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Membangunkan Dokumentasi KKP untuk Makmal

Development of OSH manual for laboratory. Basic requirement and step by step to establish lab safety manual.

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Membangunkan Dokumentasi KKP untuk Makmal

  1. 1. DOKUMENTASI kkp UNTUK Makmal ASAS PENYEDIAAN DOKUMENTASI KESELAMATAN DAN KESIHATAN PEKERJAAN UNTUK MAKMAL
  2. 2. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol (Grad. IEM) razman.pe@gmail.com 013-771-7573 MBA (Engineering Management) – UniMAP (2012) Bachelor in Engineering (Mechanical) (Honors) – Uni. Malaya (2002) Cert. in Safety & Health Officer – FMM/NIOSH (SHO-2876-J) Cert. in Training - HRDF Train the Trainer (TTT/8072) Cert. of Trainer for Safety Induction for Construction Workers – NIOSH (J-SCW0599-L) Cert. of Wiremen Single Phase (PW-T-1-B-0097-2011) BIODATA PENCERAMAH
  3. 3. ATURCARA  Sesi pagi  Pengenalan  Perundangan  Dokumentasi  HIRARC  Interaktif  Sesi petang  SOP  Interaktif
  4. 4. PENGENALAN KESELAMATAN • Apa itu Keselamatan? • Kenapa Keselamatan penting?
  5. 5. PENGENALAN KESELAMATAN Gambarajah: Safety Institute of Australia
  6. 6. DEFINISI Kesihatan Pekerjaan  Perlindungan tubuh badan dan minda dari penyakit yang berpunca daripada tempat kerja Keselamatan Pekerjaan  Perlindungan pekerja daripada kecederaan fizikal di tempat kerja
  7. 7. DEFINISI Kemudahan kebajikan  Kemudahan untuk mengekalkan kesihatan dan kesejahteraan pekerja di tempat kerja seperti tandas, kawasan rehat atau kafe Kemalangan  Sebarang kejadian yang tidak dirancang yang menyebabkan kecederaan atau penyakit kepada orang atau kerosakan harta benda atau persekitaran atau kehilangan peluang perniagaan atau kombinasi  Hasil daripada rentetan peristiwa membawa kepada kemalangan
  8. 8. DEFINISI Kejadian nyaris  Kejadian yang berpotensi menyebabkan kemalangan Kejadian berbahaya  Kemalangan nyaris yang boleh membawa kepada kemalangan besar - kecederaan serius atau kematian  Contoh - Keruntuhan perancah atau tambak
  9. 9. DEFINISI Kejadian nyaris  Kejadian yang berpotensi menyebabkan kemalangan Kejadian berbahaya  Kemalangan nyaris yang boleh membawa kepada kemalangan besar - kecederaan serius atau kematian  Contoh - Keruntuhan perancah atau tambak
  10. 10. DEFINISI Kejadian nyaris  Kejadian yang berpotensi menyebabkan kemalangan Kejadian berbahaya  Kemalangan nyaris yang boleh membawa kepada kemalangan besar - kecederaan serius atau kematian  Contoh - Keruntuhan perancah atau tambak
  11. 11. DEFINISI Bahaya  Potensi sesuatu bahan iaitu, orang, aktiviti, proses untuk menyebabkan kemudaratan Risiko  Kemungkinan bahaya akan berlaku dan menyebabkan kesan / keterukan
  12. 12. DEFINISI Tindakan tak Selamat  Perbuatan atau kelakuan seseorang yang berpotensi boleh menyebabkan kemudaratan kepada sesuatu Keadaan tak selamat  Syarat atau keadaan yang berpotensi boleh menyebabkan kemudaratan kepada sesuatu
  13. 13. PERBUATAN TAK SELAMAT
  14. 14. D I M A N A H A Z A R D ?
  15. 15. PERUNDANGAN • FMA 1967 • OSHA 1994
  16. 16. PART II - SAFETY, HEALTH AND WELFARE FMA 1967 Section 13. Provisions against fire. Without prejudice to any law with respect to local authorities, in every factory there shall be taken such precautions against fire, and there shall be provided and maintained, such means of escape in case of fire other than means of exit in ordinary use, and such means of extinguishing fire as may be prescribed
  17. 17. PART II - SAFETY, HEALTH AND WELFARE FMA 1967 Section 20. Duties of persons employed. (1) No person employed in any factory or in any place where any machinery is installed shall wilfully interfere with or misuse any means, appliance, convenience or other thing provided in pursuance of this Act for securing the safety, health or welfare of the persons employed in the factory or the place where the machinery is installed; and when any means or appliance for securing safety, health or welfare is provided for the use of the person under this Act, he shall make use of such means or such appliance.
  18. 18. PART II - SAFETY, HEALTH AND WELFARE FMA 1967 Section 24. Personal protective clothing and appliances. Where in any factory persons are exposed to a wet or dusty process, to noise, to heat or to any poisonous, corrosive or other injurious substance which is liable to cause bodily injury to those persons the Minister may prescribe the provision and maintenance for use of those persons suitable and adequate personal protective clothing and appliances including where necessary goggles, gloves, leggings, caps, foot-wear and protective ointment or lotion.
  19. 19. PART IV - NOTIFICATION OF ACCIDENT, DANGEROUS OCCURENCE AND DANGEROUS DISEASES FMA 1967 Section 31. Accidents and dangerous occurrence to be reported. - causes loss of life to any person; - causes serious bodily injury to any person; - causes bodily injury to any person so that the person is prevented from following his normal occupation for more than three clear days excluding the day of the accident; or - causes serious damage to machinery or other property,
  20. 20. PART IV - NOTIFICATION OF ACCIDENT, DANGEROUS OCCURENCE AND DANGEROUS DISEASES FMA 1967 Section 31, continue; or any dangerous occurrence takes place in any factory or in connection with any machinery, the occupier shall report the accident or dangerous occurrence to the Inspector having jurisdiction for the area in which the accident or dangerous occurrence has taken place by the quickest means available and subsequently with the least possible delay, report in writing to the Inspector in the prescribed form the facts of the matter so far as they are known to him.
  21. 21. PART IV - NOTIFICATION OF ACCIDENT, DANGEROUS OCCURENCE AND DANGEROUS DISEASES FMA 1967 Section 32. Notification of occupational diseases. (1) Every registered medical practitioner attending on, or called in to visit, a patient whom he believes to be suffering from any of the diseases named in the Third Schedule and contracted in a factory shall, unless such notice has been previously sent— (a)forthwith sent to the Chief Inspector a notice stating the name and location of the factory in which the patient states he is or was last employed, the name and full postal address of the patient and the disease from which, in the opinion of the registered medical practitioner, the patient is suffering; and (b) at the same time send a copy of the notice to the occupier of the factory in which the patient states he is or was last employed.
  22. 22. PART IV OSHA 1994 General duties of employers and self-employed persons Section 15. General duties of employers and self-employed persons to their employees. (1) It shall be the duty of every employer and every self-employed person to ensure, so far as is practicable, the safety, health and welfare at work of all his employees.
  23. 23. PART IV OSHA 1994 General duties of employers and self-employed persons (2) Without prejudice to the generality of subsection (1), the matters to which the duty extends include in particular: (a) the provision and maintenance of plant and systems of work that are, so far as is practicable, safe and without risks to health; (b) the making of arrangements for ensuring, so far as is practicable, safety and absence of risks to health in connection with the use or operation, handling, storage and transport of plant and substances; (c) the provision of such information, instruction, training and supervision as is necessary to ensure, so far as is practicable, the safety and health at work of his employees;
  24. 24. PART IV OSHA 1994 General duties of employers and self-employed persons (2) Without prejudice to the generality of subsection (1), the matters to which the duty extends include in particular: (d) so far as is practicable, as regards any place of work under the control of the employer or self-employed person, the maintenance of it in a condition that is safe and without risks to health and the provision and maintenance of the means of access to and egress from it that are safe and without such risks; (e) the provision and maintenance of a working environment for his employees that is, so far as is practicable, safe, without risks to health, and adequate as regards facilities for their welfare at work.
  25. 25. PART VI OSHA 1994 General duties of employees Section 24 (1) stated: It shall be the duty of every employee while at work- (a) to take reasonable care for the safety and health of himself and of other persons who may be affected by his acts or omissions at work; (b) to co-operate with his employer or any other person in the discharge of any duty or requirement imposed on the employer or that other person by this Act or any regulation made there under; (c) to wear or use at all times any protective equipment or clothing provided by the employer for the purpose of preventing risks to his safety and health; and (d) to comply with any instruction or measure on occupational safety and health instituted by his employer or any other person by or under this Act or any regulation made there under.;
  26. 26. DOKUMENTASI Dokumen ialah kertas kerja/ buku/lampiran yang mengandungi infomasi tertentu, rekod dan laporan terperinci mengenai sesuatu.
  27. 27. DOKUMENTASI  Dokumen terbahagi:  Manual  Prosidur  Arahan  Rekod termasuk senarai semak
  28. 28. MANUAL  Manual menyediakan maklumat am mengenai spesifikasi, peraturan, pengaturcaraan dan aktiviti pengurusan  “road map” kepada dokumen lain  Koleksi arahan dan prosidur  Mematuhi piawaian yang ditetapkan
  29. 29. MANUAL  Selalunya mengandungi  Polisi  Organisasi, peranan, tanggungjawab dan akauntabiliti  HIRARC  Infomasi staf – kompetensi, rekod kursus  Prosidur, arahan dan dokumen lain yang perlu
  30. 30. PROSIDUR  Terjemahkan polisi, objektif dan program sesuatu organisasi kepada spesifik arahan  Menyediakan  Maklumat terperinci  Keseragaman (standard)  Kesinambungan dan konsistensi  Asas kepada pemantauan, pengawalan, audit dan kajian semula
  31. 31. ARAHAN  Menerangkan bagaimana sesuatu kerja dilakukan  Menyediakan maklumat terperinci untuk  Melaksanakan kerja  Tempoh masa  Keputusan/hasil kerja yang dikehendaki  Penggunaan borang (rekod)
  32. 32. REKOD  Rekod – dokumen untuk memantau pelaksanaan  Terdiri  Borang – dokumen untuk merekod  Laporan – huraian pelaksanaan  Register – senarai rekod nama, peristiwa, transaksi dll  Senarai semak – keseragaman dalam pelaksanaan kerja
  33. 33. PENYEDIAAN PROSIDUR  Fokus kerja yang kritikal/penting  Jangan banyak – tak baca pun & penat nak update  Jelas, jitu & spesifik kepada tugasan  Meliputi setiap detik: sebelum, semasa dan selepas kerja
  34. 34. PENYEDIAAN PROSIDUR  “User friendly”  Komprehensif  Ambil perhatian kejadian buruk/ malapetaka  Untuk keberkesanan perlu:  Sertakan latihan dan pemantauan  Kaji semula & kemaskini
  35. 35. KELULUSAN  Endorsed by boss  Acknowledged by  Pengurus  PIC  PKKP  Ketua-ketua….
  36. 36. Kandungan am prosidur  Setiap prosidur harus ada:  Tajuk/Perkara  Objecktif/tujuan  Skop  Langkah prosidur  Carta alir  Tarikh efektif  Tanggungjawab  Kelulusan  Revision number
  37. 37. KAWALAN DOKUMENTASI  PIC dilantik  Pastikan keseragaman dan teratur  Elak kepincangan  Kebocoran  Pemantauan & audit  Dokumen terkini
  38. 38. HIRARC • Kenalpasti faktor yang boleh/berpotensi menyebabkan kemudharatan kepada pekerja dan orang lain • Untuk menganalisa/mempertimbangkan risiko • Membolehkan majikan merancang, melaksanakan, memantau dan membuat penambahbaikan langkah- langkah pencegahan atau pembetulan supaya risiko dapat dikawal
  39. 39. HIRARC
  40. 40. Kelaskan aktiviti Laksanakan Rancang langkah kawalan Konsultansi Camkan bahaya Akses risiko PekerjaMajikan Kajisemula HIRARC
  41. 41. Klasifikasi aktiviti kerja  Geografi kawasan fizikal di dalam / di luar premis  Peringkat-peringkat dalam proses pengeluaran / perkhidmatan  Tugas ditakrifkan: loading, pembungkusan, pencampuran atau memasang pintu
  42. 42. CAMKAN BAHAYA  Kerja/operasi yang kritikal (bahaya signifikan)  Menekan hazard khusus kepada kerja, tempat atau peralatan  Hazard secara am:  Kesihatan  Keselamatan  Pesekitaran
  43. 43. Kaedah CAMKAN BAHAYA  Pemerhatian  Rujukan  Laporan  Pemeriksaan kawasan  Aduan  Audit
  44. 44. BAHAYA KESIHATAN  Boleh menyebabkan penyakit kepada individu  Boleh menyebabkan kesan akut atau serta- merta atau jangka panjang (kronik) masalah  Boleh mengelaskan kepada:  Bahan kimia  Biologi  Agen-agen fizikal  Reka bentuk kerja
  45. 45. BAHAYA KESELAMATAN  Sebarang kuasa yang cukup kuat untuk menyebabkan kecederaan atau kerosakan kepada harta  Contoh:  Tergelincir  Kebakaran  Bekerja di tempat tinggi  Sistem tekanan  Mengangkat dan pengendalian manual, dll
  46. 46. BAHAYA PERSEKITARAN  Pelepasan ke persekitaran (i.e. alam sekitar) yang boleh menyebabkan mudarat atau menjejaskan kualiti atau keadaannya  Contoh: seorang pekerja yang mengalir glikol dan melepaskan cecair ke dalam sistem pembetungan
  47. 47. PUNCA BAHAYA
  48. 48. PUNCA BAHAYA
  49. 49. PUNCA BAHAYA
  50. 50. PUNCA BAHAYA
  51. 51. PUNCA BAHAYA
  52. 52. PUNCA BAHAYA
  53. 53. MENILAI RISIKO  Menentukan kebarangkalian dan keparahan sesuatu kemalangan  Mengukur magnitud  Mengelaskan keutamaan  Dilaksanakan  Kualitatif  Kuantitatif  Semi-kuantitatif
  54. 54. PENDEKATAN: MENILAI RISIKO  Penilaian Risiko Kualitatif: Menggunakan skala "Rendah, Sederhana, Tinggi" untuk menunjukkan kemungkinan berlakunya risiko kejadian berlaku.  Penilaian Risiko Kuantitatif: memerlukan pengiraan dua komponen risiko (R) :, magnitud potensi kerugian (L), dan kebarangkalian (p) bahawa kerugian akan berlaku.  Risiko Semi-Kuantitatif: digunakan untuk menggambarkan skala risiko relatif.
  55. 55. PENDEKATAN: MENILAI RISIKO
  56. 56. PENDEKATAN: MENILAI RISIKO
  57. 57. PENDEKATAN: MENILAI RISIKO
  58. 58. JADUAL RISIKO
  59. 59. KAWALAN RISIKO  Penghapusan atau nyahaktif sesuatu hazad/bahaya supaya tidak akan menimbulkan risiko kepada pekerja  Pengurangan risiko agar tahap kecederaan atau tahap kebarangkalian diminimakan  Keberkesanan bergantung kepada kerjasama dan komitmen majikan dan pekerja
  60. 60. KAWALAN RISIKO
  61. 61. HIRARKI KAWALAN RISIKO
  62. 62. BORANG HIRARC
  63. 63. MELENGKAP BORANG hirarc Scenario 1: Wood panel cutting process A team of two workers operates a cross-cut saw machine. Their work includes loading wood panel onto the machine, cutting the wood and unloading the cut wood. They also need to repair and maintain the machine regularly as well as to change the blades of the machine.
  64. 64. 1. Hazard Identification 2. Risk Analysis 3. Risk control No Work activity Hazard Which can cause/ effect Existing risk control (if any) L S R Recommendation control measures Due date/status 1 Loading the machine with wood Cutting blades Cuts/ first aid type injury Safe work practice 4 1 4 (low) Used leather hand glove Andy (26 July 2007/ completed) 2 Operating the machine Unguarded machine Hand get caught into rotating parts Safe work practice/ daily pre-use check and regular maintenance 3 3 12 (medium) To fix L-guard Chia (26 Ogos 2007/ In progress)
  65. 65. 1. Hazard Identification 2. Risk Analysis 3. Risk control No Work activity Hazard Which can cause/effect Existing risk control (if any) L S R Recommendation control measures Due date/status Flying fragments Serious cuts & eye injury by flying fragments of blade that break during cutting Warning signs, training, safety goggles 4 3 12 (Medium) Use stronger blades, To Fix L-guard install Mutu (26 Ogos 2007/ completed) 3 Unloading cut wood Heavy load Muscular strain/ back pain Manual lifting procedure 3 1 3 (Low) Use mechanical lifter Fuad (20 Ogos 2007/ KIV) 4 Repair and maintenance of the machine Unguarded machine, unsafe work practice Serious cuts from blade and getting caught in rotating parts if machine is accidentally started Cover ‘on button’ safe work practice 4 4 16 (High) To make delay start button Ahmad (18 Ogos 2007/ Completed)
  66. 66. PROSIDUR KERJA SELAMAT • “Safe working procedure” • Langkah demi langkah yang membolehkan pekerja untuk menjalankan kerja-kerja mereka dengan selamat apabila bahaya yang hadir. • Mengenal pasti bahan-bahan dan peralatan yang diperlukan dan bagaimana untuk menggunakannya dengan selamat.
  67. 67. PROSIDUR KERJA SELAMAT Gunakan dalam: • Kerja berisiko tinggi yang kritikal di mana kemalangan yang mempunyai • Kerja-kerja yang berbahaya di mana kemalangan kerap berlaku • Tugas baru telah diperkenalkan • Peralatan baru telah ditambah ke dalam proses
  68. 68. PROSIDUR KERJA SELAMAT Satu kerja yang memerlukan banyak tugasan terperinci mesti termasuk: • Keperluan peraturan/perundangan • PPE • Latihan yang diperlukan • Tanggungjawab pekerja • Langkah-langkah spesifik yang perlu dipatuhi untuk menyiapkan kerja dengan selamat • Permit masuk/mula kerja jika diperlukan • Prosedur kecemasan
  69. 69. KESIMPULAN Dokumentasi penting untuk keseragaman, piawaian, kelancaran sesuatu pekerjaan Boleh menjamin aturan kerja disamping pencegahan daripada bahaya HIRARC adalah asas untuk dokementasi dalam bidang berkaitan OSH HIRARC yang efektif, sesuai dan baik dapat membantu menangani permasalahan KKP ditempat kerja

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