• Total- everything
• Quality-degree of excellence a product or
• Management-art of organizing, controlling,
planning, directing to achieve
4. • TQM is the concept created by W. Edward
Deming, a management consultant,
of US in 1950s.
• The main focus of TQM was to create
continuous quality improvement in the areas
of product or service, employer-employee
relationship and customer-business
5. • Total quality management is an approach
by the employer for long term success of an
organization through customer satisfaction.
• In TQM, all the members of the
organisation participate in improving
processes, products, services.
6. BENEFITS OF TQM:
• Attain higher profitability and increased
• Improve customer satisfaction
• Improve organization productivity
• Improve team work
• Undertake systematic problem solving and
decision making through project teams
7. PDCA CYCLE:
• PDCA (Plan-Do-Check-Act) / Deming
cycle or circle or wheel is a four step
management method used in business for
control and continuous improvement of
production process or services.
• The concept was developed by Dr. William
Edward Deming, a management consultant,
of US in 1950s.
8. • PDCA cycle consists of four phrases:
a. Planning phase: planning is the most crucial
phase of TQM. In this phase the employees has to
come up with their problems and queries which
need to be addressed. They need to come up with
the various challenges they face in their day to day
operations and analyze the problems. Employees
are required to do necessary research and collect
relevant data which would help them to find
solutions for the problems.
9. b. ‘Do’ phase: in this phase employees
develop a solution for the problems defined
in planning phase. Strategies are devised
and implemented to overcome the
challenges faced by employees. The
effectiveness of solution and strategies is
also measured in this stage.
10. c. Check phase: Checking phase is the stage
where people actually do a comparison
analysis of before and after data to confirm
the effectiveness of the productive
processes and measure the results.
d. Act phase: If the solution was helpful,
implement it across all the departments of
12. EIGHT MAIN PRICIPLES OF
• Customer focussed
• Total employee involvement
• Process centred
• Integrated system
• Strategic and systemic approach
• Continual improvement
• Fact based decision making
13. Customer focussed:
The customer ultimately
determines the level of
improvement can be
focussed by training the
employees, changing the
design process, upgrading
the computers or softwares
or by using new operating
machines. But the customer
determines the efforts were
worthwile. Hence the
managment should focus on
the expectations of
14. Total employee involvement:
• All the employees should
participate to work towards
common goals of the
• Total employee
commitment can be
obtained through the
measures such as removal
of apprehension, drive away
all the doubts from the work
place and the management
has provided a proper
environment to work in.
15. • High performance work systems integrates
the continuous improvement efforts with the
normal business operations.
• Self managed work teams are one form of
16. Process centred:
• One of the major step in TQM is the process .
These process are series of steps that takes
inputs and transforms them into output and are
finally served to customers.
• The series of steps to be done in a process is
defined, performance measures are
continuously monitored to detect any
17. Integrated system:
• An organisation may possess different
function specialities which are organised
into vertical structured departments. An
horizontal interconnection to these
departments is the main focus of TQM.
18. • Every member of the organisation should
understand the mission, vision, guiding
principles and also the quality policies,
objectives and the critical processes of an
• Business performance should be
continuosly monitored and communicated.
19. • An integrated work system should be modelled
according to National Quality Program criteria
and/or according to ISO standards.
• Each organisation has different and unique
work culture. It is virtually impossible to
succeed in providing excellent goods and
services without a proper quality management
system. This integrated system helps us to
Integrate the business improvement elements so
as to improve and exceed the expectation of
customers and stakeholder.
20. Strategic and systematic approach:
• A critical step in TQM is the strategic and
systematic approach to understand the
mission, vision and goals of an
• This process, called strategic planning or
strategic management involves the
formulation of a strategic plan that
incorporates quality as a core component. 20
21. Continual improvement:
• A thrust upon TQM is the continual process
• Continual improvement drives an
organisation to be both analytical and
creative and also be more competitive and
effective in fulfilling the expectations of
22. Fact based decision making:
• To make sure whether an
organisation is performing
effectively, measurement of
performance data is
• So TQM directs organisation
to continuously collect and
analyze performance data
which helps in decision
making accuracy, achieve
consensus and make
predictions based on past
• In case of organisational
changes or in case of day to
communication is a
important part for
maintaining morale and
• Communicate regarding
strategies, methods and
importance of timelines,
effectively through board
meetings, vertical and
meetings, e-mails, notice
24. FEATURES OF TQM:
• Customer oriented: TQM focuses on
customer satisfaction through creation of
better quality products and services at lower
• Employee involvement and empowerment:
Team focus on quality improvement
projects and employees are empowered to
serve customers well.
25. • Organisation-wide: TQM involves every
department or division.
• Continuous improvement: quality
improvement is a never ending journey.
• Strategic focus: Quality is viewed as a
strategic, competitive weapon.
• Process management: TQM adopts the concept
of prevention through process management.
26. • Change in corporate culture: TQM involves
the creation of a work culture that is
conducive to quality improvement.
27. Causes of failure in
implementation of TQM:
Total quality management is proven strategy
that has yielded significant financial
benefits in many pharmaceutical companies.
Yet quality efforts failed and yielded
marginal results in some other companies.
Studies showed that only one third of the
companies had obtained significant results,
one third were dissatisfied and one third has
28. achieved moderate results. Below mentioned
are the reasons for the failure in
implementation of TQM:
• Focussing only on short term financial
results to the exclusion of systems
• Quality improvement requires change in
thinking to manage the underlying system.
29. • Interfering of managers in teamwork.
• Sloppy procedures and processes.
• Lack of understanding of TQM approach.
• Many layers in the organizational structure.
• Lack of adequate training and education.
• Limited resources.