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Discourse
Analysis
Political Discourse
Political
Discourse
Analysis
Reja Fatima
3655
Politics
– The activities associated with
the governance of a country or area,
especially the debate between parties
havin...
Discourse
– According to Fairclough (1989) the term refers to
“the whole process of interaction of which a text
is just a ...
Political Discourse
– Political discourse can be simply marked as the
discourse of politicians, i.e. their text and talk,
...
Political Discourse
– According to Schaffner (1996), political discourse, as a sub-
category of discourse in general, can ...
Domains of Politics
– Political Systems
These systems are among the most obvious
commonsense categories of the domain of
p...
Domains of Politics
– Political Institutions
The domain of politics is typically analyzed as
consisting of a number of pol...
Domains of Politics
– Political Organizations
Less (legally, constitutionally) official are the
large number of political ...
Analysis
– The present study deals with the analysis of
political discourse of the speech used by Benazir
Bhutto, the form...
Analysis
The following headings and subheadings have been identified
from the contents of the speech for analysis.
1- emot...
Emotional Attachment
“These are the slogans as I have come to Rawalpindi today, I
understand this is the city of brave and...
Emotional Attachment
 speech starts with city name
 people usually have great affiliation with their home town
 second ...
Mind Control
“The people of this city love democracy and have never bowed
their head before autocratic regimes. Gen ZiaulH...
Mind Control
– control people from by quoting from past who
are unaware of past
– they believe the information in the disc...
Mitigating Evidence and Bhutto
legacy
“Quaid-i-Awam Shaheed Bhutto established the Pakistan
People’s Party for the poor, h...
Mitigating Evidence and Bhutto
legacy
 speaker’s party is for poor and helpless, if they will vote , party will keep addr...
Glorification of Party
“the country cannot be said to be strong in defense and
security no matter if it has nuclear power ...
Glorification of Party
 If is used for poor people
 country’s poor people + nuclear power

Historical distortion
“When the daughter of the Quaid-i-Awam came to power…the
Pakistan People’s Party always made hectic ...
Historical distortion
 her party's achievements
 glorifies her past
 she hides corruption in her time
Rhetoric Art of Speaking
“We understand that with this programme in practice, we will be
able to fulfill the promise of th...
Rhetoric Art of Speaking
One of the major techniques is used in the above excerpt to control the audience.
That technique ...
Content Analysis of frequently
used words
Content analysis of frequently used words by the speaker
was done to find out th...
Words Repeated Intended meanings
you 54 The most repeated word
‘You’ shows that influential
art of speaking to show
the co...
Conclusion
The content Analysis of most repeated words in the above
table shows the word I was used for 28 times, the word...
conclusion
The way historical references are cited in the speech is the
deliberate attack on the minds of the audience to ...
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Political Discourse

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Political Discourse

  1. 1. Discourse Analysis Political Discourse
  2. 2. Political Discourse Analysis Reja Fatima 3655
  3. 3. Politics – The activities associated with the governance of a country or area, especially the debate between parties having power.
  4. 4. Discourse – According to Fairclough (1989) the term refers to “the whole process of interaction of which a text is just a part” (Fairclough, 1989, p.24).
  5. 5. Political Discourse – Political discourse can be simply marked as the discourse of politicians, i.e. their text and talk, and their professional activities. The topics discussed usually come from public events that require collective decision-making, policies, regulations or legislation. (Van Dijk 2001. 4)
  6. 6. Political Discourse – According to Schaffner (1996), political discourse, as a sub- category of discourse in general, can be based on two criteria: functional and thematic. Political discourse is a result of politics and it is historically and culturally determined. It fulfills different functions due to different political activities. It is thematic because its topics are primarily related to politics such as political activities, political ideas and political relations.
  7. 7. Domains of Politics – Political Systems These systems are among the most obvious commonsense categories of the domain of politics: Communism, dictatorship, democracy, fascism, or the social democracy.
  8. 8. Domains of Politics – Political Institutions The domain of politics is typically analyzed as consisting of a number of political institutions, which, top down, organize the political field, actors and actions, such as the State, Governments, Parliament or Congress (the Legislature), city councils, state agencies, and so on.
  9. 9. Domains of Politics – Political Organizations Less (legally, constitutionally) official are the large number of political organizations that structure political action, such as political parties, political clubs, NGOs, and so on.
  10. 10. Analysis – The present study deals with the analysis of political discourse of the speech used by Benazir Bhutto, the former Prime minister of Pakistan (1988-1990 and 1993-1996). The political speech under the study is the last speech of her life. The speech has got great influence over the public .
  11. 11. Analysis The following headings and subheadings have been identified from the contents of the speech for analysis. 1- emotional attachment 2- Mind Control 3- Mitigating evidence and Bhutto’s legacy 4- Glorification of the party 5- contradiction 6- Historical distortion 7-Rehtoric art of speaking 8-Creating enemy images
  12. 12. Emotional Attachment “These are the slogans as I have come to Rawalpindi today, I understand this is the city of brave and sacrificing people; I consider Rawalpindi as my second home. When Bhutto Sahib was a minister, I used to live here; I used to go to a school at Rawalpindi. I have seen moments of joy and gloomy times in Rawalpindi. I must say that the brave people of Rawalpindi have been with me in moments of happiness; brave sisters and brethren of this city stood by me in hours of our sadness; they have never let me alone”.
  13. 13. Emotional Attachment  speech starts with city name  people usually have great affiliation with their home town  second home, positive image  motivates public they were with her in good and bad  people with her in future
  14. 14. Mind Control “The people of this city love democracy and have never bowed their head before autocratic regimes. Gen ZiaulHaq came and let the reign of terror loose; young people were persecuted and sent to jail; young Abdul Hameed burnt himself to death and Idris Tooti was hanged. Thousands of workers were flogged and made to face brutal treatment at Lahore’s Shahe Fort. Yet, they did not leave their sister and the Pakistan People’s Party.”
  15. 15. Mind Control – control people from by quoting from past who are unaware of past – they believe the information in the discourse tends to be right and accurate.
  16. 16. Mitigating Evidence and Bhutto legacy “Quaid-i-Awam Shaheed Bhutto established the Pakistan People’s Party for the poor, hopeless and the oppressed people. He worked for the welfare of the down trodden in his government. He made the defense of Pakistan inviolable and the comity of nations held our country in esteem and respect.”
  17. 17. Mitigating Evidence and Bhutto legacy  speaker’s party is for poor and helpless, if they will vote , party will keep addressing them.  she portray's the picture of her father,  keeps legacy  bhuttoism  through her surname
  18. 18. Glorification of Party “the country cannot be said to be strong in defense and security no matter if it has nuclear power or missile technology. Such a country is always vulnerable to the dangers and conspiracies of the elements that are unsavory in approach and attitude towards the country; they will exploit the situation to their benefit.”
  19. 19. Glorification of Party  If is used for poor people  country’s poor people + nuclear power 
  20. 20. Historical distortion “When the daughter of the Quaid-i-Awam came to power…the Pakistan People’s Party always made hectic efforts to make Pakistan strong… And when you elected your sister you did not only elect a prime minister but also the first woman head of government in the whole of the Muslim world… whenever the Pakistan People’s Party came into power; it has held progress, development and improving the economic lot of the people in the highest priority… We have made strong governments and this strength was bestowed upon our governments by the people…
  21. 21. Historical distortion  her party's achievements  glorifies her past  she hides corruption in her time
  22. 22. Rhetoric Art of Speaking “We understand that with this programme in practice, we will be able to fulfill the promise of the Quaid-i-Awam and the People’s Party”. Benazir Shaheed then raised the slogan -- roti, kapra and makan, mangrahahaidharinsaan (bread, clothing and home for all) and the people responded with the full throat slogans, “Zinda Hai Bhutto Zinda Hai, KalBhi Bhutto ZindaThaAajBhi Bhutto Zinda Hai, Nara-i-Bhutto, Jiye Bhutto, Jiye Bhutto. “
  23. 23. Rhetoric Art of Speaking One of the major techniques is used in the above excerpt to control the audience. That technique is repetition operations of sentences at the high level of sound. These sorts of repetitions attract the audience towards the speaker.
  24. 24. Content Analysis of frequently used words Content analysis of frequently used words by the speaker was done to find out the influence of these words over the whole speech. The speech consists of about 3,450 words where the word You was used most frequently for about 54 times which refers to the audience. The frequent occurrence of this word is a sign of Speaker’s influential way to attract the audience.
  25. 25. Words Repeated Intended meanings you 54 The most repeated word ‘You’ shows that influential art of speaking to show the concern of the speaker towards the audience. To give importance to the audience. I 28 Personal attribute shows the subjective approach of the speaker in speech
  26. 26. Conclusion The content Analysis of most repeated words in the above table shows the word I was used for 28 times, the word Me was used for 07 times. The word Your sister was used for 07 times. The word Daughterwas used for 03 times. The word We was used for 20 times. Adding all together speaker speaks of herself for 65 times.
  27. 27. conclusion The way historical references are cited in the speech is the deliberate attack on the minds of the audience to control them. Most of the audience is unaware of the past events and they do not have sufficient knowledge about the past events to challenge the speaker’s information so they take the information in the discourse as right and accurate.

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