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Research hypothesis....ppt

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Research hypothesis....ppt

  1. 1. Research Hypothesis By- Rahul Dhaker Lecturer, pcnms, Haldwani
  2. 2. • Hypothesis is considered as an intelligent guess or prediction, that gives directional to the researcher to answer the research question. • Hypothesis or Hypotheses are defined as the formal statement of the tentative or expected prediction or explanation of the relationship between two or more variables in a specified population.
  3. 3. • A hypothesis is a formal tentative statement of the expected relationship between two or more variables under study. • A hypothesis helps to translate the research problem and objective into a clear explanation or prediction of the expected results or outcomes of the study.
  4. 4. • Hypothesis is derived from the research problems, literature review and conceptual framework. • Hypothesis in a research project logically follow literature review and conceptual framework.
  5. 5. Hypothesis makes the following contributions in research study
  6. 6. Cont… • It provides clarity to the research problem and research objectives • It describes, explains or predicts the expected results or outcome of the research. • It indicates the type of research design. • It directs the research study process.
  7. 7. Cont… • It identifies the population of the research study that is to be investigated or examined. • It facilitates data collection, data analysis and data interpretation
  8. 8. Type of Hypothes is
  9. 9. Hypothesis Research Hypothesis Null Hypothesis Testable Hypothesis
  10. 10. Research Hypothesis Associative Hypothesis Causal Hypothesis Non – Directional Hypothesis Directional Hypothesis Complex Hypothesis Simple Hypothesis
  11. 11. Null Hypothesis Simple Hypothesis Complex Hypothesis Casual Hypothesis Associative Null Hypothesis
  12. 12. Testable Hypothesis
  13. 13. Research Hypothesis
  14. 14. Simple Hypothesis • simple hypothesis predicts that, there exist a relationship between the independent variable and dependent variable.
  15. 15. Cont…simple hypothesis • Example- two hourly positions- changing of a fully bedridden patient will prevent bedsore. – In the above example 2 hourly position changing is independent variable and bedsore prevention is dependent variable. The statement shows that there exists a relationship between 2 hourly positioning and bedsore prevention.
  16. 16. Complex Hypothesis • complex hypothesis predicts that there exists relationship between two or more independent and dependent variable.
  17. 17. Cont…Complex Hypothesis • Example – for a fully bed ridden patent 2 hourly position changing, 2 hourly back care and a high protein diet will build up body resistance, will promote blood circulation and will prevent bedsore. – In the above example, three independent variable are:- A) 2 hourly position changing, B) 2 hourly back care, C) high protein diet. – And three dependent variable are:- a) promotion of blood circulation, B) building up of body resistance, C) prevention of bed sore.
  18. 18. Directional Hypothesis • Directional Hypothesis predicts the direction of the relationship between the independent and dependent variable. • Example- High quality of nursing education will lead to high quality of nursing practice skills.
  19. 19. Non directional Hypothesis • Non -directional Hypothesis predicts the relationship between the independent variable and the dependent variable but does not specific the directional of the relationship. • Example- teacher student relationship influence student’s learning.
  20. 20. Causal Hypothesis • Causal Hypothesis predicts a cause and effects relationship or interaction between the independent variable and dependent variable. This hypothesis predicts the effect of the independent variable on the dependent variable.
  21. 21. Cont… • In this the independent variable is the experimental or treatment variable. The dependent variable is the outcome variable • Example – early postoperative ambulation will lead to prompt recovery.
  22. 22. Associative hypothesis • Associative Hypothesis predicts an associative relationship between the independent variable and the dependent variable. • When there is a change in any one of the variables, changes also occurs in the other variable.
  23. 23. Cont… • The associative relationship between the independent and dependent variables may have either. – Positive association – Negative association
  24. 24. Null hypothesis
  25. 25. Cont… • Null Hypothesis is also called statistical hypothesis because this type of hypothesis is used for statistical testing and statically interpretation. The null hypothesis predicts that, there is no relationship between the independent variable and dependent variable.
  26. 26. • Example- Nasogastric tube feeding does not alter body temperature.
  27. 27. Simple null hypothesis • Example – bed rest will not relives sever asthmatic dyspnea. In the above example, the independent variable that is, bed rest does not have any causal relationship with the dependent variable that is, severe asthmatic dyspnea.
  28. 28. Complex null Hypothesis • Example- smoking, drug abuse, alcoholism, tobacco use etc. have no relationship in the occurrence of malaria, mumps or chicken pox.
  29. 29. Causal null Hypothesis • Example- high intake of fluid does not cause tissue oedema. In the above example, the independent variable, that is, high fluid intake does not have any causal relationship with the dependent variable such as, tissue oedema.
  30. 30. Associative null Hypothesis • Example- Increased does in antibiotics will not reduce body temperature
  31. 31. Testable Hypothesis • The testable hypothesis predicts relationship between the independent variable and the dependent variable and theses variable are testable or measurable.
  32. 32. Cont… • Example – Increase in patient’s body temperature causes increase in patient’s pulse rate.
  33. 33. h Variabl R Dhaker, Lecturer S.N. College of Nursing, SGNR
  34. 34. • Research variables are defined as qualities, properties, characteristics, behaviors, attributes etc. of people- individuals or group, objects, situations, activities ect. That changes or vary. Variable are manipulable and measurable.
  35. 35. Type of Research Variables
  36. 36. Variable Independent variable Dependent variable Extraneous variable Environmental variable Demographic variable
  37. 37. Independent variable • Independent variable is the quality or property that can be manipulated by the researcher to cause an effect on the dependent variable. It is also called experimental variable or treatment variable.
  38. 38. Dependent variable • Dependent variable is the quality or property or behavior or outcome that the researcher predicts and that occurs in response to the manipulation, experimentation or treatment of the independent variable. It is also called outcomes variable.
  39. 39. • Example- O2 administration to a highly nervous patient by a face mask instead of a nasal canula will cause less anxiety to the patient. – In this above example, the independent variable that is methods of O2, administration by face mask cause an effect on the dependent variable, that is patient’s state of anxiety. In this the independent variable that is methods of O2 administration is manipulated. Because O2, instead of face mask, may also be administration by a nasal canula and this may cause an influence on the dependent variable or there may be a different outcome such as, patient’s state of anxiety may be increased.
  40. 40. Extraneous variable • Extraneous variables exist in all type of research studies but the researcher does not include them for the research purpose. These are the variable which confuse or mix up the relationship between the variable and also interfere with the rational or causal relationship between the independent and the dependent variables.
  41. 41. Cont… • The researcher makes an attempt to identify those extraneous variables before the research study is initiated and thereby control the influence of extraneous variables on the research study through a specific research design or through statistical manipulation.
  42. 42. Cont… • Example- a clam and quite environment at bedtime at night will allow sound sleep to a patient in a general ward. – in the above example, the independent variable- clam and quite environment will have an effect on the dependent variable- sleep of patient at night.
  43. 43. Environmental variable • Environmental variable are the variables which compose a research setting where the research study is conducted. These variables are climate, family background, social background, institution setup, community setup, education setup etc. these variable are also some type of extraneous variable.
  44. 44. Cont… • In a descriptive or correlation research study where the study is conduct in a natural setting and where it is necessary to study the subjects’ behavior in a natural setting, the researcher makes no attempt to control or alter the environmental variables.
  45. 45. Demographic variables • Demographic variable are the qualities or property or characteristics of the subject under the research study and which are collected to describe sample. These variable are also called the sample characteristics.
  46. 46. Cont… • Example – subject who are under research study- age, gender, height, weight, build, movement, vision, hearing, speech, religion, marital status etc. are the demographic variables.
  47. 47. Assumpti on R Dhaker, Lecturer S.N. College of Nursing, SGNR
  48. 48. • Assumption are the statement of the basic principal or facts that are established and are universally accepted as true on the basis of logic or reasoning without verification or proof, though they may not have been scientifically tested.
  49. 49. Cont…Assumption • Assumption is picked up by the research from various sources. These source are previous research studies, theories, clinical fields etc.
  50. 50. Limitati on
  51. 51. • Limitation are the restrictions within a research study, which reduce the credibility or generalizability of the research findings. The limitations of the research study are also called the weak points of study.
  52. 52. Cont… limitation • It is necessary to recognize the limitations of the research study which might influence the research result.

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