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Good morning and thank you for being here today. This is an exciting and dynamic time for IWMI. We’ve undergone rather ambitious changes not only in terms of strategy but also in terms of our way of working. And IWMI-Southern Africa has embraced these changes and looked at ways to regionalize the global strategy and reconceptualize a strategic roadmap for ourselves for the next 5 years.
IWMI is a research-for-development (R4D) organization, with offices in 13 countries and a global network of scientists operating in more than 30 countries. For over three decades, our research results have led to changes in water management that have contributed to social and economic development.
Small farms across sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) account for up to 80 per cent of the food produced on the continent (IFAD 2015). Yet these farmers, particularly female farmers, face ongoing challenges in accessing technology, finance, knowledge, resources (including water for irrigation) and markets (IFAD 2016). Sub-Saharan Africa remains the area with the highest levels of persistent rural poverty. Studies show that women produce around 70% of Africa’s food, and that if they had the same access to productive resources as men, they could increase the yields of farms by 20%-30% and reduce hunger by up to 17% (FAO 2011). Women also tend to reinvest profits into their households at a higher rate than men, which has a significant impact on poverty eradication.
Poverty- SDG 1 – The poverty incidence remains high, ranging from around 1% to 70% of the population Hunger,-SDG 2- 16% of SADC’s rural population have been consistently designated food insecure over the past 5 years Inequality -SDG 10: SADC is the most unequal region in Africa Economic stagnation – SDG 8. GDP Growth rate is below 3%
Objectives To develop integrated solutions that respond to regional and national challenges and priorities To expand research portfolio in prioritised SADC countries (Malawi, Mozambique, Zambia, Tanzania, South Africa) – more reach To improve visibility and engagement (improved profile) in SADC – more visibility, more engaged To be better positioned as a regional knowledge hub – A champion of big data, The yellow pages of water information, A knowledge provider and your partner of choice; a centre for capacity building; an incubator of young talent
Drivers: To be financially sustainable - sustainable To improve communication (of our findings) in multiple media platforms – more connected Happy and healthy skilled team - To build the IWMI-SA team (recruitment, capacity building); sense of team (team building and wellbeing) – a team that works together stays together Innovative partnership model
BAM: Vision: Basin and Aquifer Management that integrates data/knowledge, sectors and countries to enhance sustainable development
Key message: SADC is world leading in cooperative transboundary water management. IWMI is a leading R4D partner. IWMI leads the conjunctive management space of transboundary water management
Infrastructure: To develop sustainable and resilient water infrastructure that supports economic development and human well-being whilst safeguarding ecosystem services.
Economics: Applying economic evidence in water policies, investments and incentives for technology change to accelerate sustainable development
Governance and gender: Representative and accountable water governance, gender equality and social inclusion We aim to: 1) unpack key structural challenges in water governance hindering sustainable and inclusive development; 2 )identify entry points for transformative water governance, through better understanding the (re)shaping of political and institutional spaces for engagement and influence in various decision-making domains and processes cross scales; and 3) convey grassroots voices and aspirations (including from women, the poorest and other marginalized group) towards representative and accountable water governance.
Rationale: Failure to integrate data/knowledge, sectors and countries in basin and aquifer management constrains effective decision-making, disrupts efforts to optimally use water for food security and energy, and contributes to inequitable and unsustainable water use across countries.
Key messages: Groundwater is key to resilience. Groundwater is part and parcel of solutions to the SDGs. Groundwater-centric management is required.
Value proposition: What we (will) offer: Comparative advantage in impact evaluation of water, agriculture focused interventions Development/application of economic tools and solutions for water resources allocation Foresight and targeting Technology adoption & Impact Development and popularization of Joint Water Sector Reviews for policy influencing (new) Invaluable partnerships with stakeholders in areas of agriculture policy IWMI-SA is close to its stakeholders. The office has a strong regional and country presence through ReSAKSS- direct link to policy makers Bringing CGIAR centers together for water research GIS based Water Data management Databases/platforms for Agriculture/water Indicators (new) Water sector performance appraisal (new) Low cost services owing to wider network Can this be shortened? Please also delete repetition
Engage in rigorous demand driven research to develop a robust evidence base around the challenges. Evidence to focus on, but not limited to the costs, benefits, impacts, valuation, tradeoffs, and equity-effects of policies, regulations, etc Foresight analysis & Targeting tools Water/agriculture markets, & value chains, Technology adoption & Impacts Best practices/policy options for resolving the challenges Linkages between agriculture, water, energy and entire economy Engage in strategic research partnership with other partners. Prepare evidence for the policy audience Develop appropriate communication tools for dissemination: policy briefs; news articles; power point presentations; scientific publications; technical reports Convey and facilitate the deployment of evidence into the policy making and implementation process: Organize dissemination regional workshops Country dissemination workshops Utilize national stakeholder dialogue platforms Present work at international/regional platforms Develop capacity of stakeholders to utilize evidence Forge partnerships with state & non-state actors for change: engage with farmer organizations; development partners; CSOs; state Actors etc. to influence uptake and change Can this be shortened? Also, this reads differently to what was presented in your ppt. Are you comfortable with that? This was provided by Sibusiso. Please check the ppt that Greenwell did.
Government policies are changing owing to the Agricultural joint sector & Biennial reviews. For example: Countries are using outcomes of the JSR assessments as well as ATORs to support policy review and dialogue processes. JSR assessment has stimulated demand for more data and hence, strong M&E The Malawi JSR process follows the JSR assessment recommendations by ReSAKSS and continues to do. Mozambique uses the country SAKSS outputs in policy discussions ReSAKSS data has proved very useful in country Biennial review processes ReSAKSS dialogues/studies have helped keep the CAADP momentum up ReSAKSS inputs have facilitated agriculture investment plans formulation Previous Annual Trends and Outlook reports focusing on agricultural spending have led to an increase in the drive to spend more on agriculture, but have also led to a general increase in the dialogue for the role of public spending on agriculture. The biennial reviews have showed gaps in the agriculture sectors in respect of skill and resources. As such, Mozambique, Malawi, Swaziland, Angola, South Africa, Madagascar, Lesotho, Zambia, Zimbabwe are now expressing the need for more data analysis, policy analysis skills to improve decisions ReSAKSS-SA has participated in training 100s of country stakeholders in areas of agriculture reviews, and mutual accountability.
How will IWMI solve these challenges? Providing solution for the poor - developing and upscaling institutional and financing models for sustainable, cost effective and equitable water services for domestic and productive uses Support hybrid/self-supply/decentralized water supply systems Providing policy direction related to hybrid governance models Providing integrity in the water sector Supporting stewardship with non-state actors Understanding the role of the individuals in transformative governance and inclusion Decolonizing regulatory legacies of the past
Value proposition: Credibility and experience in the field (published articles etc.) Multidisciplinary and multinational team Envisaged policy advisory role in the region
Key messages: Water governance is polycentric. Need to focus on decentralised institutions, alternative financing models and promoting inclusivity in supply chains. Need renewed sense of corporate governance that acknowledges the role of individuals in shaping institutional effectiveness. Supported community-driven self-supply and co-management are cost-effective and sustainable complementary service delivery models – naturally through multiple use infrastructure as the rule and single use as the exception Gender transformative support to water development for irrigation and domestic uses is key to broad-based agriculture-led economic growth, especially in SADC Decolonization of permit systems towards hybrid water law fits the African context of millions of customary small-scale users
Colonial powers wrote statutory law for themselves and excluded Africans Post-independence African nations expanded statutory law to everyone and ignored the reality of the continuation of customary law in large parts of the continent Post-independence African water authorities do not have the resources to issue permits to large numbers of small scale water users across large geographies
Summarizes the six principles/grounds for water allocation, as found in literature in Africa. Each concrete, local outcome is a negotiated normative framework (not necessarily implemented). living customary water law is a negotiated blend of three core grounds that communities invoke in their claims to water based on their relationship with the land. First, the most common feature in the literature is the notion that water is given by god and cannot be owned. Water is a resource for sharing. Water for drinking purposes and livestock is a priority. Second, the physical connection between water resources and land creates socio-territorial claims to water resources – riparian rights – because I own the land, I own the water that runs through it. Thirdly, ‘hydraulic property rights creation’, in which the construction and subsequent participation in the maintenance of investments in individual or communal infrastructure creates strong rights to manage and use the water conveyed. Three other grounds shape these core principles: the first-come-first-served principle; transfers by marriage and inheritance or through barter and increasingly through sale; and force or violence.
Permits are required in most countries for small scale water use – often based on whether a pump is used; These farmers’ water use is illegal without a permit from the state – and yet the state does not have the capacity to issue large numbers of permits to large numbers of very small users. These users are using water under customary law rules – which still exist, and are still used in many places.
7% (154) of the water users are using 83% of the water in IUCMA.
Addressing the rights and ownership challenge: gender, and land / water tenure
Addressing the rights and
ownership challenge: gender,
and land/water tenure
12 November 2019
Dr Inga Jacobs-Mata and Dr
Barbara van Koppen (IWMI-
2019 ReSAKSS Annual Conference: Gender Equality in Rural Africa,
11 – 13 November 2019, Lome, Togo
1984 Established in Sri Lanka as the
International Irrigation Management
1991 Joined the CGIAR
1996 Broadened mandate: became
the International Water Management
Stockholm Water Prize
2013 Selected to lead CGIAR
Research Program “Water, Lands and
2019 Launched IWMI Strategy 2019-
2023 “Water Solutions for Sustainable
Environment: Expansive region, with limited and unevenly-
distributed water resources compared to population and
settlement patterns; climate variability and climate change;
Resource access and use: Competing domestic, agricultural
and industrial demands; poor agricultural water
management; low investment in water development - only
7% of arable land is irrigated; limited access to clean and safe
water, as well as energy for domestic and agricultural
purposes, WEF insecurity
Socio-economic: Pronounced developmental differences, and
a declining growth rate; developmental states struggle to
achieve goals of broad-based agriculture-led economic
growth (but South Africa: equitable growth) rapid population
Governance: limited policy implementation; reactive
management interventions; widening wealth inequalities;
many ‘left behind’, especially in rural areas; growing
alternative/complimentary service delivery models.
Southern Africa – a region of contrasts
Achievement on SDGs
SDG 1: The poverty incidence remains high,
ranging from around 1% to 70% of the
SDG 2: 16% of SADC’s rural population have
been consistently designated food insecure
over the past 5 years
SDG 8: GDP growth rate is below 3%
SDG 10: SADC is the most unequal region in
Our portfolio: Agricultural economics
• Paucity of sufficient and timely economic evidence on the costs,
benefits, impacts, tradeoffs, and equity-effects of policies, regulations,
interventions and investments in agricultural water management.
How will IWMI-SA solve them?
Foresight analysis & Targeting tools
Water/agriculture markets, & value chains
Technology adoption & Impacts
Best practices/policy options for resolving the challenges
Strategic research partnership building
Targeted evidence for the policy audience: Annual Trends and Outlook
Reports; Country Capacity Needs Analysis reports; Joint Sector & Biennial
Organize dissemination regional and country workshops, national
stakeholder dialogue platforms
• Government policies are changing owing to the Agricultural joint sector
& Biennial reviews
• Previous Annual Trends and Outlook reports focusing on agricultural
• have led to an increase in the drive to spend more on agriculture,
• but have also led to a general increase in the dialogue for the role of
public spending on agriculture.
• ReSAKSS-SA has participated in training 100s of country stakeholders in
areas of agriculture reviews, and mutual accountability.
Regional: SADC, COMESA, SADC Governments
IOs/regional networks: CCARDESA, FANRPAN, RENAPRI
Development Partners: USAID, BMGF, GIZ
Farmers Unions: SACAU, Farmers Union of Malawi.
Finance Partners: Land Bank, DBSA, AFDB, WB, FAO; Insurance Companies
Universities: University of Pretoria, Edwardo Mondlane, Lilongwe University
of Agriculture & Natural Resources, University of Zimbabwe, UCT
CGIAR centres: IFPRI & IRLI, IITA
Civil Society Organizations: ActionAid, World Vision, WaterAID,
Target countries: SADC and especially, Malawi, Mozambique, and Zambia
Strategic analysis at Regional and country levels
Knowledge management at regional and country level
Strengthening and establishment of SAKSS nodes
Enhance partnership with ReNAPRI, AGRA and Universities
Continue taking a leading role in Joint sector & Biennial Reviews with NEPAD
in 14 SADC countries
Our portfolio: Governance and gender
• Wealth inequalities which continue to widen
• Population growth in both urban and rural areas-gendered
migration to urban areas leading to gendered urbanization
• Trends leave many behind (developmentally) in rural areas.
• Weak policy implementation
• Colonial legacy in policies e.g. in water legislation – e.g.
redistributive reforms in SA
• Uneven access to and development of infrastructure in rural and
urban areas – high infrastructure dysfunctional rates
How will IWMI-SA solve them?
Pro-poor solutions - developing and upscaling institutional and
financing models for sustainable, cost effective and equitable water
services for domestic and productive uses
Hybrid/supported self-supply/decentralized water supply systems
Policy direction related to hybrid governance models
Integrity in the water sector
Stewardship with non-state actors
The role of the individuals in transformative governance and inclusion
Decolonizing regulatory legacies of the past
• Putting self-supply for multiple uses in low-income rural areas on
the national agenda; demonstrating replicable cost-effective,
accountable and sustainable modalities of supported self supply,
and upscaling. Award for social innovation at the WRC
• initiating evidence-based Africa-wide and global debates on
decolonized hybrid water law
Communities: rural with view of expansion into poor peri urban
Government: officials at all levels, in water, agriculture, local
government, employment generation/public works
Development partners: DBSA, African Development Bank, WRC
Knowledge centers/ students: PLAAS, UP/TUT, UJ, Wits
WASH sector: Rural Water Supply Network, IRC, MWA
UN FAO/IFAD, UN Women
Civil society: Water Caucus, Oxfam, Tsogang
Professional networks: ICID/SANCID, WaterNet, MUS group, WIN
IOs: other CGIAR centres
Target countries: SADC
• Hybrid water law: Africa-wide workshop on hybrid water law, in
collaboration with AMCOW and hosted by government of
Uganda 3-4 October 2019.
• Community-driven water services in South Africa: Eight
international publications, M.Sc. and PhD theses, participatory
videos, guidelines and manuals by 15 December 2019.
The six principles of customary water tenure
Source: Van Koppen, 2019
• Across Africa we are seeing a growth
in small scale farmer-led irrigation
which is contributing to improved
food security and economic growth
• Customary water use is not
recognised in formal water law
systems and the water use of these
small scale farmers needs a permit
from an under-resourced water
authority that is unable to meet
• The solution lies in adopting a
targeted hybrid water rights system
that uses a suite of tools including
permits and customary law to
regulate water use effectively in the
Customary water tenure
• Water used under customary law is not
recognised in formal water law in Africa
– all of these farmers require a permit
from an under-resourced state authority
• If 5% of rural households are using small
pumps for irrigation, between 100 000
and 300 000 water users per country
need a water use permit.
• The reality is that a handful of
water users use most of the
5% of rural
Kenya 6 046 833 302 342 4 194
Malawi 2 573 000 128 650 3 042
South Africa 3 213 000 160 650 5 956
Uganda 5 492 667 274 633 1 320
Zimbabwe 1 870 000 93 500 10 799
Focusing attention where its most needed
• Uses a mix of legal tools to
obtain desired, context specific
outcomes (e.g., gender and
social equity, sustainability,
growth) in a cost effective way,
using polycentric, multi-level
• Statutory water permits for high impact users
• All other users exempted from permits and
regulated through other tools such as:
• Customary water law with equal legal standing to
• General authorisations
• Prioritisation of water use
• Collective permits