energy saving potential of households at approx. 27%.
  8. 8. P age | 7 As one important measure for realizing this potential, the action plan states that awareness must be increased in order to stimulate end-customer behavioural changes. A timely display of energy consumption is expected to have positive effects on energy savings. Personalized and well targeted advice on how to save energy can further help exploit the savings potential. A portal or display that combines information about present and past consumption, comparisons to average consumption patterns, and precise suggestions how to further lower consumption, which are tailored personally to the customer, is expected to be the most effective way of realizing the targeted increase in households¶ energy efficiency. 2.1.3 Real-time Portfolio Imbalance Reduction This function is rooted in the balancing mechanism as used by Transmission System Operators (TSOs) throughout the world. In this context, a wholesale- market participant, that is responsible for a balanced energy volume position, is called a Balance Responsible Party (BRP). These parties have an obligation to plan or forecast the production and consumption in their portfolio, as well as notify this plan to the TSO. Deviations of these plans may cause (upward or down-ward) regulation actions by the TSO. The TSO settles the costs for the used reserve and emergency capacity with those BRPs that had deviations from their energy programs. On average this results in costs for the BRP referred to as imbalance costs. This business case scenario focuses on the balancing actions by a BRP in the near-real time (i.e. at the actual moment of delivery). Traditionally, these real-time balancing actions are performed by power plants within the BRP¶s portfolio. The key idea of this function is the utilization of real-time flexibility of end-user customers to balance the BRP portfolio.
  9. 9. P age | 8 2.1.4 Offering (secondary) Reserve Capacity to the TSO Taking the previous function one step further, the BRP uses these VPPs to, additionally, bid actively into the reserve capacity markets. 2.1.5 Distribution System Congestion Management This function is aimed at the deferral of grid reinforcements and enhancement of network utilization to improve the quality of supply in areas with restricted capacity in lines and transformers. The Distribution System Operator (DSO) avoids infrastructural investments and optimizes the use of existing assets by active management using services delivered by smart houses. By coordinated use of these services, end-customer loads can be shifted away from periods at which congestion occurs and simultaneousness of local supply and demand can be improved. 2.1.6 Distribution Grid Cell Islanding in Case of Higher- System Instability The main principle of this is to allow the operation of a grid cell in island mode in case of higher system instability in a market environment. The scenario has two main steps, the first occurring before a possible instability and involves keeping a load shedding schedule up-to-date. The second step is the steady islanded operation. The transition to the island mode is automatic and neither end users nor the aggregator interferes with it. The system manages the energy within the island grid and it is considered that all nodes within the islanded grid will participate in the system.
  10. 10. P age | 9 2.1.7 Black-Start Support from Smart Houses The most important concept of this function is to support the black start operation of the main grid. It is assumed that after the blackout the local grid is also out of operation. The main goal is to start up quickly in island mode and then to reconnect with the upstream network in order to provide energy to the system. 2.1.8 Integration of Forecasting Techniques The volatility of the production level of distributed generators, like renewables and CHP, makes forecasting a necessary tool for market participation. The market actor with the lowest forecasting error will have the most efficient market participation. Moreover, the usage of intelligent management tools for handling the information about the uncertainties of large-scale wind generation will improve the system-wide operational costs, fuel and CO2 savings. The Smart Grid architecture under development must interact with these forecasting tools and additionally ensure accurate data collection for these tools.
  11. 11. P a g e | 10 3. Smar t G ri d An d i t¶s Need Understanding the need for smart grid requires acknowledging a few facts about our infrastructure. The power grid is the backbone of the modern civilization, a complex society with often conflicting energy needs-more electricity but fewer fossil fuels, increased reliability yet lower energy costs, more secure distribution with less maintenance, effective new construction and efficient disaster reconstruction. But while demand for electricity has risen drastically, its transmission is outdated and stressed. The bottom line is that we are exacting more from a grid that is simply not up to the task. POWER SYSTEM
  12. 12. P a g e | 11 How smart should a smart power grid The utilities get the ability to communicate with and control end user hardware, from industrial- scale air conditioner to residential water heaters. They use that to better balance supply and demand, in part by dropping demand during peak usage hours. Taking advantages of information technology to increase the efficiency of the grid, the delivery system, and the use of electricity at the same time is itself a smart move. Simply put, a smart grid combined with smart meters enables both electrical utilities and consumer to be much more efficient. A smart grid not only moves electricity more efficiently in geographic terms, it also enables electricity use to be shifted overtime-for example, from period of peak demand to those of off-peak demand. Achieving this goals means working with consumers who have ³smart meters´ to see exactly how much electricity is being used at any particular time. This facilitates two-way communication between utility and consumer. So they can cooperate in reducing peak demand in a way that it¶s advantageous to both. And it allow to the use of two way metering so that customer who have a rooftop solar electric panel or their ownwindmill can sell surplus electricity back to the utility. 1. Intelligent ± Capable of sensing system overloads and rerouting power to prevent or minimize a potential outage; of working autonomously when conditions required resolution faster than humans can respond and co-operatively in aligning the goals of utilities, consumers and regulators.
  13. 13. P a g e | 12 2. Efficient ± Capable of meeting efficient increased consumer demand without adding infrastructure. 3. Accommodating ± Accepting energy from virtually any fuel source including solar and wind as easily and transparently as coal and natural gas: capable of integrating any and all better ideas and technologies ± energy storage technologies. For e.g.- as they are market proven and ready to come online. 4. Motivating ± Enable real-time communication between the consumer and utility, so consumer can tailor their energy consumption based on individual preferences, like price and or environmental concerns. 5. Resilient ± Increasingly resistant to attack and natural disasters as it becomes more decentralization and reinforced with smart grid security protocol. 6. Green ± Slowing the advance of global climate change and offering a genuine path towards significant environmental improvement.
  14. 14. P a g e | 13 Tec h n olo gy The bulk of smart grid technologies are already used in other applications such as manufacturing and telecommunications and are being adapted for use in grid operations. In general, smart grid technology can be grouped into five key areas I. II. Inte g ra te d co mmuni c a tions Some communications are up to date, but are not uniform because they have been developed in an incremental fashion and not fully integrated. In most cases, data is being collected via modem rather than direct network connection. Areas for improvement include: substation automation, demand response, distribution automation, supervisory control and data acquisition(SCADA), energy management systems, wireless mesh networks and other technologies, power- line carrier communication s and fiber- optics. Integrated communication will allow for real time control, information and data exchange to optimize system reliability, asset utilization, and security. Se nsi ng a nd me a sur eme nt core duties are evaluating congestion and grid stability, monitoring equipment health, energy theft prevention, and control strategies support. Technologies include: advanced microprocessor meters (smart meter) and meter reading equipment, wide-area monitoring system, dynamic line rating(typically based on online reading by distributed temperature sensing combined with Real time thermal rating (RTTR) systems), electromagnetic
  15. 15. P a g e | 14 signature measurement/analysis, time-of-use and real-time pricing tools, advanced switches and cables, backscatter radio technology, andDigital protective relays. III. Smart meters A smart grid replaces analog mechanical meters with digital meters that record usage in real time. Smart meters are similar to Advanced Metering Infrastructure meters and provide a communication path extending from generation plants to electrical outlets (smart socket) and other smart grid- enabled devices. By customer option, such devices can shut down during times of peak demand. IV. Advanced components Innovations in superconductivity, fault tolerance, storage, power electronics, and diagnostics components are changing fundamental abilities and characteristics of grids. Technologies within these broad R&D categories include: flexible alternating current transmission system devices, high voltage direct current, first and second generation superconducting wire, high temperature superconducting cable, distributed energy generation and storage devices, composite conductors, and ³intelligent´ appliances.
  16. 16. P a g e | 15 RED U C TIO N O F LOS SES IN GR ID TECHNICAL LOSSES IN T&D SYSTEM Transmission system comprises of transmission towers, conductors, insulators and switchgear protection system transmits power from generating station to any particular distribution substation. Distribution system comprises of feeder towers, poles and insulators etc. which distribute power fromdistribution substation to any particular area. Parameters influencing T&D system: 1) Transformer 2) Transmission line 3) Distribution line TRANSFORMER LOSSES :- Transformer losses Iron losses (constant losses) Copper losses (variable losses) a) IRON LOSSES The loss of power consumed to sustain the magnetic field in transformer steel core. It is also known as iron losses. Magnetic losses = hysteresis loss + eddy current loss
  17. 17. P a g e | 16 b) COPPER LOSSES The total power loss taking place in the winding of transformer is called as copper (Cu) loss or electrical losses. Cu losses =I12R1+ I22R2 Now, that we have learned the number of losses in T&D sector so also lets have a view to reduce or conserve this losses. The major percentage of losses occurring in T&D sector are only transformer losses. It contributes to 40% of losses inT&D system. So, it is sole responsibility to reduce them.  ENERGY CONSERVATION TECHNIOUES - ENERGY CONSERVATION IN TRANSMISSION SYSTEM: Transformer is a static device. It does not have any moving parts. So, a transformer is free from mechanical and frictional losses. Thus, it faces only electrical losses and magnetic losses. Hence the efficiency of conventional transformer is high around 95-98%. Thus, energy conservation opportunities for trans former are available only in design and material used. Also optimizing loading of transformer can increase efficiency of system.
  18. 18. P a g e | 17 ENERGY CONSERVAT ION TECHNIQ UES IN TRANSF ORMER  OPTIMIZATION OF LOADING OF TRANSFORMER The environmental protection agency (EPA) brought study report that nearly 61 billion K WH of electricity is wasted in each year only as transformer losses. Study of typical grid system showed that, power transformer contributes nearly 40% to 50% of total transmission and distribution losses. Maintaining maximum efficiency to occur at 38% loading (as recommended by REC), the overall efficiency of transformer can be increased and its losses can be reduced. The load loss may be even reduced by using thicker conductors.  IMPROVISION IN DESIGN AND MATERIAL OF TRANSFORMER This is nothing but the reducing No-Load losses or Core Losses. They can be reduced by following methods:- 1) BY USING ENERGY EFFICIENT TRANSFORMER- By using superior quality or improved grades of CRGO (Cold Rolled Grain Oriented) laminations, the no-load losses can be reduced to 32%. Tr ans forme r r ati ngs Re d uc tion i n los s e s a t 38% loadi ng 25 KVA 685-466W 63KVA 1235-844W 100KVA 1760-1196W
  19. 19. P a g e | 18 2) BY USING AMORPHOUS TRANSFORMER Transformer with superior quality of core material i.e. amorphous alloy is called Amorphous Transformers. Amorphous alloy is made up of Iron- boron-silicon alloy. The magnetic core of this transformer is made with amorphous metal, which is easily magnetized / demagnetized. Typically, core loss can be 70±80% less than itsMolten metal mixture when cooled to solid state at a very high speed rate, retain a random atomic structure that is not crystalline. This is called Amorphous. Amorphous transformer
  20. 20. P a g e | 19 ENERGY C ONSERVAT I O N I N T RANSMISSI ON LI NE:- Transmission losses can be reduced as follows:- 1) BY REDUCING RESISTANCE - Losses are directly proportional to I2r in conductor. So, if we reduce µR¶ from this surely the losses will be reduced. For this we can use stranded or bundled conductors or ACSR conductors. And even this method is been adopted and also successful. ACC ACSR Conductor 2) BY CONTROLLING VOLTAGE LEVELS- This can be done by following methods- 1. By using voltage controllers 2. By using voltage stabilizer 3. By using power factor controller
  21. 21. P a g e | 20 AWRENESS IN CONSUMERS- This is one of most important and useful/helpful for energy conservation. This can be done by asking consumer to make use of energy efficientequipments,by giving seminar about energy conservation and make them aware and understand about the happening and there advantages and disadvantages etc. Effective use of smart grid technologies by customer helps utilities ±     Optimizes grid use. Improve grid efficiency and security. Better align demand with supply constraints & grid congestion. Enable distributed generation (especially fromrenewablesources) ENERGY C ONSERVAT I O N I N D IST R IBU T I ON SYSTEM :- This is done by considering following points:- 1) BALANCING OF PHASE LOAD- As a result of unequal loads on individual phase sequence, components causes over heating of transformers, cables, conductors motors. Thus, increasing losses and resulting in the motor malfunctioning under unbalanced voltage conditions. Thus, keeping the system negative phase sequence voitage within limits, amount of savings in capital (saving the duration of equipment )as well as energy losses. Thus, to avoid this losses, the loads are distributed evenly µas is practical¶ between the phases. 1) POWER FACTOR IMPROVEMENT- Low power factor will lead to increased current and hence increase losses and will affect the voltage. The power factor at peak is almost unity. However, during off peak hours, mainly (11 am to 3 pm ) the power factor decreases to around 0.8, this may be due to following reasons,  Wide use of fans.  Wide industrial loads.
  22. 22. P a g e | 21  Wide use of agricultural and domestic pumping motors.  Less use of high power factor loads like lightubg etc. Now, to improve power factor at off peak hours the consumers must be aware of the effects of low power factor and must connect compensation equipments DSTACOM, capacitor bank. SMART METERS A smart meter generally refers to a type of advanced meters that identifies consumption in more detail than a conventional meter and communicates that information back to the local utility for monitoring and billing, a process known as telemetering. These meters includes additional functions to power measurement such as communication, data storage, remote programming, and time-of-use rates , and are intended to be deployed as advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) solution. Smart meters are the next generation of electricity and gas meters. smart meter will empower customer to make choices on how much energy they use. Supplier will install two-way communication system that display accurate real time information on energy use in the home to the consumer and back to the energy supplier.
  23. 23. P a g e | 22 COMPARISION BETWEEN TODAY¶ S GRID AND SMART GRID( MODERN GRID) Cha ra c te ri s ti cs Today ¶s g ri d Sma r t g r id (Modern grid) 1) Self-heals Respond to prevent further damage. focus is on protection of assets following system faults. Automatically detects & respond to actual & emerging transmission &distribution problems. Focus is on prevention. minimizes computer impacts. 2) Motivates & includes the consumers Consumers are uniformed &non-participative with the power system. Informed involve &active consumers. Broad penetration of demand response. 3) Resist attack Vulnerable to malicious acts of terrors natural disasters. Resilient to attach &natural disasters with rapid restoration capabilities. 4) Provided power quality for 21st century needs Focused on outstage rather than power quality problems. Solve response in revolving PQ issues. Quality of power meets industry standards & consumers need. PQ issues identified &revolved prior to manifestation. Various levels of PQ at various prices. 5) Accommodates all generation and storage option. Relatively small no. of large generating plants. numerous obstacles exist for interconnecting DER. Very large no. of diverse distributed generation & storage devices deployed to complements the large generating plant.
  24. 24. P a g e | 23 Advantages Of Smart Grid-  Reduces the cost of blackouts.  Helps measure and reduces energy conservation and costs.  Help businesses to reduce their carbon footprints.  Opens up new opportunities for tech companies meaning more jobs created. Disadvantages Of Smart Grid  Biggest concern: it has security and privacy.  Two-way communication between power consumer and provider and sensors so it is costly.  Some type of meter can hacked.  HACKER-  Gain control of thousand even millions, of meters.  Increases or decreases the demand of power.  Not simply a single component .various technology components are used are software, system integrators,the power generators. Future ±  In the new future, will not be any vast development.  Risky because of financial developments and regulations.  In the long run, attitudes will change, wide spread usage of the smart grid from every business to every home just like the internet.
  25. 25. P a g e | 24 RELIABILITY Renewable resources, while supplementing the generation capability of the grid and addressing some environmental concerns, aggravate the reliability due to their volatility. Demand response and electric storage resources are necessary for addressing economics of the grid and are perceived to support grid reliability through mitigating peak demand and load variability. Electric transportation resources are deemed helpful to meeting environmental targets and can be used to mitigate load variability. Balancing the diversity of the characteristics of these resource types presents challenges in maintaining grid reliability [7]. Reliability has always been in the forefront of power grid design and operation due to the cost of outages to customers. In the US, the annual cost of outages in 2002 is estimated to be in the order of $79B [5] which equals to about a third of the total electricity retail revenue of $249B [6]. A similar estimate based on 2008 retail revenue would be of the order of $109B. Much higher estimates have been reported by others. The reliability issues in modern power grids are becoming increasingly more challenging. Factors contributing to the challenges include: Aggravated grid congestion, driven by uncertainty, diversity and distribution of energy supplies due to environmental and sustainability concerns. The power flow patterns in real-time can be significantly different from those considered in the design or off-line analyses.
  26. 26. P a g e | 25 More numerous, larger transfers over longer distances increasing volatility and reducing reliability margins. This phenomenon is aggravated by energy markets. The grid being operated at its ³edge´ in more locations and more often because of:  Insufficient investment and limited rights of way  Increasing energy consumption and peak demand creating contention for limited transfer capability  Aging infrastructure  Maximizing asset utilization driven by modern tools for monitoring, analyzing and control Consolidation of operating entities giving rise to a larger ³foot print´ with more complex problems and requiring smaller error margins and shorter decision times. This problem may be aggravated by depletion of experienced personnel due to retirement, etc. 7.1 DISTRIBUTION MANAGEMENT FUNCTIONS The reliability problem also arises due to faults occurring in the system. A set of advanced automation functions [8] is developed to combat this problem. These new distribution management functions can be summarized as follows:
  27. 27. P a g e | 26 7.1.1 The Fault Diagnosis and Alarm Processing Function: This function is automatically triggered immediately after the occurrence of a fault. It produces a diagnosis of events on the basis of a set of pre-defined scenarios (a comparison of the remote information flow is made with the patterns predefined by experienced operators). The diagnosis produces an analysis of the type of fault enabling the operator to quickly understand what happened in the network under its control. The function can also detect missing remote control signals. 7.1.2 The Fault Location Function: After detecting and analyzing the fault, it is necessary to find the location of the fault. The goal of this function is to quickly determine the section of the feeder where the fault occurred. This is performed by analyzing the information sent from fault indicators to the control center. Operators can then intervene and isolate the fault area by remotely opening the corresponding switches. The degree of accuracy depends on the density of fault indicators on the MV network. 7.1.3 The Service Restoration Function: After locating the fault, this function finds all the plans allowing power restoration to lost customers of the non-faulted section of the feeder while considering technical constraints. Each plan consists of a series of actions, (opening/closing of switching devices) leading to power restoration.
  28. 28. P a g e | 27 CONCLUSION With the increasing world population, thereby increasing demand, and depleting resources the need to be µsmart¶ and efficient in our energy usage has become an imperative. Implementation of Smart Grid concept would go a long way in solving many of the present energy issues and problems. The whole network needs to be upgraded to meet the requirements i.e. at transmission as well as distribution level. Researches are going on to find the optimal solution and new technology to make all the desired characteristics possible. Smart Meters, Smart Homes, Smart City and so on would constitute the Smart Grid. As the new technologies would be invented and existing ones boosted up to meet the desired specifications the Smart Grid would become a reality and change the whole energy pattern throughout the world.
  29. 29. P a g e | 28 Resources of information Articles ± Energy Conservation Through Energy Management - byProf. S. P. Rath (IEEMA magazine, January 2008) WIRELESS Transmission Of Electric Power - by Syed Khadeerullah(Electrical India magazine, January 2008) Magazine of ³Electrical India 2010´ Websites:- www.nima.com www.howstuffworks.com www.wikipedia.com www.xcelenergy.com/smartgridcity www.schneider.com www.powersmiths.com www.renewableenrgyworld.com