SlideShare utilise les cookies pour améliorer les fonctionnalités et les performances, et également pour vous montrer des publicités pertinentes. Si vous continuez à naviguer sur ce site, vous acceptez l’utilisation de cookies. Consultez nos Conditions d’utilisation et notre Politique de confidentialité.
SlideShare utilise les cookies pour améliorer les fonctionnalités et les performances, et également pour vous montrer des publicités pertinentes. Si vous continuez à naviguer sur ce site, vous acceptez l’utilisation de cookies. Consultez notre Politique de confidentialité et nos Conditions d’utilisation pour en savoir plus.
Malaysia has a good mix of energy resources like oil, natural gas, coal and renewable energies such as biomass, solar and hydro. In spite of this plenty of resources, the country is dependent on fossil fuel for industrial and transportation sector. In 2009, 94.5% of electricity is generated by using fossil fuel such as natural gas, coal, diesel oil and fuel oil. Currently, Malaysia owns three main networks of electricity grid which are situated at Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah and Sarawak .
The network covers the whole of Peninsular Malaysia, linking power generation stations owned by TNB and Independent Power Producers (IPP) to consumers. About 11, 000 km of transmission lines functioning at 132, 275, and 500 kV connects more than 400 transmission substations in Peninsular Malaysia. The 500 kV transmission network is the single largest transmission network to be developed in Malaysia. National Grid is linked to the transmission network of Singapore Power Limited at Senoko with a capacity to transmit 200 MW of power .
Electricity grid in Sabah is control by Sabah Electricity Sdn Bhd (SESB) which is a power generation, transmission, and distribution company. It is the only power utility firm in Sabah, Malaysia. It has 54 generating stations. SESB has capacity to generate 785 MW of power. The projected growth of demand of electricity is around 7.7% per year up to 2010. Power generation is chiefly from hydroelectric and thermal plants.
Sarawak electrical grid is control by Syarikat SESCO Berhad where SESCO is shortform for Sarawak Electricity Supply Corporation. It generates, transmits, and distributes power to Sarawak state. SESCO supplies power to about 382,000 customers. There are 36 power stations with a capacity of 750 MW having 64% gas turbines, 18% thermal generators, and 18% hydro turbines that are set up all over the state. SESCO generates power chiefly from hydroelectric and thermal plants.
According to TNB, there are few factors that catalyzed them to move forward for smart grid which are as follows: - Electricity demand growth needs large resource because future demand is estimated to double within next 20 years- Energy security is constrained by costs with addition to that where government’s planning to restructure the subsidy for energy sector by 2015- Implementation of feed-in tariff (FiT) will generate growth of renewable energy which required specific technologies to stabilize and control the RE- Support government commitment to reduce emission by 40% by year of 2020
To have connections between suppliers, distributors and consumers. In definition, Smart Grid is a form of electricity network utilizing digital technology.Its delivers electricity from suppliers to consumers using two-way digital communications to control appliances at consumers' homes; which in deed will saving the energy, reduce costs and increase reliability.A key feature of the smart grid is automation technology that lets the utility adjust and control each individual device or millions of devices from a central location.
Variation of Energy demand – depending on consumption, in some sector they demand more energy while the others may utilizes less or can be reduced. With Smart Grid technology, we be able to manage the energy efficiently and maximize saving.Reduce emitting green house gaseous (GHG) – Currently, mostly the demanded energy satisfies by utilizing fossil fuel, nuclear, coal etc thus applying Smart Grid, we can reduce dependence on these resources and with proper integration between existing energy resources and renewable energy, we can reduce GHG emission to environment. Power quality – backup system in Smart Grid technology will minimize or zeroing power interruption which as well can leads to no blackout and seamless supply if proper planning and execution is done.
It may be best to understood Smart Grid as the overlaying of a unified communications and control system on the existing power delivery infrastructure to provide the right information to the right entity (e.g. end-use devices, transmission and distribution, system controls, customers, etc.) at the right time to take the right action. It is a system that optimizes power supply and delivery, minimizes losses, is self-healing, and enables next-generation energy efficiency and demand response applications.
Referring to below Figure 6, a Smart Grid involve an open standard for communications with devices within the network that comprises of transmission and distribution, smart metering, two-way communications between a utility and its customers, and smart interconnections to distributed energy resources.
A Smart Grid must functions as followings [10,12]:1. Be able to heal itself Smart Grid is designed with a control system that self-analyzes its performance using intelligent autonomous reinforcement learning controllers that are able to learn new strategies and successfully implementing such strategies to govern the behavior of the grid in the face of an ever changing environment such as equipment failures. 2. Motivate consumers to actively participate in operations of the grid If consumers have freedom to control own usage of energy, they will be motivated to participate and be part of the system. They can monitor their usage and manipulate by the assistance of “smart appliances” and “intelligent equipment” in homes or businesses. Advanced communications capabilities equip customers with tools to exploit real-time electricity pricing, incentive-based load reduction signals, or emergency load reduction signals.3. Resist attack Most important issues of resist attack is the smart monitoring of power grids, which is the basis of control and management of smart grids to avoid or mitigate the system-wide disruptions like blackouts.4. Accommodate all energy generation and storage options Smart Grid integrates two power generation source; traditional power generation likes fossil fuel powered power plant with renewable power generations either generates from residential, commercial, and industrial customers that will improves reliability and power quality, reduces electricity costs, and offers more customer choice. 5. High quality powerOutages and power quality issues is common for any country especially for major industrial-based countries. Smart Grid provides more stable power provided that will reduce downtime and prevent such high losses because of its system integration that links all the power generation stations, transmission and distribution centers.6. Optimize asset to run more efficiently A smart grid can optimize capital assets while minimizing operations and maintenance costs. Optimized power flows reduce waste and maximize use of lowest-cost generation resources. Harmonizing local distribution with inter-regional energy flows and transmission traffic improves use of existing grid assets and reduces grid congestion and bottlenecks, which can ultimately produce consumer savings. 7. Enable high penetration of intermittent generation sources Climate change and environmental concerns will increase the amount of renewable energy resources. These are for the most part intermittent in nature. Smart Grid technologies will enable power systems to operate with larger amounts of such energy resources since they enable both the suppliers and consumers to compensate for such intermittency
Main component of Smart Grid as follows:1. Smart metersThe foundation of the smart grid is the smart meter, consisting of:metrology components used to measure energy usagebuilt-in microprocessors to carry out data management and control functiontwo-way communications capability to receive and transmit data.In addition to these features, smart meters are usually fitted with a data display and security protocols. This advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) devices can communicate over the grid at regular intervals, to send data in real time to the utility’s head-end systems and to customer display devices. 2. CommunicationsThe communications infrastructure in Smart Grid is real-time, two-way high-end communications technology between each of the components using technologies such as wireless (RF) mesh or powerline carrier (PLC), or provided using existing public communications infrastructure, such as GSM/GPRS or Wi-Fi networks. This lines should be secured to safeguard sensitive consumer data as it is transmitted throughout the grid. Home area networks (HANs), which connect smart meters and other smart devices within a home or business, are also needed for home energy management purposes.3. Grid managementIn a smart grid, sensors and distributed computing turn grid assets, such as substations, transformers and power switches, into intelligent elements capable of communicating with head-end systems. The grid can report problems in real time, as well as pinpoint, isolate and fix them. Other benefits include being able to direct the flow of electricity in response to demand patterns and to integrate large-scale generation from renewable sources. Grid management refers to the software that controls the grid infrastructure. Grid management systems must be able to handle various functions, such as load balancing, handling information on grid assets, managing input from distributed power sources, and communication between back-office systems and smart meters.4. Demand responseMetering, communications and grid management enable greater levels of control over the grid. This allows utilities to charge differing rates for peak and off-peak usage, to incentivize customers to reduce their energy usage during peak times. This requires provision of regularly updated supply of information to consumers about both usage and prices of electricity. 5. Energy storageStoring surplus energy for release to the grid when needed is expected to be an integral part of the completed smart grid. As utilities increase their use of renewable energy sources, they will need to have reserve sources of power for when outputs from solar and wind plants drop. Energy-storage technologies include compressed air storage, hydroelectric pumped storage, battery storage and thermal-mass storage. Micro-storage in homes and businesses will also become more prevalent. For example, it will be possible to use plug-in electric vehicles (PHEVs), which are on the roadmap of all major car manufacturers, as micro-storage facilities, with consumers able to feed back excess power into the grid.6. SecurityThe smart grid’s physical components and management data need to be protected from attack; consumer data also needs to be safe – and to be seen to be safe – in order for smart grids to be acceptable to users and governments. Security systems of different kinds will be integrated into the grid’s data management and communications systems.7. The smart homeThe smart meter will be the foundation of tomorrow’s smart home. Over time, more and smarter devices will be added to the home, including remote thermostats, in-home data displays, and smart domestic appliances equipped with two-way communications and control, air conditioning units, solar panels and other microgeneration sources, and PHEVs. The smart meter and other smart devices will be interconnected by a HAN. This will enable near-real-time monitoring of energy consumption and power-management functions, such as switching on appliances at off-peak times to benefit from cheaper rates. Home energy management will enable consumers to understand their energy consumption better and change their usage to save power and money .A Smart Grid will also facilitate the market adoption and interconnection of plug-in hybridelectric vehicles (PHEVs), hybrid electric vehicles that can be plugged into electrical outlets for recharging.
Among the benefits as the followings :1. Enabling active participation by consumers.Two-way communication between utilities and consumers will enabling consumers to monitor their usage of energy in real-time and feedback to utilities on their requirements. Consumers will be able to manage their energy costs proactively including selling energy back to the utility for revenue while for utility providers, will be able to help balance supply and demand and ensure reliability by modifying the way their customer use and purchase electricity. 2. Enabling new products, services and markets.In overlaying intelligence across the national grid, Smart Grid principles and technologies support the creation of well-integrated electricity markets that attract new market participants to open the door to new ideas, products and services.3 Providing power quality for the digital economy.Growing demand of digital economy likes servers, telecommunications, brokerage operation etc will require digital-quality power. The Smart Grid will be able to supply varying grades of power quality with a variety of pricing options. It will also detect and correct poor power quality before its effects become significant, dramatically reducing customer losses due to power quality issues and increasing overall quality control of the grid. 4. Optimizing asset utilization and efficient operation.The Smart Grid will be able to exploit proven technologies to optimize the use of its assets i.e. power plants, distribution substations and other critical infrastructure. Such improvements will result in more power flowing through existing assets as well as giving utilities more precise insight into the need for additional power plants. Operational improvements will range from improved load factors to lower system losses. The result: A net reduction in utility costs, and maximization of efficiencies throughout the system.5. Anticipating and responding to system disturbances.By performing continuous self-assessments, the Smart Grid will be able to prevent disruptions rather than simply react to them and act faster than operators ever could in resolving fast moving problems.
Beside the benefits, some peoples are concern on the disadvantages that can be surfaced from application Smart Grid. In Europe and USA, significant impediments exist to the widespread adoption of Smart Grid technologies, including:- Except for certain award by US government, most regulatory environments don't reward utilities for operational efficiency, - Due to information technology embedded in Smart Grid, consumers are more concerns over privacy and transfer of data without their knowledge,- Because Smart Grid manages the energy by controlling the usage of consumer, there are social concerns over "fair" availability of electricity where customers afraid that unequal shares of electricity may occurs especially between low-energy-usage users and hi-energy-usage users.- Social concerns over Enron style abuses of information leverage,- People are concerns over giving the government mechanisms to control the use of all power using activities, and- Customers are concerns on computer security for example, one of the key capabilities of smart grid is the ability to remotely switch off power supplies, enabling utilities to quickly and easily cease or modify supplies to customers who default on payment. If the system is under attack, it will collapse the entire network. - Aside from computer infiltration, there are also concerns that computer malware like Stuxnet, which targeted systems on the SCADA software language widely used in industry, could do to a smart grid network.- Investment on Smart Grid may be difficult for certain utility providers due to cost justification. In example, for smart metering or any type of smart system, it must make a business case for the investment. In addition some of component required high initial investment but are needed only during emergencies and only effective if integrating with other suppliers on the network, thus, without any incentive to install them, power suppliers would choose not to install. Most utilities find it difficult to justify installing a communications infrastructure for a single application (e.g. meter reading). Because of this, a utility provider must typically identify several applications that will use the same communications infrastructure; for example, reading a meter, monitoring power quality, remote connection and disconnection of customers, enabling demand response, etc. - For the smart grid, the weather is major obstacle because most of the renewable energy source likes solar and wind are heavy relaying with the condition of nature. Without proper planning on distribution of power generation; both of traditional and RE, if one of them is fails and the backup system unable to support the demand i.e. unbalance power, this will leads to power interruption. - Most of the countries facing problem with old and worn out electricity delivery system e.g. transmission lines and some may be due to over used because of growing energy demand from human activities. In addition, increasing utilization of electronic devices such as computers, high-definition TV’s, microwave ovens, etc that are more sensitive to variations in electric voltage will leads to electrical grid is becoming more fragile. As a result, the reliability of electrical power will decline .Of the above, Smart Grid having some issues that should be addressed and overcome in order to fully capitalized on this technology. A new approach required to identify and manage the issue as well as significantly increases the efficiency of the entire electrical delivery system and meeting the objective or goals of Smart Grid.
OUTLINES• Introduction• Generation mix of electricity• Current electrical grid• Energy demand• Major incidents and lesson learned• Driven factors for Malaysia new smart grid• What is smart grid?• Why we should go for smart grid• Concept of smart grid• The functionality of Smart Grid• Components of Smart Grid• Benefits of Smart Grid• Issue on Smart Grid• Conclusion
INTRODUCTION• Many countries and electricity markets are looking at Smart Grid as advanced solutions in delivering mix of enhanced values ranging from higher security, reliability and power quality, lower cost of delivery, demand optimization and energy efficiency.• Its advanced capabilities - demand optimization, delivery efficiency and renewable energy optimization will lead to lower carbon footprint and overall lower energy cost and investment in energy related infrastructure.• It is to ensure sustainable development in the electricity sector and many benefits of the all stakeholders.
GENERATION MIX OF ELECTRICITY• Malaysia has a good mix of energy resources like oil, natural gas, coal and renewable energies such as biomass, solar and hydro
CURRENT ELECTRICAL GRID IN MALAYSIANATIONAL GRID
CURRENT ELECTRICAL GRID IN MALAYSIASABAH ELECTRICAL GRID
CURRENT ELECTRICAL GRID IN MALAYSIASARAWAK ELECTRICAL GRID
ENERGY DEMAND• 2009, energy demand is 16,132 MW, compared to 10 years before the demand of electricity is just 9690 MW.• This rapid increase in demand is due to the high economic development rate of Malaysia.• For the last 30 years, average percentage increases of electricity is 9.2 % yearly
MAJOR INCIDENTS AND LESSON LEARNED• 13 January 2005, a power blackout on northern peninsular Malaysia occurred when a transmission line near Serendah, Selangor, had broken down.• In 22 April 2008 Sabah had the worst power outage since the commissioning of the east west power grid. Suspected vandals are believed to have removed steel pieces of a 132kV transmission tower that led to its collapse, triggering a major power blackout.• These incidents have called for TNB to initiate new system to backup the existing power supply in order to prevent power interruption or breakdown to the system.
DRIVEN FACTORS FOR MALAYSIA NEW SMART GRID• Increasing reliability, efficiency and safety of the power grid.• Enabling decentralized power generation so homes can be both an energy client and supplier (provide consumers with an interactive tool to manage energy usage, as net metering).• Flexibility of power consumption at the clients side to allow supplier selection (enables distributed generation, solar, wind, biomass).• Increase GDP by creating more new, green-collar energy jobs related to renewable energy industry manufacturing, plug-in electric vehicles, solar panel and wind turbine generation, energy conservation construction
WHAT IS SMART GRID?• In definition, Smart Grid is a form of electricity network utilizing digital technology.• Its connects between suppliers, distributors and consumers.• Its delivers electricity from suppliers to consumers using two- way digital communications to control appliances at consumers homes; which in deed will saving the energy, reduce costs and increase reliability.• A key feature of the smart grid is automation technology that lets the utility adjust and control each individual device or millions of devices from a central location.
WHY WE SHOULD GO FOR SMART GRID?• Smart control of Energy Demand• Reduce emitting green house gaseous (GHG)• Increase Power Quality
CONCEPT OF SMART GRID• The basic concept of Smart Grid is to add monitoring, analysis, control, and communication capabilities to the national electricity delivery system.• This in turn can maximize the output of equipment, help utilities lower costs, improve reliability, decrease interruptions, and reduce energy consumption.
THE FUNCTIONALITY OF SMART GRIDA Smart Grid must functions as followings• Be able to heal itself• Motivate consumers to actively participate in operations of the grid• Resist attack• Accommodate all energy generation and storage options• High quality power• Optimize asset to run more efficiently• Enable high penetration of intermittent generation sources
SUMMARY OF COMPONENTS OF SMART GRIDMain components Centralized Transmission / distribution End-user location generationPhysical power assets Power plants - Power lines, substations, - Smart meter / wireless (including transformers, etc devices storage) - Sensors, security (networked - Microgeneration cameras etc) - Storage - StoragePhysical Power station - Access and transport network Home area networkcommunications assets communicatio (powerline, fixed or ns network (fibre, powerline or wireless), wireless) - switches and routersSoftware and Distributed data processing - on-site, off-site and virtualisedapplications Grid management / load balancing / power Business and consumer routing; end-user usage and billing; IT security; energy management grid and communication network operation and management systems (including protection and control)
BENEFIT OF SMART GRIDAmong the benefits as the followings:• Enabling active participation by consumers.• Enabling new products, services and markets.• Providing power quality for the digital economy.• Optimizing asset utilization and efficient operation.• Anticipating and responding to system disturbances.
ISSUE ON SMART GRIDAmong the issues as the followings:• Lack of recognition or rewards on operational efficiency• Customer concerns over privacy and transfer of data without their knowledge,• Fair distribution of electricity demand• Social concerns over information abuses• People are concerns on extra control of electricity that government have• Customers are concerns on computer security• Malware and hacker threat• Utilities hard to justify for investment on smart grid• Problem over intermittent RE source – e.g. weather• Outdate and old existing electrical facilities
CONCLUSION• Smart Grid technology provides opportunity for Malaysia to enhance the existing grid and preventing reoccurrences of major incidents.• Smart Grid technologies can improve the reliability, security, and efficiency of current electrical grid.• Intelligent devices can automatically adjust to changing conditions to prevent blackouts and increase capacity.• Before the implementation, Malaysia has to study and do proper planning to ensure Smart Grid is executes smoothly and comprehensively.