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Addressing Gender and Social Dynamics to Strengthen Resilience for All

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presented by Ruth Meizen-Dick
on behalf of Sophie Theis - Elizabeth Bryan and Claudia Ringler

Publié dans : Données & analyses
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Addressing Gender and Social Dynamics to Strengthen Resilience for All

  1. 1. Addressing Gender and Social Dynamics to Strengthen Resilience for All Ruth Meinzen-Dick, Senior Research Fellow, Environment and Production Technology Division, IFPRI on behalf of Sophie Theis, Women’s World Banking; Elizabeth Bryan and Claudia Ringler, EPTD, IFPRI
  2. 2. Gender Climate Change and Nutrition (GCAN) Framework • The impact of climate shocks and stressors on people are not only direct but follow different pathways and are influenced by different factors: • Exposure and sensitivity • Resilience capacities • Decision-making context • Responses • Resilience is dynamic: well-being outcomes influence future resilience capacities
  3. 3. Gender Climate Change and Nutrition (GCAN) Framework: Gender Dimensions Men and women have different: • Exposure and sensitivity to shocks and stressors • Capacities to respond • Preferences, needs, and bargaining power • Response choices • Well-being outcomes • Feedback loops
  4. 4. Exposure and Sensitivity • Differences between men and women based on: • Livelihood activities • Reliance on natural resources • Infrastructure • Access to social protection programs • Health and nutritional status • Other identities intersect with gender (e.g. marital status)
  5. 5. Resilience Capacities • What factors influence men’s and women’s resilience capacities o Perceptions of climate change and risk o Access to and control over assets and resources o Access to information and technology o Labor/time o Institutions (e.g. groups, social norms and land tenure)
  6. 6. E.g. Differences Access to Information and Technology Affect Capacities • Unequal access to agricultural, and climate information • Low awareness and adoption of CSA practices • When aware, woman are just as likely to adopt new practices Image: Financial inclusion / MasterCard Foundation © 2009
  7. 7. Program Approach: Reaching Women with Information on CSA • IFPRI partnership with grassroots women’s organizations to develop and deliver video-based extension messages on CSA in India, Kenya and Uganda • Context based on identified CSA strategies preferred by women • Testing different modes of information delivery (e.g. videos) • Measuring outcomes along the scale from increasing awareness to adoption to improved well being
  8. 8. Decision-Making Context and Responses • Different preferences for how to respond • Interest alignment • Bargaining power • Common responses vary by gender (coping responses, risk management, adaptation, transformative responses) • What are the nutrition and gender implications of chosen responses?
  9. 9. E.g. Women’s Role in Decision-Making Leads to Different Choices • In Bangladesh, women with higher empowerment (WEAI scores) were more likely to diversity production • This was driven by women’s involvement in productive decision-making and group membership • Implication: women drive decisions towards lower risk exposure to climate change and greater availability of nutrients See De Pinto et al. (2019) for more details WEAI = Women’s Empowerment in Agriculture Index Visit weai.ifpri.info for more details
  10. 10. Program Approach: Household Dialogues • E.g. Mercy Corps’ Building Resilience through the Integration of Gender and Empowerment (BRIGE) program • Facilitated household dialogues with couples in Niger and Nepal on roles and responsibilities, household finances, and disaster preparedness (4 days) • Other activities: • Follow up and coaching (6 weeks) • Religious and community leader training • Husband schools • Results: more joint decision-making, improved financial management, greater confidence, sharing domestic burden, increased women’s mobility Contributor: Jenny Morgan, Senior Knowledge Management Advisor, Mercy Corps
  11. 11. Program Approach: Governance of Natural Resources • E.g. USAID Water Resources Integration Development Initiative (WARIDI) in Tanzania promotes improved management of water resources and service delivery • WARIDI piloted the UPWARD (Uplifting Women’s Participation in Water-Related Decision Making) to enhance women’s participation in water decisions • Trained women’s groups, local government authorities, and community leaders Contributor: Hannah F. G. Taukobong, Vice President, Iris Group; Christina G. Sudi, Gender Integration and Youth Inclusion Advisor, and Erneus Kaijage, Climate Change Specialist, USAID WARIDI
  12. 12. Pathways to Differential Well- Being Outcomes • Production pathway: Crop choices and uses—implications for nutrition • Income pathway: Who controls income? Men and women have different consumption preferences • Asset pathway: Gender- differentiated asset dynamics • Labor pathway: Labor implications of response strategies (e.g. CSA practices)
  13. 13. Program Approach: Tracking Differential Well-Being Outcomes • ACDI/VOCA’s Feed the Future Resilience and Economic Growth in the Arid Lands–Accelerated Growth (REGAL-AG) project • Used a monitoring and evaluation tool, Outcome Harvesting, to discern differential project impacts on men and women • Found specific benefits for women from activities related to shoat (piglet) trading and poultry processing Contributor: Jennifer Himmelstein, Corporate Analyst, and Sean Stone, Data Analyst, Monitoring, Evaluation, Reporting and Learning, ACDI/VOCA
  14. 14. Resilience Programs Can Support Gender Transformative Change • Diagnose areas of women’s disempowerment in a particular context • Design appropriate gender-sensitive approaches and strategies • Approaches that facilitate women’s empowerment have greater potential for transformation Reach Benefit Empower Include women in program activities Increase women’s well-being (e.g. food security, income, health) Strengthen ability of women to make strategic life choices and to put those choices into action Transform Changes in the structures governing men’s and women’s behavior that lead to greater gender equality
  15. 15. Conclusions • The framework highlights the gender dimensions of resilience • Tools can help identify gender-related opportunities and challenges in particular contexts • Lots of implementation approaches to integrate gender into resilience projects • Ones discussed here but also many others (e.g. financial services geared towards women, group-based approaches)

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