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Building Livelihoods for Rural Youth: A Gendered Perspective

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By Jessica Heckert - Audrey Pereira - Cheryl Doss - Emily C. Myers and Agnes Quisumbing

Publié dans : Données & analyses
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Building Livelihoods for Rural Youth: A Gendered Perspective

  1. 1. Building Livelihoods for Rural Youth: A Gendered Perspective Jessica Heckert with Audrey Pereira, Cheryl Doss, Emily C. Myers, and Agnes Quisumbing
  2. 2. Changing national contexts & rural youth livelihoods Young women and men experience different opportunities and benefits of: • Structural transformation • Growth in share of jobs manufacturing and service sectors • Rural transformation • Agricultural productivity increases • Rural institutions change • Large youth cohorts • Competition for land, jobs, training opportunities Ethiopia’s Population Structure, 2010 and 2030 Source: https://www.prb.org/ethiopia/
  3. 3. Landownership Determinants • Married young men more likely to own land solely; married young women more likely to own jointly • Young women and men less likely to own land at higher levels of structural transformation • Young men are more likely to own land at higher levels of rural transformation (when land is more productive); women less likely 0 5 10 15 20 25 Young women Young men Young women Young men Young women Young men East Africa Southern Africa West & Central Africa % Sole ownership Joint ownership
  4. 4. Employment & NEET Determinants • Married young women and mothers are more likely to be NEET (opposite from young men) • Young men and young women less likely to be employed at higher levels of structural and rural transformation; young women even less likely at higher levels of rural transformation. • Large youth cohorts higher employment of young men & lower employment of young women 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Young women Young men Young women Young men Young women Young men East Africa Southern Africa West & Central Africa % School Employed School and employed NEET
  5. 5. Highlights • Rural young women transition to adulthood with fewer resources (land, education) than rural young men • Rural young women are less likely to own land, especially as sole owners, compared to young men • Many rural young women are classified as NEET, but this label may not consider invisible household labor • Rural young women and men are running uphill at higher levels of structural and rural transformation. Employment and landownership are lower and NEET higher
  6. 6. How can gender-sensitive youth livelihoods programming harness the potential of the demographic dividend while creating equal benefits for young women and young men?
  7. 7. Vocational skills training • Apprenticeship training in Malawi • Young men benefitted more than young women • Women participated with fewer resources and experienced difficulty traveling and household/family obligations • BRAC’s Empowerment and Livelihoods for Adolescents program in Uganda • Mixed vocational and life skills trainings • Positive impacts on vocational and sexual and reproductive health indicators Photo credit: Cooperman
  8. 8. Credit and cash for young entrepreneurs • Given the size of the informal sector, credit or cash grants seem appealing • General concerns about microcredit programs apply to youth • Young women had difficulty keeping cash on hands because of worthy family expenses • Cash grants for young women in northern Uganda led to increases in income, but not independence, status in community, or freedom from intimate partner violence.
  9. 9. Other youth livelihoods programs • Cash transfers • Delay transitions to marriage and parenthood and keep youth in school • Youth groups • Potential platform for different types of interventions • In Ethiopia Toward Economic and Sexual and Reproductive Health Outcomes for Adolescent Girls, those who received both the economic and sexual and reproductive health components improved in both domains. • Information and mass media • Not yet studied in Africa, but may help meet the demand for female labor force participation.
  10. 10. Concluding recommendations for gender- sensitive youth livelihoods programming • Consider the productive and reproductive responsibilities of young men and young women. Programs that do so, have been more successful. • Mitigate the potential negative impacts of structural and rural transformation and recognize that the impacts differ by gender. • Recognize the importance of both productive and reproductive roles in both young women’s and men’s lives.

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