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Brain Computer Interface

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Brain Computer Interface

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Brain Computer Interface

  1. 1. Brain – Computer Interface Sunday, February 24th, 2019 LMP Education Trust Image Source: https://alsadotorg.wordpress.com/2016/06/02/bringing-brain-computer-interface-home/
  2. 2. Yaksha Prashna The Yaksha asked, "What is heavier than Earth, higher than heavens, faster than the wind and more numerous than straws"? https://www.quora.com/What-was-the-complete-dialogue-between-Yudhisthir-and-Yaksha-from-Mahabharata Image source: https://www.flickr.com/photos/healthblog/8384110298
  3. 3. Interacting with the world faster Actions = Mechanical Thoughts = Electrical impulses Image source: https://coach.nine.com.au/2016/12/16/13/43/sprint-your-way-to-a-marathon Image source: https://www.sott.net/article/234261-How- The-Brain-Controls-Impulsive-Behaviour
  4. 4. MATRIX movie
  5. 5. https://www.businessinsider.in/China-is-monitoring-employees-brain-waves-and-emotions-and-the-technology-boosted-one-companys-profits-by-315-million/articleshow/63970711.cms The technology works by placing wireless sensors in employees' caps or hats which, combined with artificial intelligence algorithms, spot incidents of workplace rage, anxiety, or sadness. Employees' brain waves are reportedly being monitored in factories, state-owned enterprises, and the military across China. The technology reportedly increases productivity and profitability, with one company claiming its profits jumped by $315 million.
  6. 6. Source: https://www.recode.net/2017/3/6/14831108/robot-mind- reading-technology-brain-mit-telepathy There are many ways to control a robot. You can code it, or manipulate it with a touchscreen or a joystick. Robots can even teach themselves new tricks with machine learning. But now, researchers at MIT’s Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory and Boston University have added a new way: Thinking with your brain. The researchers have created a feedback system that reads a person’s brain responses while watching a robot at work. If the robot makes a mistake that the person recognizes, the robot is sent a signal to correct its error. No one presses a button or utters a word.
  7. 7. Brain : Chemical – electrical entity https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Human_brain_in_a_vat.jpg https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Chemical_synapse_schema _cropped.jpg
  8. 8. http://news.mit.edu/2018/seeing-brains-electrical-activity-0226 “If you put an electrode in the brain, it’s like trying to understand a phone conversation by hearing only one person talk,” says Edward Boyden, an associate professor of biological engineering and brain and cognitive sciences at MIT. “Now we can record the neural activity of many cells in a neural circuit and hear them as they talk to each other.”
  9. 9. https://www.bbc.com/news/business-42894312
  10. 10. Is your brain a computer - Video • Video Parietal Lobe - involved in the reception and processing of sensory information from the body. Frontal Lobe - involved with decision-making, problem solving, and planning. Occipital Lobe - involved with vision. Temporal Lobe - involved with memory, emotion, hearing, and language.http://www.sheffieldneurogirls.com/our-brain
  11. 11. Individuals with severe neuromuscular impairments Image source: https://medlineplus.gov/neuromusculardisorders.html
  12. 12. Neuromuscular Disorders Each year, 750,000 people in the US experience a stroke and 11,000 suffer a spinal cord injury. 500,000 Americans currently live with cerebral palsy, 270,000 with multiple sclerosis and 5.3 million with the after-effects of a traumatic brain injury, and thousands more with movement disorders such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, or Lou Gehrig’s disease) and other conditions that rob them of their ability to move their muscles and, in many cases, live independently. Source: http://aemf.org/item/neuromuscular-disorders/
  13. 13. Neuromuscular Disorders • Patients who have lost the ability to move an arm or a leg, stand up out of a chair or swallow a mouthful of food due to a neuromuscular condition are often faced with months to years of physical therapy to try to restore or retain some level of muscle function. While many patients experience success in their efforts, those who don’t may face fewer clinical options as time passes from the original onset of their symptoms. Source: http://aemf.org/item/neuromuscular-disorders/
  14. 14. Neuromuscular Disorders In 1791, scientist Luigi Galvani first showed that electricity, when applied to a frog’s leg, could cause muscle twitches. In the intervening centuries, scientists have learned much about how electrical stimulation affects muscle tissue and have tried to apply it to muscles paralyzed by neuromuscular disease to create both therapeutic and functional effect. This field of medicine is known variously as • electrical muscle stimulation (EMS), • neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES), • functional electrical stimulation (FES) and • electromyostimulation. Source: http://aemf.org/item/neuromuscular-disorders/
  15. 15. Movement Commands from Brain (a) In healthy subjects, primary motor area sends movement commands to muscles via spinal cord. (b) In paralyzed people this pathway is interrupted. (c) Computer based decoder translates this activity into commands for muscle control. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/262914980_Prospect_of_Brain- Machine_Interface_in_Motor_Disabilities_The_Future_Support_for_Multiple_Sclerosis_Patient_to_Improve_Quality_of_Life/figures?lo=1 Available via license: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0
  16. 16. How Brain Functions - video https://www.researchgate.net/publication/224145401_Brain-Computer_Interfacing_In_the_Spotlight/figures?lo=1
  17. 17. http://www.neurotechcenter.org/sites/default/files/misc/The%20Emerging%20World%20of%20Motor%20Neu roprosthetics%20-%20A%20Neurosurgical%20Perspective.pdf Schematic showing the essential components of the BCI
  18. 18. Electrical stimulation can be applied to the affected muscles one of two ways • Surface Electrodes • Implanted Electrodes https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electrical_muscle_stimulation https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electrocorticography
  19. 19. Electroencephalography (EEG) https://speakingofresearch.com/2016/08/22/research-using-sheep-leads-to- a-new-device-to-record-and-stimulate-the-brain/ https://computer.howstuffworks.com/brain-computer-interface.htm
  20. 20. Types of EEG Waves 1.Delta Waves 2.Theta Waves 3.Alpha Waves 4.Beta Waves 5.Gamma Waves Source: http://www.crystalblueent.com/brain-waves.html
  21. 21. Use of EEG http://slideplayer.com/slide/10445941/release/woothee Slide #20
  22. 22. Do not rely on peripheral nerves or muscles, but rather on signals from the central nervous system, to enable communication or control Modern Approach https://futurism.com/elon-musk-wants-meld-human-brain-computers
  23. 23. Brain-Computer Interface technology for Epilepsy https://www.apnews.com/29adb5cce1724b8ebd66f380c83202aa Of the roughly 3.4 million adults in the U.S. with epilepsy, as many as one-third have seizures that are not controlled by existing therapies. As the only FDA- approved medical device that utilizes brain-computer interface technology for epilepsy, the RNS System offers an advanced treatment option for patients with refractory focal seizures.
  24. 24. History of BCI • In 1924 Berger was the first to record human brain activity by means of EEG. Berger was able to identify oscillatory activity, such as Berger's wave or the alpha wave (8–13 Hz), by analyzing EEG traces. • Algorithms to reconstruct movements from motor cortex neurons, which control movement, were developed in 1970s. • The first Intra-Cortical Brain-Computer Interface was built by implanting electrodes into monkeys. • After conducting initial studies in rats during the 1990s, researchers developed Brain Computer Interfaces that decoded brain activity in monkeys and used the devices to reproduce movements in monkeys and used the devices to reproduce monkey movements in robotic arms. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brain%E2%80%93computer_interface
  25. 25. http://www.wikiwand.com/en/Brain%E2%80%93computer_interface
  26. 26. Star Wars: 10 Powers Fans Didn’t Know Darth Vader Has https://screenrant.com/star-wars-darth-vader-hidden-powers-weaknesses/ Darth Vader's arms and legs were replaced by prosthetics, which were operated by a special neuron rig that was connected to his brain.
  27. 27. In 1998, Kevin Warwick, a Professor of Cybernetics at Reading University, became the world's first cyborg. Well, to be exact, he had a radio frequency ID implanted in his arm. As a result, he can turn on lights by snapping his fingers; once he let his wife's brain waves take control of his body (she's also cybernetic). https://becomingasuperhuman.com/kevin-warwick-worlds-first-cyborg-on-artificial-intelligence/ https://motherboard.vice.com/en_us/article/788axy/the-cyborg-kevin-warwick-is-the-worlds-first-human-robot-hybrid
  28. 28. Typical BCI Interface Source: https://sites.google.com/site/cagdasulas00/miscstuff
  29. 29. BCI Model Image source: http://bsi.riken.jp/bsi-news/bsinews34/no34/research1e.html
  30. 30. Source: https://computer.howstuffworks.com/brain-computer-interface1.htm
  31. 31. https://electronics.howstuffworks.com/mind-communication1.htm
  32. 32. Potential of BCI • Does not involve voluntary motor function • Cognitive function – to interact with external environment http://www.fgcsic.es/lychnos/en_en/articles/Brain-Computer-Interface
  33. 33. BCI as an assistive technology Disabilities such as those resulting from • autism • aphasia • brainstem stroke • spinal cord injury , and • neurodegenerative diseases , among other afflictions and challenges Image sources: https://aaspeech.com/june-aphasia-awareness-month/ https://www.verywellhealth.com/what-is-mild-autism-260244
  34. 34. https://www.epainassist.com/brain/brain-stem-stroke
  35. 35. https://twitter.com/stjamesdublin/status/983965406791692288
  36. 36. BCI systems – P300 Signal The P300 signal is an event related potential (ERP), meaning that the signal is seen on an EEG as a rapid single potential change as a response to a sensory, cognitive, or motor event. Video: 1. How the brain recognizes what the eye sees 2. Measuring P300
  37. 37. Global Brain Computer Interface Market • Growth @ CAGR of 22.8% during 2018-2023 • Reason is increasing use of sensor technology Market To Be Worth $1.73 Billion By 2022: Grand View Research, Inc. https://www.grandviewresearch.com/industry-analysis/brain-computer-interfaces-market
  38. 38. Market Growth Factors • Increasing numbers of brain disorder patients • Advancements in Neuro-imaging technologies • Increase of sensor application in medical field • New application areas of BCI in Education and Defence
  39. 39. Market Challengers •Cost structures •Poor Information Transfer Rate of BCI http://learn.neurotechedu.com/introtobci/ https://www.brainscientific.com/about/
  40. 40. Market Opportunities • Developing cure for paralysed brain disorder patients • providing better smart home control system • calibrating the movement in physically challenged individuals • Emerging use of BCI in Gaming Enterprises Image source: https://www.factor-tech.com/feature/brain-computer- interfaces-the-video-game-controllers-of-the-future/ https://interestingengineering.com/researchers-develop-special-brain-computer- interface-system-for-people-with-paralysis
  41. 41. Regional Growth Source: https://www.grandviewresearch.com/industry-analysis/brain-computer-interfaces-market
  42. 42. Market Segmentation By Components: • Hardware • Software OpenBCI OpenViBE: Open-Source Software for Brain-Computer Interfaces https://bciovereeg.blogspot.com/2012/04/open-source-software-for-eeg.html
  43. 43. Market Segmentation By Type Invasive- inside grey matter of brain Partially Invasive- inside the skull but outside the grey matter Non Invasive- outside the skull, on the scalp https://www.eurekalert.org/multimedia_ml/pub/2424.ph p?from=7923 https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/4446/17ec6a720a7291faf1b70d5bd0cf d82461f6.pdf?_ga=2.201837649.110001340.1551214808- 2081305395.1551214808
  44. 44. Market Segmentation By Application: • Medical • Smart home control • Gaming and Virtual Reality • Communication and Control https://meetings.ninds.nih.gov/assets/Neural_Interfaces/9_Guger_NIC-NIH.pdf http://neurable.com/news/mind-controlled-vr-game-really-works https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fnins.2011.00005/full
  45. 45. Market Segmentation By Technology • Electro-encephalography (EEG) • Magneto-encephalography (MEG) • Electro-Corticography (ECoG) • Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (FMRI) • Near Infrared Spectroscopy • Intra-cortical Neuro Recording Image source: https://cultocracy.wordpress.com/2018/03/17/ecog-speech-synthesis- bcis-implant-arrays/ https://www.engineering.com/DesignerEdge/DesignerEdgeArticles/ArticleID/13523/Brain- Computer-Interface-Generates-Sensory-Feedback-from-Cortical-Stimulation.aspx
  46. 46. Market Segmentation By End User • Education • Health Care • Defence https://www.ise.ncsu.edu/bci/projects/p300-based-brain- computer-interface-bci/ https://www.army-technology.com/features/featurebrain- computer-interfacing-military-mind-control/
  47. 47. https://meetings.ninds.nih.gov/assets/Neural_Interfaces/9_Guger_NIC-NIH.pdf
  48. 48. http://www.electrostim.ro/index_e.php?p=brain_computer_interface
  49. 49. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1110866515000237
  50. 50. BCI Examples - Prostheses The results suggest that people with severe motor disabilities could use brain signals to operate a robotic arm or a neuroprosthesis without needing to have electrodes implanted in their brains. https://deliveryimages.acm.org/10.1145/1950000/1941506/figs/f1.jpg
  51. 51. BCI Examples - Prostheses Online experiments have shown that subjects successfully control the robot to circumnavigate obstacles and reach some specified targets in separate rooms by motor imagery of their hands and feet. Source: https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/f475/6a0a925c36d1ec853dd0afd06e4ac52238f9.pdf https://www.researchgate.net/publication/203918369_Evaluation_of_a_robot_as_ embodied_interface_for_brain_computer_interface_systems/figures?lo=1
  52. 52. BCI Examples - Prostheses Our results open the possibility for physically disabled people to use a portable EEG-based brain-machine interface for controlling wheelchairs and prosthetic limbs. Source: https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/1300798 Image grab: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UUcubnQML9s
  53. 53. BCI Examples - Music Our research successfully demonstrates the suitability of the SSVEP technique for eliciting control over musical notation in the continuous fashion required for acoustic music performance. Source: https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/72da/8f12ded41fb2c906a616499131c6a366bd6a.pdf
  54. 54. https://www.hindawi.com/journals/ahci/2013/802063/
  55. 55. BRAINGATE Developing brain-computer interface (BCI) technologies to restore the communication, mobility, and independence of people with neurologic disease, injury, or limb loss https://www.braingate.org/
  56. 56. Neuroelectrics’ Starstim™ - a novel form of non-invasive neuromodulation https://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20190225005464/en/ February 25, 2019 07:00 AM Eastern Standard Time CAMBRIDGE, Mass.--(BUSINESS WIRE)--At the recent American Epilepsy Society Annual Meeting in New Orleans, Neuroelectrics Corporation presented positive results from its clinical trial treating patients with drug resistant epilepsy with Starstim™, a device that uses mild electric currents applied on the scalp to calm abnormal activity of the brain. Of the seventeen patients that completed the study, treatment with Neuroelectrics’ Starstim™ device resulted in a reduction in seizure frequency of at least 40% from baseline in 75% of the patients, measured eight weeks after treatment. Also, no device-related adverse events were reported during the study.
  57. 57. Consumer Gaming Image source: https://www.factor-tech.com/feature/brain-computer-interfaces-the-video-game-controllers-of-the-future/
  58. 58. Harvard-incubated BrainCo’s Focus 1 A neurofeedback device that is worn like a headband to improve focus by training certain brainwave frequencies source: https://www.factor-tech.com/feature/brain-computer-interfaces-the-video-game-controllers-of-the-future/
  59. 59. https://www.emotiv.com/brain-controlled-technology/
  60. 60. Understanding Consumer Behaviour https://www.apnews.com/dde926881bcda3b0ecc566ea381b68bd Marketing Brainology, a neuromarketing firm using neuroscience approaches to understand consumer behavior, invited consumers into their Neurolab to measure the impact of various Super Bowl advertisements. Using the NeuroCap EEG cap to measure brain activity, along with eye-tracking software, subjects were presented with multiple media impressions. Marketing Brainology was able to analyze responsive biomarkers and determine the most effective and memorable commercials aired during Super Bowl LIII. “Our Super Bowl study MEASURED BRAIN ACTIVITY and EYE-TRACKING to capture why and when consumers reacted to specific Super Bowl commercials. Marketing departments can use this data to better connect with consumers before allocating millions of dollars in producing a commercial.”
  61. 61. Brain Scientific’s NeuroCap and NeuroEEG “Our Super Bowl study MEASURED BRAIN ACTIVITY and EYE-TRACKING to capture why and when consumers reacted to specific Super Bowl commercials. Marketing departments can use this data to better connect with consumers before allocating millions of dollars in producing a commercial.” https://www.apnews.com/dde926881bcda3b0ecc566ea381b68bd https://www.brainscientific.com/neuroeeg/ Image source: https://www.mvapmed.com/skmvapflyers/Quarterly_Flyer.pdf
  62. 62. Massachusetts Institute of Technology Source: https://www.apnews.com/ce1b492b6e8e40649f0278166f1035d7 … the hat can determine what a person is thinking about and use the information to sort them into a Hogwarts house in one test… Image for representation only. source: https://www.flickr.com/photos/asu english/33040919442 Non Invasive electrodes to capture brain activity
  63. 63. MIT McGovern Institute for Brain Research https://mcgovern.mit.edu/
  64. 64. Cognitive role of BCI • HTML and CSS – user puts the content and browser does the layout • Machine Learning Techniques • Adjusting Information Flow – Cognitive state through BCI • Using brain imaging, the system knows approximately how the user’s attentional and cognitive resources are allocated, and could tailor information presentation to attain the largest communication bandwidth possible. • Cognitive overload >>>> system provides less information Source: https://www.microsoft.com/en-us/research/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/ace2007-bcigames.pdf
  65. 65. Interruptions disrupt thought processes • User thinking really hard >>> system detects >>> manage pending interruptions such as e-mail alerts and phone calls accordingly • User is staring blankly at the wall >>> System differentiates between deep thought and no thought • User getting verbally overloaded >>> System could attempt to turn down the music, since musical lyrics get subconsciously processed and consume valuable verbal resources. Source: https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/7c33/2970584bb9ec2feaaedc47c4c2be1425cc0d.pdf
  66. 66. Higher level cognitive events • User having higher level cognitive events like confusion and frustration or satisfaction and realization (the “aha” moment) >>> System could tailor interfaces that provide feedback or guidance on task focus and strategy >>> increases information understanding and retention Source: https://www.microsoft.com/en-us/research/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/ace2007-bcigames.pdf
  67. 67. Thank you!

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