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Nuclear imaging

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nuclear imaging

Publié dans : Santé & Médecine
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Nuclear imaging

  2. 2. NUCLEAR MEDICINE • Medical specialty involving the application of radioactive substances in the diagnosis and treatment of disease • Physiological function investigated • Diagnostic – 2D: Scintigraphy – 3D: SPECT – Positron emission tomography (PET) – Hybrid scanning techniques
  3. 3. Single-photon emission computed tomography
  4. 4. • Radiotracers – Isotopes + compounds used by the body – Fludeoxyglucose (18F) – Fluorine-18 - hydroxyl group at the 2' position of glucose molecule – Bombardment of neon-20 with deuterons – Proton bombardment of 18 O-enriched water – Knockout reaction in 18 O – Carrier-free dissolved 18F-fluoride (18 F− ) – 109.8 minute half-life of 18F – Eluted with an acetonitrile solution of 2,2,2-cryptand and potassium carbonate
  5. 5. – Cryptand to sequester the potassium ions avoids ion- pairing between free potassium and fluoride ions – Treated with a protected mannose triflate
  6. 6. PET SCAN
  7. 7. • Cancer cells have a characteristic altered intermediary metabolism and increased proliferation • Requires nutrients and basic substrates as building blocks for proteins, DNA and RNA, lipids, and other macromolecules
  8. 8. • Warburg Effect – Cancer cells - high rate of glycolysis followed by lactic acid fermentation in the cytosol – Normal cells- low rate of glycolysis followed by oxidation of pyruvate in mitochondria – Glycolytic rates up to 200 times higher – Correlation of FDG uptake and biologic aggressiveness
  9. 9. • Cellular Proliferation and Apoptosis – DNA - thymidine - l8F-3' deoxy-3'-flurothymidine (FLT) – Correlation between tissue markers of proliferation and the intensity of FLT uptake in vitro and in vivo – Correlates well with the expression of ki-67 – Early changes in FLT uptake may be a marker of effective treatment in patients undergoing chemotherapy – FLT is not an agent for cancer detection, but rather for measuring proliferation and treatment response
  10. 10. • Amino Acid Transport – L-type amino acid transport up-regulated – Reported for brain and prostate cancer – 18F-fluorocyclobutane- 1 -carboxylic acid (FACBC) – Fluoroethyltyrosine (FET )
  11. 11. • Androgen and Estrogen Receptor Expression – 18F-estradio - breast – l8F-fluoro- dihydrotestosterone (FDHT) - prostate
  12. 12. • Sodium Iodide Symporter – 124 I - determine the dose and dose distribution for subsequent treatment with the beta emitter 131 I in thyroid cancer
  13. 13. • Imaging the Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 Oncogene – 68 G-labeled trastuzumab antibody fragment – Level of binding is proportional to the level of receptor expression – Receptor number can be quantified – Determine the effectiveness of drug response more rapidly
  14. 14. • Gene Expression Imaging – Herpes simplex thymidine kinase (HS V-TK) gene – Radiotracer 124I-FIAU ( 1 - ( 2 ' deoxy- 2 ' -fluoro- 3-D - arabinofuranosyl-5 -iodouracil ) – Monitor gene therapy or therapy with stem cells or immunocompetent cells
  15. 15. • Hypoxia – Imaged with labeled nitroimidazoles , for e x a m p l e , – 1 8F-fluoromisonidazole (FMIS0 ) – 18F-FAZA ( 1 8F- fluroazomycinarabinoside ) – Guiding the use of radiation sensitizers in patients with hypoxic tumors or – Guiding radiation dose boost to hypoxic subvolumes
  16. 16. • Positron-labeled antibodies and antibody fragments • 1241-labeled cG250 for renal clear cell carcinoma • Recognizes carbonic anhydrase-IX • Expressed antigen on clear cell renal cell carcinoma
  17. 17. CLINICAL APPLICATIONS • Distant metastases are detected in 10 % to 20 % of cases with locally advanced disease • Use for radiotherapy planning – Improves the staging accuracy – Improves interobserver agreement – Distinguish active disease from benign structural abnormalities
  18. 18. • Cancer staging – Detection of small volume disease in lymph nodes and distance site
  19. 19. • Detectability of a small lesion depend on – ( 1 ) the volume of metabolically active disease – ( 2 ) the intensity of radiotracer uptake in this volume, – ( 3 ) the resolution limits of the PET camera – ( 4) background activity in normal tissues and blood pool, – ( 5 ) the degree of lesion motion during the image acquisition.
  20. 20. • Assessing the response to neoadj uvant regimens – Distinguish between metabolic responders and nonresponders – Correlate with disease-free survival – SUV change greater than 20 % is considered significant – at least 6 to 8 weeks when chemotherapy used – 10 to 12 weeks when combined chemoradiotherapy was used
  21. 21. • Metabolic flare – Early during hormonal therapy, an – Increase in SUV or the appearance of new spots of FD G uptake in the skeleton – Metabolic flare on PET herald a future response – Indicators of a good prognosis
  22. 22. • False negetive – Low glucose metabolism – Lower expression of GLUT, a – High rate of FDG dephosphorylation - hepatocellular carcinoma – Histologic composition of the lesion • Little solid tissue in a true bronchoalveolar carcinoma; • Diffuse, nonmass-forming growth pattern in invasive lobular breast cancer; • Predominantly cystic mucinous tumors, including some pancreatic and ovarian primaries
  23. 23. • False-positive findings – Brown adipose tissue is a frequent normal variant – Granulomatous diseases or reactions ( e . g . , sarcoidosis; talc pleurodesis ) – Benign tumors ( e . g . , paragangliomas, meningiomas, many benign bone lesions such as eosinophilic granuloma, nonossifying fibroma, fibrous dysplasia, Paget's disease ) – Infection (which can be used clinically for diagnosis ofpatients with fever of unknown origin )
  24. 24. • Brain – To differentiate between tumor recurrence and radiation necrosis in patients treated previously with cranial irradiation. – Identifying the grade of malignancy where there is uncertainty on anatomical imaging and functional assessment would assist biopsy – Assessment of suspected high grade transformation in low grade glioma. – Differentiation of cerebral tumor from atypical infection in immunocompromised patients with indeterminate lesions on MR/CT
  25. 25. • Head and neck tumors – Staging of patients where staging is difficult clinically or where there is uncertainty on other imaging or equivocal findings that would preclude radical treatment – Staging or restaging of patients with a high risk of disseminated disease such as advanced loco regional disease and primary sites with a high propensity for disseminated disease such as nasopharyngeal cancer. – To identify the primary site in patients presenting with metastatic carcinoma in cervical lymph nodes, with no primary site identified on other imaging. – Response assessment 3-6 months post chemoradiotherapy in patients with residual masses following treatment. – To differentiate between radiation induced edematous changes versus active tumor tissue. – To rule out metastatic disease in locally advanced cancer before major operative procedure
  26. 26. • Lymphoma – Staging of patients with Hodgkin's disease (HD) and Non Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) – Baseline for comparison with treatment response scan. – Interim and end of treatment response assessment of patients withHDand aggressive NHL. – Evaluation of suspected relapse for FDG avid lymphomas in symptomatic patient. – Staging of suspected post transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD). – Prior to bone marrow transplant to assess volume of disease and suitability for transplant – To determine extent and identify a suitable biopsy site in patients with low grade lymphomas in whom there is suspected high grade transformation.
  27. 27. • Lung carcinoma – Staging of patients considered for radical treatment of non-small cell lung cancer especially mediastinal nodes <1 cm on CT or mediastinal nodes between 1–2 cm on CT or equivocal lesions that might represent metastases such as adrenal enlargement. – Characterization of a solitary pulmonary nodule – Especially in the case of failed biopsy, a technically difficult biopsy or where there is a significant risk ofa pneumothorax in patients with medical co morbidities – Assessment of suspected disease recurrence – To differentiate between treatment effects and recurrent cancer – Staging of patients with small cell lung cancer with limited disease on CT being considered for radical therapy. – Pleural malignancy – To guide biopsy in patients with suspected pleural malignancy – To exclude extra-thoracic disease in proven mesothelioma in patients considered for multimodality treatment including radical surgery/decortication.
  28. 28. • Breast carcinoma – Assessment of multi focal disease or suspected recurrence in breast cancer. – Differentiation of treatment induced brachial plexopathy from tumour infiltration in symptomatic patients with an equivocal or normal MR. – Assessment of extent of disease in selecte patients with disseminated breast cancer before therapy. – Assessment of response to chemotherapy in patients whose disease is not well demonstrated using other techniques; for example, bonemetastases
  29. 29. • Hepatopancreaticobiliary cancers – Staging of potentially operable primary hepatobiliary or pancreatic malignancy (cholangiocarcinoma, gallbladder carcinoma or hepatocellular carcinoma) where cross sectional imaging is equivocal for metastatic disease,who are fit for resection and a positive PET-CT would lead to a decision not to operate. – Suspected recurrence of hepato-pancreaticobiliary cancer in selected patients, where other imaging is equivocal or negative
  30. 30. • Colorectal carcinoma – Staging of patients with synchronous metastases at presentation suitable for resection or patients with equivocal findings on other imaging; for example, pulmonary or liver lesions – Restaging of patients with recurrence being considered for radical treatment and/or metastatectomy – Detection of recurrence in patients with rising tumour markers and/or clinical suspicion of recurrence – Evaluation of indeterminate presacral masses post treatment.
  31. 31. • Thymic carcinoma – Staging of patients considered for surgical resection – Assessment of indeterminate thymic lesions if being considered for radical treatment
  32. 32. • Oesophagogastric carcinoma – Staging/restaging of patients with oesophageal or oesophago gastric carcinoma, suitable for radical treatment, including patients who have received neo adjuvant treatment. – Evaluation of suspected recurrence of oesophagastric tumours when other imaging is negative or equivocal
  33. 33. • Gastrointestinal stromal tumours – Staging prior to treatment in patients who are likely to require systemic therapy – Response assessment to systemic therapy • Kidney and ureter – Assessment of metastatic renal and ureteric carcinoma in difficult management situations or when standard imaging is inconclusive – Assessment of renal carcinoma at staging in selected cases with equivocal findings on other imaging (recognizing that ~50% of renal cell carcinoma may not be FDG avid and that the tracer is excreted into the urinary tract)
  34. 34. • Gynaecological malignancy – Staging or restaging of patients with uterine carcinoma (cervix/endometrium)considered for exenterative surgery – Staging of patients with cervical cancer suspected of having locally advanced disease with suspicious findings such as abnormal pelvic nodes onMRor at high risk of paraaortic nodal or distant metastatic disease. – Suspected recurrence of endometrial and/or cervical carcinoma when other imaging is inconclusive
  35. 35. • Myeloma – Assessment of patients with apparently solitary plasmacytoma or patients with ambiguous lytic lesions on skeletal survey. – Suspected relapse in patients with non-secretory myeloma or predominantly extramedullary disease. • Skin tumours – Staging and assessment for distant disease in patients with melanoma when radical dissection is contemplated (nodal or metastatic disease). – To exclude primary malignancy where dermatomyositis is suspected to represent paraneoplastic manifestation.
  36. 36. • Musculoskeletal tumours – Assessment o f suspected malignant transformation within plexiform neurofibromas in patient with neurofibromatosis type 1 – Staging of high grade sarcomas, unless already proven to have metastatic disease, especially – Ewing's sarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, leiomyosarcoma, osteosarcoma, malignant fibrous histiocytoma, synovial sarcoma and myxoid liposarcoma. – Preamputation in the setting of a high grade sarcoma where the detection of distant disease will alter the surgical management – To stage patients with metastatic sarcoma considered for liver or lung metastatectomy where anatomical imaging has not identified any extra thoracic or extra hepatic disease which would preclude surgery – Response assessment in high grade sarcomas
  37. 37. • Paraneoplastic syndromes – To detect an occult primary tumour in selected patients with non metastatic manifestations of neoplastic disease when other imaging is negative or equivocal • Carcinoma of unknown primary – Detection of the primary site when imaging and histopathology has failed to show a primary site, where the site of tumor will influence choice of chemotherapy.
  38. 38. • Neuroendocrine tumours – Staging or restaging of selected patients with poorly differentiated neuroendocrine tumours prior to treatment with negative or normal metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) and octreotide scans. – Assessment of possible multifocal disease in patients with paraganglioma considered for surgery – Staging and response assessment of osteosarcoma and Ewing's sarcoma in patients with negative bone scintigraphy
  39. 39. • side effect • effective radiation dose of 14 mSv