What is Human intelligence?
• It’s a composi?on of abili?es like
Ravi Kumar B N, Asst.Prof,CSE,BMSIT
What is intelligence?
• The ability to learn or understand from experience
• The ability to acquire and retain knowledge
• The ability to respond quickly and successfully to a
• The ability to use reason to solve problems
If intelligence is learning, understanding, retaining,
responding, and using reason then what is AI?
Ravi Kumar B N, Asst.Prof,CSE,BMSIT 4
Quick Answer from Academia
q Modeling human cogni8on using computers.
q Study of making computers do things which at the moment people
are beNer at..
q Making computers do things which require intelligence.
Ravi Kumar B N, Asst.Prof,CSE,BMSIT 5
Ravi Kumar B N, Asst.Prof,CSE,BMSIT 6
More Formal Definition of AI
q AI is a branch of computer science which is concerned with the study
and crea?on of computer systems that exhibit
Some form of intelligence.
Those characteris?cs which we associate with intelligence in
q It is the science and engineering of making intelligent machines,
especially intelligent computer programs.
What’s Involved in Intelligence?
q Ability to interact with the real world
Ø To perceive, understand, and act
• e.g., speech recogni?on and understanding
q Searching the best solu?on - medical
q Reasoning and Planning
Ø Modeling the external world – delivery robot
Ø Solving new problems, planning, and making decisions
Ø Ability to deal with unexpected problems, uncertain?es
q Learning and Adapta?on
Ø We are con?nuously learning and adap?ng
Ø our internal models are always being “updated”
• e.g., a baby learning to categorize and recognize animals
Ravi Kumar B N, Asst.Prof,CSE,BMSIT 7
• (September 4, 1927 – October 24, 2011) was an American
Computer Scien?st And Cogni?ve Scien?st.
• McCarthy was one of the founders of the discipline of
• He coined the term "Ar?ﬁcial Intelligence" (AI)
Ravi Kumar B N, Asst.Prof,CSE,BMSIT 8
• Thinking/Reasoning vs. Behavior/Ac?on.
• Success according to human standards vs. success according to an ideal concept of intelligence ( ra?onality ):
ü Systems that think like humans (focus on reasoning and human framework).
ü Systems that think ra?onally (focus on reasoning and a general concept of intelligence).
ü Systems that act like humans (focus on behavior and human framework).
ü Systems that act ra?onally (focus on behavior and a general concept of intelligence).
Views of AI fall into four categories in Two
Ravi Kumar B N, Asst.Prof,CSE,BMSIT 9
Definition of AI
Ravi Kumar B N, Asst.Prof,CSE,BMSIT 10
Systems that Think like Humans
“The exciting new effort to make computers
think…. Machine with minds,….” (Haugeland,
“[The automation of] activities that we
associated human thinking, activities such as
decision –making, problem solving,
Systems that Think Rationally
“The study of mental faculties through the use
of computational models” (Charnaik and
“The study of the computations that make it
possible to perceive, reason and act” (Wintson,
Systems that Act like Humans
“The art of creating machines that perform
functions that require intelligence when
performed by people” (Kurzwell, 1990)
“The study of how to make computers do things
at which, at the moment, people are
better” (Rich and Knight,1991)
Systems that Act Rationally
“A field of study that seeks to explain and
emulate intelligent behavior in terms of
computational processes” (Schalkoff,1990)
“The branch of computer science that is
concerned with the automation of intelligent
behavior” (Luger and Stubble field)
Acting Humanly : Turing Test
Ravi Kumar B N, Asst.Prof,CSE,BMSIT 11
Born: 23 JUN 1912, London
Died: 17 JUN 1954
computer scien?st, mathema?cian,
logician, cryptanalyst and theore?cal
¨ “Can Machine think?” -> “Can Machines behave
¨ Opera?onal test for intelligent behavior: the Imita?on
¨ The computer would need to possess the following
• Natural Language Processing
• Knowledge Representa<on
• Automated Reasoning
• Machine Learning
Place both a human and a machine mimicking human
responses outside the field of direct observation and use an
unbiased interface to interrogate them. If the responses are
distinguishable, the machine is not displaying intelligence.
Ravi Kumar B N, Asst.Prof,CSE,BMSIT 12
q Cogni?ve Science approach
- Try to get “inside” our minds- Introspec?on- trying to catch our own
thoughts as they go by and through psychological experiments.
- E.g.. Conduct experiments with people to try to “reverse-engineer”
how we reason, learning, remember, predict.
- Humans don’t behave ra?onally.
- The reverse engineering is very hard to do.
- The brain’s hardware is very diﬀerent to a computer program.
Ravi Kumar B N, Asst.Prof,CSE,BMSIT 13
Thinking Rationally: The “laws of thought”
q The Greek philosopher Aristotle was one of the ﬁrst to aNempt to codify ``right
thinking,'' that is, irrefutable reasoning processes.
q He gave Syllogisms that always yielded correct conclusion when correct premises are given.
q These laws of thought were supposed to govern the opera?on of the mind, and ini?ated the ﬁeld
q The logicist tradi?on in AI hopes to create intelligent systems using logic programming.
q However there are two obstacles to this approach.
Ø First, It is not easy to take informal knowledge and state in the formal terms required by logical
nota?on, par?cularly when knowledge is not 100% certain.
Ø Second, solving problem principally is diﬀerent from doing it in prac?ce.
Ravi Kumar B N, Asst.Prof,CSE,BMSIT 14
Acting Rationally: The rational agent approach
q What means “behave ra<onally” for a person/system:
Ø Take the right/ best ac?on to achieve the goals, based on his/its knowledge
q Example. Assume I don’t like to get wet (my goal), so I bring an umbrella (my
ac?on). Do I behave ra?onally?
Ø The answer is dependent on my knowledge and belief
Ø If I’ve heard the forecast for rain and I believe it, then bringing the umbrella is
Ø If I’ve not heard the forecast for rain and I do not believe that it is going to rain, then
bringing the umbrella is not ra?onal.
Ravi Kumar B N, Asst.Prof,CSE,BMSIT 15
The rational agent approach
q An agent is en?ty that perceives its environment
and is able to execute ac?ons to change it.
q Agents have inherent goals that they want to
q A Ra?onal agent acts in a way to maximize the
achievement of its goals
q True maximiza?ons of goals requires omniscience
and unlimited computa?onal abili?es
q Limited ra?onality involves maximizing goals within
the computa?onal and other resources available.
Ravi Kumar B N, Asst.Prof, CSE,BMSIT 16
1943 Mc Culloch & PiNs: Boolean circuit model of brain
1950 Turing’s “Compu?ng Machinery and Intelligence”
1950s Early AI programs, including Samuel’s checkers program, Newell & Simon’s
Logic Theorist, Gelernter’s Geometry Engine.
1956 Dartmouth mee?ng : “Ar?ﬁcial Intelligence” adopted
1965 Robinson’s complete algorithm for logical reasoning
1966-73 AI discovers computa?onal complexity
Neural network research almost disappears
1969-79 Early development of knowledge-based systems
1980 AI becomes an industry
1986 Neural networks return to popularity
1987 AI becomes a science
1995 The emergence of intelligent agents
Ravi Kumar B N, Asst.Prof,CSE,BMSIT 17
Applications of AI:
q Natural Language Understanding
q Expert Systems
q Planning and Robo?cs
q Machine Learning
q Game Playing
Ravi Kumar B N, Asst.Prof,CSE,BMSIT 18
Natural Language Processing
q To design and build soqware that will analyze understand and
generate languages that human use naturally.
Ravi Kumar B N, Asst.Prof,CSE,BMSIT 19
Modes of communication
q Text based.
q Dialogue based.
Ravi Kumar B N, Asst.Prof,CSE,BMSIT 20
q Process of conver?ng sound signal captured by microphone or
mobile/telephone to a set of words.
q 70-100 words / min with accuracy of 90%
Ravi Kumar B N, Asst.Prof,CSE,BMSIT 21
q Ability of a machine to extract informa?on from an image that is
necessary to solve a task
Ravi Kumar B N, Asst.Prof,CSE,BMSIT 22
q Tend to mimic human sensing and decision
making abili?es so that they can adopt
themselves to certain condi?ons and
modify their ac?ons.
Ravi Kumar B N, Asst.Prof,CSE,BMSIT 23
q These are Soqwares used for decision making .
q Automated Reasoning and Theorem Proving.
q Troubleshoo?ng Expert Systems.
q Stock Market Expert System.
Ravi Kumar B N, Asst.Prof,CSE,BMSIT 24
Fields of AI
q Computer science:
Graphical User Interface
Object Oriented Programming
• Automated Online Assistants
• Voice dialing
• Speech Recogni?on
Ravi Kumar B N, Asst.Prof,CSE,BMSIT 25
Fields of AI
Avia?on & Automa?on:
• NASA's ﬁght research center.
• Voice recogni?on in ﬁghter jets.
• Direc?ons to A.I pilots through air traﬃc
• Automa?c Gearing System in Cars.
Ravi Kumar B N, Asst.Prof,CSE,BMSIT 26
Fields of AI
• Assembling Robots
• Welding Robots
• Behavior based robo?cs
• Dancing Robots
• Robot naviga?on
Ravi Kumar B N, Asst.Prof,CSE,BMSIT 27
Daily life applications
• Home Security
• Post oﬃce
• Digital cameras
• News and publishing
• Financial trades
• Health and medicine
• Games and toys
Ravi Kumar B N, Asst.Prof,CSE,BMSIT 28
How AI is different????????
Ravi Kumar B N, Asst.Prof,CSE,BMSIT 29
May Contain Error
Drawbacks of A.I
• Limited Ability
• Slow Real Time Response
• Can’t Handle Emergency Situa?on
• Diﬃcult code
• High Cost
Ravi Kumar B N, Asst.Prof,CSE,BMSIT 30
Ravi Kumar B N, Asst.Prof,CSE,BMSIT 31
Many Hollywood movies come with the future technology, that technology we can see in our future. Have a look
some of them….
In this movie
These fit, attractive, remotely controlled robots
ultimately assume their life roles, enabling
people to experience life vicariously from the
comfort and safety of their own homes.
Alex (Robocop) at first
rejects his current
condition upon seeing
that his original body
now consists of only
lungs, throat, head and
right hand when the
are fully removed, but
he is convinced by
Norton to be strong for
his wife and son.
He had loose his body parts in a car bomb blast.
Alex has him outfitted with the cybernetic body and
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