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Addressing the rights and ownership challenge: gender, and land / water tenure

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by Dr. Inga Jacobs-Mata and Barbara van Koppen
IWMI South Africa
for the 2019 ReSAKSS Annual Conference

Publié dans : Économie & finance
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Addressing the rights and ownership challenge: gender, and land / water tenure

  1. 1. Addressing the rights and ownership challenge: gender, and land/water tenure 12 November 2019 Dr Inga Jacobs-Mata and Dr Barbara van Koppen (IWMI- Southern Africa) 2019 ReSAKSS Annual Conference: Gender Equality in Rural Africa, 11 – 13 November 2019, Lome, Togo
  2. 2. Our History 1984 Established in Sri Lanka as the International Irrigation Management Institute (IIMI) 1991 Joined the CGIAR 1996 Broadened mandate: became the International Water Management Institute (IWMI) 2012 Awarded Stockholm Water Prize 2013 Selected to lead CGIAR Research Program “Water, Lands and Ecosystems” 2019 Launched IWMI Strategy 2019- 2023 “Water Solutions for Sustainable Development”
  3. 3. Science for a Transformative Agenda
  4. 4. Tackling Global Water Challenges
  5. 5. Environment: Expansive region, with limited and unevenly- distributed water resources compared to population and settlement patterns; climate variability and climate change; resource degradation Resource access and use: Competing domestic, agricultural and industrial demands; poor agricultural water management; low investment in water development - only 7% of arable land is irrigated; limited access to clean and safe water, as well as energy for domestic and agricultural purposes, WEF insecurity Socio-economic: Pronounced developmental differences, and a declining growth rate; developmental states struggle to achieve goals of broad-based agriculture-led economic growth (but South Africa: equitable growth) rapid population growth, urbanisation Governance: limited policy implementation; reactive management interventions; widening wealth inequalities; many ‘left behind’, especially in rural areas; growing alternative/complimentary service delivery models. Southern Africa – a region of contrasts
  6. 6. Achievement on SDGs SDG 1: The poverty incidence remains high, ranging from around 1% to 70% of the population SDG 2: 16% of SADC’s rural population have been consistently designated food insecure over the past 5 years SDG 8: GDP growth rate is below 3% SDG 10: SADC is the most unequal region in Africa
  7. 7. Our strategic objectives
  8. 8. Our portfolio: Agricultural economics Key challenges: • Paucity of sufficient and timely economic evidence on the costs, benefits, impacts, tradeoffs, and equity-effects of policies, regulations, interventions and investments in agricultural water management. How will IWMI-SA solve them? Foresight analysis & Targeting tools Water/agriculture markets, & value chains Technology adoption & Impacts Best practices/policy options for resolving the challenges Strategic research partnership building Targeted evidence for the policy audience: Annual Trends and Outlook Reports; Country Capacity Needs Analysis reports; Joint Sector & Biennial Review assessments Organize dissemination regional and country workshops, national stakeholder dialogue platforms Capacity strengthening Impact: • Government policies are changing owing to the Agricultural joint sector & Biennial reviews • Previous Annual Trends and Outlook reports focusing on agricultural spending • have led to an increase in the drive to spend more on agriculture, • but have also led to a general increase in the dialogue for the role of public spending on agriculture. • ReSAKSS-SA has participated in training 100s of country stakeholders in areas of agriculture reviews, and mutual accountability. Partners: Regional: SADC, COMESA, SADC Governments IOs/regional networks: CCARDESA, FANRPAN, RENAPRI Development Partners: USAID, BMGF, GIZ Farmers Unions: SACAU, Farmers Union of Malawi. Finance Partners: Land Bank, DBSA, AFDB, WB, FAO; Insurance Companies Universities: University of Pretoria, Edwardo Mondlane, Lilongwe University of Agriculture & Natural Resources, University of Zimbabwe, UCT CGIAR centres: IFPRI & IRLI, IITA Civil Society Organizations: ActionAid, World Vision, WaterAID, Target countries: SADC and especially, Malawi, Mozambique, and Zambia Milestones: Strategic analysis at Regional and country levels Knowledge management at regional and country level Strengthening and establishment of SAKSS nodes Enhance partnership with ReNAPRI, AGRA and Universities Continue taking a leading role in Joint sector & Biennial Reviews with NEPAD in 14 SADC countries
  9. 9. Our portfolio: Governance and gender Key challenges: • Wealth inequalities which continue to widen • Population growth in both urban and rural areas-gendered migration to urban areas leading to gendered urbanization • Trends leave many behind (developmentally) in rural areas. • Weak policy implementation • Colonial legacy in policies e.g. in water legislation – e.g. redistributive reforms in SA • Uneven access to and development of infrastructure in rural and urban areas – high infrastructure dysfunctional rates How will IWMI-SA solve them? Pro-poor solutions - developing and upscaling institutional and financing models for sustainable, cost effective and equitable water services for domestic and productive uses Hybrid/supported self-supply/decentralized water supply systems Policy direction related to hybrid governance models Integrity in the water sector Stewardship with non-state actors The role of the individuals in transformative governance and inclusion Decolonizing regulatory legacies of the past Impact: • Putting self-supply for multiple uses in low-income rural areas on the national agenda; demonstrating replicable cost-effective, accountable and sustainable modalities of supported self supply, and upscaling. Award for social innovation at the WRC Symposium 2019 • initiating evidence-based Africa-wide and global debates on decolonized hybrid water law Partners: Communities: rural with view of expansion into poor peri urban settlements Government: officials at all levels, in water, agriculture, local government, employment generation/public works Development partners: DBSA, African Development Bank, WRC Knowledge centers/ students: PLAAS, UP/TUT, UJ, Wits WASH sector: Rural Water Supply Network, IRC, MWA UN FAO/IFAD, UN Women Civil society: Water Caucus, Oxfam, Tsogang Professional networks: ICID/SANCID, WaterNet, MUS group, WIN IOs: other CGIAR centres Target countries: SADC Key milestones: • Hybrid water law: Africa-wide workshop on hybrid water law, in collaboration with AMCOW and hosted by government of Uganda 3-4 October 2019. • Community-driven water services in South Africa: Eight international publications, M.Sc. and PhD theses, participatory videos, guidelines and manuals by 15 December 2019.
  10. 10. The six principles of customary water tenure Source: Van Koppen, 2019 • Across Africa we are seeing a growth in small scale farmer-led irrigation which is contributing to improved food security and economic growth • Customary water use is not recognised in formal water law systems and the water use of these small scale farmers needs a permit from an under-resourced water authority that is unable to meet demand • The solution lies in adopting a targeted hybrid water rights system that uses a suite of tools including permits and customary law to regulate water use effectively in the African context
  11. 11. Customary water tenure • Water used under customary law is not recognised in formal water law in Africa – all of these farmers require a permit from an under-resourced state authority • If 5% of rural households are using small pumps for irrigation, between 100 000 and 300 000 water users per country need a water use permit. • The reality is that a handful of water users use most of the water. Total rural households 5% of rural households Permits issued (2016) Kenya 6 046 833 302 342 4 194 Malawi 2 573 000 128 650 3 042 South Africa 3 213 000 160 650 5 956 Uganda 5 492 667 274 633 1 320 Zimbabwe 1 870 000 93 500 10 799
  12. 12. Focusing attention where its most needed • Uses a mix of legal tools to obtain desired, context specific outcomes (e.g., gender and social equity, sustainability, growth) in a cost effective way, using polycentric, multi-level governance, including: • Statutory water permits for high impact users only; • All other users exempted from permits and regulated through other tools such as: • Customary water law with equal legal standing to permits • General authorisations • Prioritisation of water use • Collective permits
  13. 13. Thank you, Merci, Obrigado, Asante sana!

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