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Arab Region Progress in Sustainable Energy Challenges and Opportunities

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Presentation by Ms. Radia Sedaoui, Chief Energy Section, Sustainable Development Policies Division

Publié dans : Environnement
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Arab Region Progress in Sustainable Energy Challenges and Opportunities

  1. 1. Arab Region Progress in Sustainable Energy Challenges and Opportunities Ms. Radia Sedaoui Chief Energy Section Sustainable Development Policies Division Kuwait, 6-7 May 2018
  2. 2. © Copyright 2018 ESCWA. All rights reserved. No part of this presentation in all its property may be used or reproduced in any form without a written permission. CURRENT STATUS  Close to universal electricity access in cities across the urban areas, but remains fixed at approximately 80% in rural areas,  Around 36 million people lacking access to electricity  88% of population using CFTs, but less than 40% in the Arab LDCs  Energy consumption has more than doubled since 1990. 73% was consumed by the residential sector alone.  Marginal role of renewables: 4% including hydro and biomass.
  3. 3. Page 3 Near-universal access to modern energy but very slow progress in energy efficiency and a marginal role of renewable energy SDG 7.1.1: Electrification  Access to electricity, 2014, Arab region  Access to electricity, 2030, IEA estimates, globally  2030 Target: Ensure universal access to electricity 90.4% 0 Objective 100% 91% SDG 7.3 : Energy Efficiency Objective  Change in energy intensity, 2010–2014, Arab region  Compound annual growth rate of primary energy intensity, 2012-2030, current trends, globally 2030  2030 Target: Double the global rate of improvement in energy efficiency, expressed as compound annual growth rate of primary energy intensity 0 -2.6% -2.1% 1.6% SDG 7.1.2: Clean Fuels and Technologies for Cooking  Access to CFTs, 2014, Arab region  Access to CFTs, 2030, IEA estimates, globally  2030 Target: Ensure universal access to CFTs 0 88% 72% Objective 100% SDG7.2: Renewable Energy Objective  Renewable energy share of TFEC, 2014, Arab region  Renewable energy share, 2030 - IEA estimates, globally  2030 Target: Double the share of renewable energy in the global energy mix 36% 0 3.6% 21%
  4. 4. Page 4 Many countries in the region are not able to provide adequate energy services for a significant portion of their population Sudan, 21.7Yemen, Rep., 7.3 Morocco, 2.8 Mauritania, 2.4 Syrian Arab Republic, 0.8 Iraq, 0.4 Egypt, Arab Rep., 0.2 Libya, 0.1 Arab LDCs remain the only sub-region in the Arab region with significant access deficits, in particular in non-urban areas
  5. 5. Page 5 0 2,000,000 4,000,000 6,000,000 8,000,000 10,000,000 12,000,000 14,000,000 16,000,000 18,000,000 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Algeria Bahrain Egypt Iraq Jordan Kuwait Lebanon Libya Mauritania Morocco Oman Palestine (State of) Qatar Saudi Arabia Sudan Syrian Arab Republic Tunisia United Arab Emirates Yemen Historical energy consumption in the Arab region by country (TJ), 1990-2014 The region is in the midst of a transition from being a major supplier of energy to international markets, towards an increasingly important demand market in its own right The Arab region lacks sustainable resource management
  6. 6. Page 6 Renewable energy Energy efficiency  Cost barriers (i): Cost of technology: Modern RE technologies such as wind and solar were long not cost-competitive (ii): Pricing and subsidies: Prices for electricity and competing fossil fuels are so low that utilities have no incentive to use RE, nor do final consumers  Technological challenges. Intermittency, viability of decentralized feed-in generation.  Market design. Lack of utility market liberalization means utilities have no incentive to experiment with new technologies to drive down costs. Consumers have no choice over the source of their electricity supply.  Political will and policy priority. Enhanced policies and market frameworks would have the potential to be 30% higher in the MENA region by 2021 (IEA).  Missing other incentives. Lacking “fit” of energy security argument in fossil fuel exporters, low profile of environmental policy in energy market design.  Limited motivation to invest in EE improvement: Very low, subsidized prices for energy, electricity and water for End Users, industries, utilities,..  Infrastructure: Lag in availability and inadequacy of public transport systems, aging fleets, increasing mobility  Structure of local economies (energy-intensive industrialization)  Market design in key energy-consuming sectors (utilities, industry): state companies versus competitive markets  Lack of policy priority and capacity: regulation deficits, market incentives  Deficiency of financial products suited to the needs  Information deficits: missing data and consumer information Renewable energy and Energy efficiency: key issues and Barriers
  7. 7. Page 7 Recent reductions in energy subsidies show that reforming pricing frameworks is possible * The OPEC basket spot price is taken from the OPEC Monthly Market Oil report. National Government websites, and various national media. Source: Data compiled by UN ESCWA and adapted from Chatham House 2016 report (“Food, fuel and utilities price reforms in the GCC”, p.3).
  8. 8. © Copyright 2018 ESCWA. All rights reserved. No part of this presentation in all its property may be used or reproduced in any form without a written permission. While climate change has never played a significant role in Arab countries’ discourse on energy use, ……..today the Arab region is one of the regions of the world most vulnerable to climate change Copyrights: Carboun 2017 Historically low rate of energy use and carbon emissions: Arab region constitutes 5% of the world’s population, emits just under 5% of global carbon emissions
  9. 9. Page 9 Arab region includes some of the most water scarce countries in the world
  10. 10. Page 10 Reserves Abundance in the Arab Region Source: OAPEC, BP statistical Review, 2017 Countries in the Arab region exhibit different energy consumption levels, but they share their reliance on fossil fuels for energy sufficiency. Arab Region 42% Rest of the World 58% Oil Proved Reserves, 2016 1706.6 Billion BBL Arab Region 29% Rest of the World 71% Gas Proved Reserves, 2016 187
  11. 11. Page 11 The Arab countries are well endowed with potential for developing renewable energy resources, if adequately used source: www.altestore.com/howto/Solar-Electric-Power/Reference-Materials/Solar-Insolation-Map-World/a43 source: MAKE, MENA Wind Power Outlook, 2 April 2015, Joffery Dupuy, P. 8  Wind speed suitable for the production of electricity in various locations of many countries  High Solar Irradiance  Vast desert lands, semi-flat, and mostly uninhabited
  12. 12. © Copyright 2018 ESCWA. All rights reserved. No part of this presentation in all its property may be used or reproduced in any form without a written permission. Arab Region Key Regional Challenges • Natural resources unequally distributed • High vulnerability to climate change • Water scarcity • Land degradation • Food Security • High dependency on fossil fuel • Increasing vulnerability to international energy price fluctuations • Very low, subsidized prices for energy, electricity and water • Access to finance and technology • War, regional instability and mass migration Sustainable energy systems is a crucial priority, especially to meet the expectations of the overwhelmingly young populations for economic opportunities and improving living standards.
  13. 13. Page 13 Inclusive national development: pursuing policies that embrace the principles of universality and inclusivity Without rapid progress in the area of secure, affordable and clean energy (SDG 7), it will be impossible to deliver on other SDGs by 2030 within the Arab region
  14. 14. Page 14 ➪ Develop, implement and enforce suitable, integrated and proactive policies and institutional frameworks ➪ Build institutional capacity, transparency and accountability, monitoring and data collection systems ➪ Strengthen local governance and communication ➪ Increase and expand Research and Innovation ➪ Enhance interregional Arab cooperation and trade ➪ Increase private sector involvement ➪ Reinforce the role of civil society. Gender equality and stakeholder engagement ➪ Exploit the economic potential of energy alternatives, particularly RE. ➪ Develop local manufacturing of clean energy technologies components. ➪ Rationalize use of natural resources and boost productivity PRIORITY ACTIONS
  15. 15. Page 15 1. Promote investments in clean technologies / financial market & local market enablement 2. Develop/reinforce technology dissemination & transfer 3. Initiate/ reinforce capacity building programs 4. Develop/reinforce energy data, indicators and analysis systems Means of Implementation
  16. 16. Thank YOU https://www.unescwa.org/publications/gtf-regional-report-arab-region-progress-sustainable-energy https://www.unescwa.org/sites/www.unescwa.org/files/publications/files/gtf-regional-report-arab-region-progress-sustainable-energy-arabic.pdf Ms. Radia Sedaoui Chief Energy Section Sustainable Development Policies Division sedaoui@UN.org

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