2. MILKY WAY GALAXY
The Milky Way Galaxy is our home galaxy in the universe.
The galactic center, which is located about 26,000 light-years from
Earth, contains at least one supermassive black hole .
Number of Stars: at least 400 billion .
Diameter: 220,000 light-years .
3. Our SOLAR SYSTEM
The Solar System was formed approximately 4.6 billion years ago .
The Solar System consists of the Sun, planets, dwarf planets and
other astronomical objects bound in its orbit .
The four smaller inner planets, (Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars),
are primarily composed of rock and metal. The four outer planets,
(Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune), are substantially larger and
more massive than the inner planets.
4. The Sun
The Sun is the star at the center of
our solar system .
Surface Temperature: 5500 °C .
Mass: (333,060 x Earth) .
One million Earths could
fit inside the Sun .
Eventually, the Sun will
consume the Earth .
Light from the Sun takes
eight minutes to reach Earth .
We live inside the sun .
Mercury is the closest planet to the Sun and due to its proximity it
is not easily seen except during twilight.
A year in Mercury is just 88 days long .
Mercury is the smallest planet in
the Solar System .
Mass: (0.055 x Earth)
Known Moons: none
Mercury is only the second
Mercury is the second densest
planet , This is largely due to
Mercury being composed mainly
of heavy metals and rock.
Venus is the second planet from the Sun .
It’s the second brightest object in the night sky after
A year in Mercury is just 225 days long .
Mass: (0.815 x Earth) .
Known Moons: none .
Venus is the hottest planet in our
solar system .
Venus is often called the Earth’s
sister planet (in size) .
Earth is the third planet from the Sun .
Of all the planets in our solar system,
the Earth has the greatest density .
Known Moons: 1 .
is the only known planet to
The Moon is moving
approximately 3.8 cm away
from our planet every year .
Almost everything on Earth is
a rare element.
Mars is the fourth planet from the sun .
Mass: (0.107 x Earth) .
Known Moons: 2 .
Mars and Earth have approximately
the same landmass
Mars is home to the tallest
mountain in the solar system ,
Olympus Mons, a shield
volcano, is 21km high and
600km in diameter.
Mars has the largest dust
storms in the solar system
9. ASTEROID BELT
Located roughly between the orbits of the planets Mars and
It is occupied by numerous irregularly shaped bodies
called asteroids or minor planets.
The planet Jupiter is the fifth planet out from the Sun,
and is two and a half times more
massive than all the other planets
in the solar system combined.
Mass: (317.83 x Earth)
Known Moons: 67
Jupiter has the shortest day
of all the planets (10 hours)
Jupiter is the fourth brightest
object in the solar system
Jupiter has unique cloud features
Saturn is the sixth planet from the Sun .
Jupiter has the biggest ocean of any planet .
Known Moons: 62
It is the fifth brightest object in the solar system
Saturn orbits the Sun once every 29.4 Earth years
The Saturn rings are made
mostly of chunks of ice and
small amounts of
Uranus is the seventh planet from the Sun
Mass: (14.536 x Earth)
Known Moons: 27
Uranus makes one trip around
the Sun every 84 Earth years .
Uranus hits the coldest
temperatures of any planet,
With minimum atmospheric
temperature of -224°C .
Neptune is the eighth planet from the Sun .
Mass: (17.15x Earth) .
Known Moons: 14 .
The atmosphere of Neptune
is made of hydrogen and
helium, with some methane .
The methane absorbs red
light, which makes the planet
appear a lovely blue .
Pluto is the ninth planet from the Sun .
Mass: (0.00218 x Earth)
Known Moons: 5
Orbit Period: 246.04 Earth
Pluto is one third water
No spacecraft have visited
its day, is equal to 6.39 Earth
Pluto is smaller than the USA.
A comet is a very small solar system body made mostly of ices
mixed with smaller amounts of dust and rock.
The periodic Comet Halley is the most famous in history,
visible from Earth every 75–76 years , and it is projected to
return in 2061 .
Comets have two tails:
1. a dust tail (visible)
2. a plasma tail (difficult to
see with your eyes).
16. BLACK HOLes (pt1)
When Albert Einstein developed his relativity theory he saw
something very strange in his equations something that could
posses infinite gravity, something that could stop time and even
destroy space itself but he refused to believe something that
could exist, but it DOES !!
A black hole is a actually a super large mass contained in a very
tiny space that it becomes heavy on space-time so much it
deforms it, it’s a hole in the fabric of reality and is considered an
ideal black body which absorbs all light coming.
17. BLACK HOLes (pt2)
we should mention that any matter can be turned into a
black hole for example if we wanted to make a black hole
using the earth we would have to crush it and compress it into
a tiny size of a peanut.
Sagittarius A: the supermassive
black hole at the heart of the
Milky Way Galaxy. It lies in the
direction of the constellation
Sagittarius. This black hole
contains the mass of about
4 million suns.
18. Far away from earth
The Diamond Planet
• 55 Cancri e is an entire planet made out of diamond.
19. Far away from earth
The Vision of Hell
• Kepler-10b it orbits so closely to its sun that the surface is a
vision of hell
• It’s got an ocean bigger than the specific ocean, but its an
ocean not of water , of Lava.
20. Far away from earth
Large Quasar Group
• Quasar is a compact region in the center of a massive galaxy,
that surrounds its central supermassive black hole. It rips
whole stars and devours them, lost forever from the visible
universe or at least from our universe ….
21. Far away from earth
• With six stars orbiting around a central mass, this system is
over 54 times as bright as our sun.
22. Far away from earth
The Planet of Burning Ice
• it’s 439 degrees celcius on Gliese 436 b, it’s watery surface
doesn’t evaporate. Instead, the molecules pull together to
form something known as “hot ice”.
• The only reason this ice stays solid is because of the huge
amount of water present
on the planet; the gravity
pulls it all in towards the
core, keeping the water
molecules so densely
packed that they
Notes de l'éditeur
We live inside the sun : the sun’s outer atmosphere extends far beyond its visible surface.