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Agrarian Crisis in Telangana and Way forward

Presentation in workshop at Osmania University on 'Agrarian Crisis and Farmers Suicides' on 28th November, 2014

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Agrarian Crisis in Telangana and Way forward

  1. 1. Crisis and way forward Centre for Sustainable Agriculture
  2. 2. The saga of Farmers suicides 1985-86: Guntur district more than 100 farmers committed suicides 1997-99: Warangal, Karimnagar dist more than 3,000 farmers committed suicides 2003-04: all over the state more than 2500 suicides 2004-2013: on average 2,000
  3. 3. People depending on Agriculture in India (People in Million) (% of workers) 69.43% 29.96% 19.5% 69.9 16.69% 99.6 Indian Census 1951-2011 26.33% 22.69% 78.2 92.5 23.75% 26.38% 110.7 127.31 118.7 27.3 31.5 47.5 55.5 74.6 106.1 144.3 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 1951 1961 1971 1981 1991 2001 2011 Cultivators Agriculture labour 49.93% 52.78% 43.35% 37.82% 35.24% 31.65% 24.64% 69.47% 69.68% 60.51% 58.99% 58.03% 54.6% • People depending on agriculture has come down from 69.43% to 54.6% in last 60yrs • For the first time the number of cultivators is lower than agriculture workers both in proportion and absolute numbers • Between 2001-2011 about 86.10 lakh people have left farming in India which is about 2358/day • In 2011 main cultivators (depending on farm income for more than 6 months) are only 95.8 m which is about 8% of Indian population) Source: Census of India 1951-2011 http://www.agrariancrisis.in
  4. 4. People Depending on Agriculture Year Total Population Rural Population Cultivators Workers Agriculture Other Labourers Worker Total s 1 1951 361.10 298.60 69.90 27.30 42.80 140.00 82.69% 49.93% 19.50% 30.57% 100.00% 2 1961 439.20 360.30 99.60 31.50 57.60 188.70 82.04% 52.78% 16.69% 30.52% 100.00% 3 1971 548.20 439.00 78.20 47.50 54.70 180.40 80.08% 43.35% 26.33% 30.32% 100.00% 4 1981 683.30 523.90 92.50 55.50 96.60 244.60 76.67% 37.82% 22.69% 39.49% 100.00% 5 1991 846.30 628.70 110.70 74.60 128.80 314.10 74.29% 35.24% 23.75% 41.01% 100.00% 6 2001 1012.40 742.60 127.31 106.10 168.15 402.23 73.35% 31.65% 26.38% 41.80% 100.00% 7 2011 1,210.73 833.5 118.7 144.3 218.7 481.7 68.84% 24.64% 29.96% 45.40% 100.00%
  5. 5. Population depending on Agriculture in Andhra Pradesh (united) (40.87%) (27.74 %) (39.64 %) (22.52 %) (43.04 %) (16.47 %) (68.61 %) (62.16 %) (59.51 %) • In last one decade 13,68,012 people have left farming and most of them became agriculture workers • This is on average 375/day
  6. 6. People depending on Agriculture 91,66,653 (55%) (19%) 31,75,667 1,64,53,000 (37%) 59,90,986 (45%) 65,09,430 By 2022 population in the working age would be 3.12 cr, employment oppurtunities may grow only upto 1.80 cr
  7. 7. 20000 18000 16000 14000 12000 10000 8000 6000 4000 2000 0 195 196 197 198 19 20 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 2010 201 2012 2013 Farmers suicides in India No. of suicides Total 2,96,466 in 19 years Source: NCRB 1995-2013 http://www.agrariancrisis.in
  8. 8. Farmers Suicides in India, 2013 Total 11,772 Four major cotton growing states form 65% of the suicides AP and Maharashtra form 44 % Source: NCRB 1995-2013, http://www.ncrb.nic.in http://www.agrariancrisis.in
  9. 9. 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 year 195 196 197 198 19 20 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 2010 201 2012 2013 Farmers suicides in Andhra Pradesh (united) NCRB data Total 37,912 in 19 years Source: NCRB 1995-2013 http://www.ncrb.nic.in http://www.agrariancrisis.in
  10. 10. Total Farmers Suicides- 26,773 1995 to 2014 (October) 801 1143 Telugu Desam Congress TRS 735 (11,952) (14,441) (380) 1215 1550 Farmers Suicides 943 995 12451295 2030 1932 1802 1071 1575 1213 1536 1316 1600 1576 1200 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009 2011 2013 Farmers Suicides Source: National Crime Records Bureau (1995-2013), News Papers for 2014 http://www.agrariancrisis.in
  11. 11. Telangana farmers suicides since 2nd June to 22nd October, 2014
  12. 12. Recognised by Govt S.No Name of the District 19981999200020012002200313.05.04 14.05.04 200520062007200820092010201120122013 Tota l 1 Adilabad 8 16 23 26 20 26 4 60 60 83 48 12 13 4 0 20 0 423 2 Karimnagar 12 15 15 36 38 36 11 96 73 48 55 64 42 31 35 7 0 614 3 Khammam 1 7 0 9 4 7 2 37 23 22 7 12 2 0 0 0 0 133 4 Mahaboob nagar 4 15 20 9 22 17 4 112 57 35 30 29 17 4 1 0 0 376 5 Medak 2 1 5 5 11 25 17 92 46 30 28 33 34 29 34 4 0 396 6 Nalgonda 10 9 8 15 19 11 34 53 52 48 13 43 17 13 8 0 0 353 7 Nizamabad 1 3 6 8 24 9 8 64 27 12 17 7 10 0 0 0 0 196 8 Ranga Reddy 0 4 3 1 4 5 0 56 39 22 22 26 31 27 20 6 0 266 9 Warangal 46 78 79 95 97 77 27 112 45 32 24 11 2 0 0 0 0 725 10 Hyderabad 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Telangana Grand total 84 148 159 204 239 213 107 682 422 332 244 237 168 108 98 37 03482 Source : Department of revenue
  13. 13. Major Reasons Increasing costs of cultivation due to high input use increasing costs of inputs, and lack of access to productive resources decreasing subsidies Stagnating yields Soil fertility going down Monoculture of crops Crops spreading into areas unsuitable for them Shift to water intensive crops leading to Ground water depletion Failure of tubewells Decreasing prices Lower MSPs Increasing price fluctuations after opening up of markets
  14. 14. Land distribution in Telangana Region Land owned by 5 % of families Land owned by 60 % of families Land less families Northern Telangana 32.21% 10.63% 39.26% Southern Telangana 33.47% 4.96% 50.19% Total 32.84% 7.80% 44.73%
  15. 15. Land holdings in Telangana
  16. 16. Landholdings in Telangana
  17. 17. District Total cropped area Kharif (ha) Cotton area (ha) % area Adilabad 5,75,000.00 3,89,252.00 67.70 Karimnagar 3,93,000.00 2,56,449.00 65.25 Warangal 4,34,000.00 2,70,475.00 62.32 Nalgonda 4,54,000.00 2,10,984.00 46.47 Khammam 3,97,000.00 1,68,990.00 42.57 Rangareddy 2,02,000.00 51,138.00 25.32 Medak 4,27,000.00 96,809.00 22.67 Mahaboobnagar 8,19,000.00 1,82,469.00 22.28 Total 37,01,000.00 16,26,566.00 43.95
  18. 18. http://రైైతు స్వరాజయ్ www.agrariancrisis.in వేదిక
  19. 19. Agriculture loans (2012-13) Crop loans Short Term loans Allied Sector loans Total Ranga Reddy 1,059.62 158.00 310.73 1,528.35 Nizamabad 1,474.03 532.59 274.93 2,281.55 Medak 1,061.92 241.04 343.31 1,646.27 Mahaboobnagar 2,098.43 302.00 431.86 2,832.29 Nalgonda 1,684.31 295.46 298.73 2,278.50 Warangal 1,436.43 201.7 558.55 2,196.68 Khammam 1,514.07 134.00 594.52 2,242.59 Karimnagar 2,046.19 435.43 533.00 3,014.62 Adilabad 1,255.41 204.00 63.00 1,522.41 Hyderabad 434.18 3,127.12 484.07 4,045.37 Total 14,064.59 5,631.34 3,892.70 23,588.63 Source: State Level Bankers Committee, http://www.slbcap.nic.in
  20. 20. Agriculture loans for Hyderabad (2008-13) Year Crop loans Short Term loans Allied Sector loans Total 2008-09 657.20 - - 657.20 2009-10 935.47 625.00 1,860.00 3,420.47 2010-11 480.00 3,939.86 1,840.00 6,259.86 2011-12 245.29 2,574.71 1,874.77 4,694.77 2012-13 434.18 3,127.12 484.07 4,045.37
  21. 21. District Loan eligibility cards issued Farmers who accessed loans Total loan received Nizamabad 6,409 235 0.20 Medak 2009 833 2.19 Warangal 12,136 3,503 0.22 Karimnagar 9,413 2,088 7.18 Adilabad 2,947 600 1.74 Rangareddy 113 25 0.09 Mahaboobnagar 656 40 0.27 Nalgonda 3,021 979 2.49 Khammam 21,830 3,503 9.54 Total 58,534 11,806 23.92 http://రైైతు స్వరాజయ్ www.agrariancrisis.in వేదిక
  22. 22. Loans to tenant farmers District Loan eligibility cards issued Tenant Farmers accessed loans Total loan received Nizamabad 6,409 235 0.20 Medak 2009 833 2.19 Warangal 12,136 3,503 0.22 Karimnagar 9,413 2,088 7.18 Adilabad 2,947 600 1.74 Rangareddy 113 25 0.09 Mahaboobnagar 656 40 0.27 Nalgonda 3,021 979 2.49 Khammam 21,830 3,503 9.54 Total 58,534 11,806 23.92
  23. 23. ఖరీఫ్ రబీ
  24. 24. Income and Expenditure of farmers Land holding Category Total Income (Rs/month) Expenditure (Rs/month) Percent of farmers <0.01 Landless 1380 2297 36 % 0.01-0.4 Sub marginal 1633 2390 0.4-1.0 Marginal 1809 2672 31 % 1.0-2.0 Small 2493 3148 17 % 2.0-4.0 Semi-medium 3589 3685 10 % 4.0-10.0 Medium 5681 4626 6 % >10.0 Large 9667 6418 Total 2115 2770 All farmers Source: Report “On Conditions Of Work And Promotion Of Livelihoods In The Unorganised Sector” Arjun Sen Gupta Committee, 2007
  25. 25. Crop Current support price (Rs/q) Cost of production (Rs/ha) Cost of productio n (Rs/q) Support price recommende d by state (Rs/q) Support price announced by Centre (Rs/q) A grade paddy 1,345 1,05,209 2,104.00 3,156.00 1400.00 Ordinary paddy 1,310 1,02,480 1,708.00 2,562.00 1360.00 Jowar 1,500 28,299 1,769.00 2,653.00 1530.00 Maize 1,310 25,486 1,566.00 2,349.00 1310.00 Ragi 1,500 21,354 1,779.00 2,668.00 1550.00 Groundnut 4,000 40,509 4,501.00 6,751.00 4000.00 Soybean 2,500 52,789 2,778.00 4,167.00 2560.00 Sunflower 3,700 33,633 4,204.00 6,306.00 3750.00 Cotton (long staple) 4,000 98,896 4,945.00 6,306.00 4050.00 Cotton (short staple) 3,700 92,323 4,859.00 7,288.00 3750.00 Sugarcane 210 2,16,986 271.00 406.50 220.00
  26. 26. What is needed…. • Integrated farming systems integrating livestock, trees etc • Agronomic innovations like high density plantation in cotton or SRI in paddy • Building soil organic matter, mulches etc • Conserving moisture and Rainwater harvesting • Locally adopted crops and varieties-millets, pulses, oilseeds, vegetables…. • Contingence planning • Moving away from agro-chemical use
  27. 27. Changing to multiple cropping systems 28
  28. 28. 29 Switching over to ecological farming practices
  29. 29. Community Managed Sustainable Agriculture in Andhra Pradesh Basic Principles Regenerative, ecologically sound practices Organized action by communities in planning, implementing and managing the program Govt/ngos playing facilitating agency role 2004-05 started with 225 acres in one dist and reached 7 lakh acres in 2007-08 in 18 dist. World Bank says this is a good tool for poverty eradication and now promoted as part of NRLM With 50 % development expenditure one can double the incomes of the farmers A national program called Mahila Krishi Sashaktikaran Pariyojana (MKSP) is launched based on this experiencce
  30. 30. Farmers and area covered under CMSA 0.225 25 200 700 1300 2000 2800 3500 3600 0.1 15 80 300 600 1000 1500 1600 1770 2135 1997 1394 1541 1381 1015 4000 3500 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 Acerage ('000 acres) Farmers ('000) Pesticide use (MT Active Ingradient) http://65.19.149.140/pilots/cmsanew/index.html
  31. 31. Status of pesticide utilization in different states** States/UTs 2004-05 2005-06 2006-072007-08 2008-09 2009-10kg/ha 2000-01 kg/ha 2009- 10 Punjab 6900 5610 5975 6080 5760 5810 0.98 0.82 Haryana 4520 4560 4600 4390 4288 4070 0.84 0.68 Andhra Pradesh 2135 1997 1394 1541 1381 1015 0.34 0.09 Maharastra 3030 3198 3193 3050 2400 4639 0.17 0.24 Tamil Nadu 2466 2211 3940 2048 2317 2335 0.32 0.45 Gujarat 2900 2700 2670 2660 2650 2750 0.30 0.29 Kerala 360 571 545 780 272.69 631 0.31 0.26 Karnataka 2200 1638 1362 1588 1675 1647 0.17 0.14 **Source: http://ppqs.gov.in/IpmPesticides.htm MT of active ingredient
  32. 32. Average Reduction in costs and net additional income for different crops Crops Reduction in cost due to NPM (Rs) Reduction in costs due to use of organic fertilisers/manures (Rs) Net additional income (Rs) Paddy 940 1450 5590 Maize 1319 2357 5676 Cotton 1733 1968 5676 Chillies 1733 1968 7701 Groundnut 1021 3462 10483 Vegetables 1400 390 3790 3rd Party Evaluation of Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana (RKVY) : Community Managed Organic Farming implemented by SERP Evaluation Team Prof. R. Ratnakar, Director, Dr. M. Surya Mani, Professor, EXTENSION EDUCATION INSTITUTE, (Southern Region), Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India
  33. 33. Producer Co-op-1 Farmer Group B Direct to Home Consumer Co-op •Healthy food Mobile Store •Affordable Price •Max share to farmers Organic Store Producer Co-op-2 Other farmers and farmers groups Farmer Group A Farmer Group C Sahaja Aharam Cooperative Federation •Capacity building •Institutional building •Investment support •Brand building •Qualtiy Management •Fair Trade Market place Direct to resellers Whole sale to traders Bulk buyers Organic Store Processing units Seed market Yet to estiblish Marketing Agency Value Chain Fund
  34. 34. So…what can be done Support farmers to switch to ecological farming Help them to get organised for production, marketing and entitlements Recast the support systems-research, extension, subsidies…. Increase the investment-public and private to make farming viable
  35. 35. www.csa-india.org www.krishi.tv www.agrariancrisis.in Facebook: ramoo.agripage Twitter: ramanjaneyuluGV Email: ramoo.csa@gmail.com Phone: 040-27017735, 09000699702

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