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Wireless power transmission from solar power satellite

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Wireless power transmission from solar power satellite

  1. 1. Presented by: Anagha S Kumar Electronics & Communication Department College of Engineering Thalassery
  2. 2. WPT? SPS? 3 26-08-2014 Wireless power transmission from solar power satellite
  3. 3. 4 Efficiency close to 100% Wireless power transmission from solar power satellite 26-08-2014
  4. 4. 5 Why WPT? Wireless power transmission from solar power satellite 26-08-2014
  5. 5. 26-08-2014 Wireless power transmission from solar power satellite 6
  6. 6. Wireless power transmission from solar power satellite 26-08-2014 7 1864 • James C. Maxwell predicted existence of radio waves. 1884 • John H. Poynting realized vital role of Poynting vector in quantifying the electromagnetic energy. 1888 • Heinrich Hertz succeeded in experimental evidence of radio waves . • By his Spark-Gap Radio Transmitter
  7. 7. Wireless power transmission from solar power satellite 26-08-2014 8 Start of Wireless Power Transmission Marchese G. Marconi & Reginald Fessenden who are pioneers of communication via radio waves. Nicola Tesla--Idea of Wireless Power Transmission. Carried out experiment in 1899 of one to a few horse-powers His vision for “World Wireless System”
  8. 8. • Generating high power microwaves, 1-10GHz radio waves by the invention of magnetrons and klystrons. • Development of Radar Technology, thus high power and high efficient microwave tubes. 1930 •Microwave Power Transmission research by W.C. Brown 1960 Wireless power transmission from solar power satellite 26-08-2014 9
  9. 9. Wireless power transmission from solar power satellite 26-08-2014 10 1963 • W.C.Brown developed retina, rectifying antenna for receiving and rectifying microwaves. 1964 1968 • MPT experiment in wired helicopter. • MPT experiment in free flied helicopter. 1970 • Tried to increase the efficiency of the rectenna. • DC-DC overall efficiency was only 26.5% at 39WDC in Marshall Space Flight Center.
  10. 10. Wireless power transmission from solar power satellite 26-08-2014 11 1975 • Largest MPT demonstration at the Venus Site of JPL Goldstone Facility. 1987 • SHARP-(Stationary High Altitude Relay Platform) • Fuel free airplane flight experiment with MPT(2.45GHz) 1994-95 • Ground-to-ground MPT experiment with Power Company and universities in Japan
  11. 11. 12 Wireless power transmission from solar power satellite 26-08-2014
  12. 12. 13  Transfers high power from one place to another. Two places being in line of sight usually  Steps: ~Electrical energy to microwave energy ~Capturing microwaves using rectenna ~Microwave energy to electrical energy Wireless power transmission from solar power satellite 26-08-2014
  13. 13. MPT CONT… AC can not be directly converted to microwave energy AC is converted to DC first DC is converted to microwaves using magnetron Transmitted waves are received at rectenna which rectifies, gives DC as the output DC is converted back to AC 14 Wireless power transmission from solar power satellite 26-08-2014
  14. 14. 15 Transmitter Issues WPT technology for Transmitter Magnetrons Wireless power transmission from solar power satellite 26-08-2014
  15. 15. 16  Antennas can be applied for both the MPT & Communication system.  Fixed target of the MPT system we use large parabolic antenna  Moving target we use phased array antenna.  SPS is designed with phased array antenna. Wireless power transmission from solar power satellite 26-08-2014
  16. 16. 17 Parabolic Antenna Phase Array Antenna Wireless power transmission from solar power satellite 26-08-2014
  17. 17. 18 Phased Array used in Japanese Field MPT experiment Wireless power transmission from solar power satellite 26-08-2014
  18. 18. 19 Microwave generators /amplifiers for MPT Wireless power transmission from solar power satellite 26-08-2014
  19. 19. 20 Crossed field tube. Self oscillatory device. World war II developed ability to convert energy to microwaves using magnetrons, no method for converting microwaves back to back electricity. Wireless power transmission from solar power satellite 26-08-2014
  20. 20. 21  Generate and amplify high power microwave (over kW) with a high voltage (over kV) imposed.  Higher Efficiency.  Low cost.  Very Economical. Wireless power transmission from solar power satellite 26-08-2014
  21. 21. 22  It generate low power microwave with a low voltage  It is easy to control a phase and amplitude  Semiconductor device for microwave circuits are FET,HBT,HEMT.  Material for semiconductor device Si -lower frequency GaAs-higher frequency Wireless power transmission from solar power satellite 26-08-2014
  22. 22. 23 Lightness, to reduce launch cost. Higher Efficiency, to reduce heat problems. Weight of microwave tube.  COMET  TWTA Wireless power transmission from solar power satellite 26-08-2014
  23. 23. 24 Internal components Wireless power transmission from solar power satellite 26-08-2014
  24. 24. 25 Recent technological trends. Wireless power transmission from solar power satellite 26-08-2014
  25. 25. 26 Wireless power transmission from solar power satellite 26-08-2014
  26. 26. 27 Retro directive beam Control  Accurate target detection & high efficient beam forming.  Retro directive systems Corner Reflector Van Atta Array Retro directive array with phase conjugate circuits.  Used for satellite communication, wireless LAN and so on. Wireless power transmission from solar power satellite 26-08-2014
  27. 27. 28 Two sided corner reflector Van Atta Array Wireless power transmission from solar power satellite 26-08-2014
  28. 28. 29 Retro directive array with phase conjugate circuits Wireless power transmission from solar power satellite 26-08-2014
  29. 29. 30 Environmental Issues  Intense microwave, consider MPT safety for human. Interaction with Atmosphere  Effect of atmosphere on microwave is low.  Consider absorption by the oxygen in the microwave frequency. Wireless power transmission from solar power satellite 26-08-2014
  30. 30. 31 Interaction with Space Plasmas  Interaction of microwaves and ionospheric plasmas  Refraction, Faraday Rotation, Absorption occur between weak microwaves and plasmas occurs  Influence on MPT system is negligible  Non-linear interaction between intense microwave and plasma  Not effect existent satellite communication Wireless power transmission from solar power satellite 26-08-2014
  31. 31. 32 Recent Trends-WPT Wireless power transmission from solar power satellite 26-08-2014
  32. 32. 33 Recent Technologies of Rectenna  Rectifying circuit and antenna  Receive and rectify a microwave power to DC  Passive element  Ideally 100% of the received microwave power is converted to DC power Wireless power transmission from solar power satellite 26-08-2014
  33. 33. 34 Recent Technologies of Rectenna Array  For high power MPT  Connected in DC phase  Differ from antenna array Wireless power transmission from solar power satellite 26-08-2014
  34. 34. Wireless power transmission from solar power satellite 26-08-2014 35
  35. 35. Wireless power transmission from solar power satellite 26-08-2014 36  Losses caused by beam forming  Ratio of all radiated power to collected power on receiving antenna  Depends on transmitter and receiver aperture area wavelengths and separation between two antenna
  36. 36. 37 Decline of efficiency caused by: Array connection loss Change of optimum operation point of the rectenna array caused by change of connected load Trouble of rectenna Any loss on the system Wireless power transmission from solar power satellite 26-08-2014
  37. 37. Wireless power transmission from solar power satellite 26-08-2014 38 Efficiency (%) Efficiency of Rectenna Element
  38. 38. Wireless power transmission from solar power satellite 39 26-08-2014
  39. 39. Wireless power transmission from solar power satellite 26-08-2014 40
  40. 40. Model Old JAXA Model JAXA1 Model JAXA2 Model 41 NASA/DOE Model Frequency 5.8GHz 5.8GHz 5.8GHz 2.45GHz Diameter of transmitting antenna 2.6km 1km 1.93km 1km Typical parameters of the transmitting Amplitude taper 10dB Gaussian 10dB Gaussian 10dB Gaussian 10dB Gaussian Output power (beamed to earth) antenna of the SPS 1.3GW 1.3GW 1.3GW 6.72GW Maximum power density at center 63mW/푐푚2 420mW/푐푚2 114mW/푐푚2 2.2mW/푐푚2 Maximum power density at edge 6.3mW/푐푚2 42mW/푐푚2 11.4mW/푐푚2 0.22mW/푐푚2 Antenna spacing 0.75λ 0.75λ 0.75λ 0.75λ Typical parameters Wireless power transmission from solar power satellite of the transmitting antenna of the SPS 26-08-2014
  41. 41. Model Old JAXA Model JAXA1 Model JAXA2 Model 42 NASA/DOE Model Power per one antenna (Number of elements) Max.0.95W (3.54 billion) Max 6.1W (540 million) Max 1.7W (1.950 million) Max 185W (97 million) Rectenna Diameter 2.0km 3.4km 2.45km 1km Maximum Power Density 180mW/푐푚2 26mW/푐푚2 100mW/푐푚2 23mW/푐푚2 Collection Efficiency 96.5% 86% 87% 89% Typical parameters of the transmitting antenna of the SPS Wireless power transmission from solar power satellite 26-08-2014
  42. 42. Wireless power transmission from solar power satellite 43 26-08-2014
  43. 43. Let Us Conclude... Electrical energy can be economically transmitted without wires. Possibility of constructing power stations on the moon. Next generation power transmission system. 26-08-2014 WIRELESS POWER TRANSMISSION FROM SOLAR POWER SATELLITE 44
  44. 44. [1] N.Tesla, “The Transmission of Electric Energy without Wires”, Electrical World, March 5, 1904. [2] W.C.Brown, “Beamed Microwave Power Transmission and its Application to Space”, IEEE Trans.Microwave Theory Tech., vol. 40, no. 6, 1992, pp.1239-1250. [3] www.wikipedia.com [4] www.youtube.com [5] T. Hatsuda, K. Ueno, M. Inoue, “Solar Power Satellite Interference Assessment”, IEEE, Vol. 3, No. 4, Dec. 2002, pp.65-70 Wireless power transmission from solar power satellite 26-08-2014 45

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