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Centrality of Gender in Africa
Agriculture Transformation
Vitumbiko Chinoko
Advocacy and Policy Lead – CARE, Southern Afri...
Presentation Outline
• Centrality of Agriculture to Africa’s growth
• Gender stats in Agriculture in Africa
• Manifestatio...
Centrality of Agriculture to Africa’s Growth
• Agriculture is the backbone of almost all Africa’s economies,
accounting fo...
Gender in Agriculture.
• Women comprise nearly half of the Agriculture labour force. But
their productivity is lower, comp...
CARE’s VSLA Experience
• In study in Malawi, Tanzania, Zambia, Mozambique, Zimbabwe
and Madagascar CARE found that income ...
CARE Policy Report in Southern Africa
Aim:
• To demonstrate the gap between policy commitment and
implementation in agricu...
Agriculture, Livestock and Forestry Policy - Madagascar
• Policy recognizes gender by analyzing farming systems and land
t...
Recommendations to Government of
Madagascar
• Establish a policy or strategy on family farming, endowing it with a
real de...
Malawi
• Access to land is a major challenge. Even in matrimonial systems,
men take major decisions on how to use the land...
• Develop and implement strategies that improve and tailor
extension services to women farmers including training more
wom...
Tanzania
• Adequate gender policy provisions which unfortunately have not
influenced agriculture practice
• Farms managed ...
Recommendations
• Gender Budgeting is a big opportunity to address agriculture
productivity gap
• Implement gender budgeti...
Mozambique
“Behind a Mozambican woman, there’s an entire household
taking decisions for her’. Navarro, C. and Pellizzoli, ...
Recommendations
• Improve extension services that are tailored to women farmers.
• Resource and implement the Gender strat...
Closing Remarks
• Gender inequality in agriculture is a problem not just for women
but for the agricultural sector, food s...
THANK YOU
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Centrality of Gender in Africa Agriculture Transformation 2019 ppt_re_sakss_conference_chinokov

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by Vitumbiko Chinoko
Care Southern Africa
ReSAKSS 2019 Annual Conference

Publié dans : Économie & finance
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Centrality of Gender in Africa Agriculture Transformation 2019 ppt_re_sakss_conference_chinokov

  1. 1. Centrality of Gender in Africa Agriculture Transformation Vitumbiko Chinoko Advocacy and Policy Lead – CARE, Southern Africa Vitumbiko.Chinoko@care.org @ChinokoV +265888857049
  2. 2. Presentation Outline • Centrality of Agriculture to Africa’s growth • Gender stats in Agriculture in Africa • Manifestations of the Gender gaps in Africa’s Agriculture • Policy recommendations to close the gap. • Closing Remarks
  3. 3. Centrality of Agriculture to Africa’s Growth • Agriculture is the backbone of almost all Africa’s economies, accounting for 30-40% of the continent’s GDP, • Agriculture provides two-thirds of all Africa’s jobs. • Over 90% Africa’s extreme poor are engaged in Agriculture and WB estimates that growth emanating from the sector is 2-4 more effective in reducing poverty than other sectors. • IFAD: Agriculture development is 11 times more effective in ending poverty than other approaches.
  4. 4. Gender in Agriculture. • Women comprise nearly half of the Agriculture labour force. But their productivity is lower, compared to men. • Women produce less per hectare than male farmers. • Challenges: Access to credit, training, markets and other productive opportunities as men • With same access to productive assets as men, their yields could increase by 20-30%, raising total agriculture output by2.5- 4% (D. Doss, C.Kovarik…) • UNFAO estimates that gains from investing in women farmers would lift100-150 million people out of hunger.
  5. 5. CARE’s VSLA Experience • In study in Malawi, Tanzania, Zambia, Mozambique, Zimbabwe and Madagascar CARE found that income gains through VSLA influenced important decision. • HH Nutrition (30%), Climate smart Agriculture (50%) and 20% (Education+others) was the average investment by women from proceeds of VSLA • Improving gender equality through agriculture has potential to improve economies beyond the sector itself
  6. 6. CARE Policy Report in Southern Africa Aim: • To demonstrate the gap between policy commitment and implementation in agriculture, climate change and nutrition. • To show gender and women rights are incorporated into Agriculture policy formulation and implementation. • To suggest policy strategies to close the gender gap in the 6 countries ( Madagascar, Malawi, Mozambique, Zambia, Zimbabwe and Tanzania
  7. 7. Agriculture, Livestock and Forestry Policy - Madagascar • Policy recognizes gender by analyzing farming systems and land tenures with respect to the relations between gender issues, demographics, and agricultural/rural development • No consideration of the specific roles or responsibilities of women in the sector that would allow for tangibly establishing their value in agriculture. • No staff deployment mechanism planned for "peer" approaches between female farmers and technicians of the Administration • no specific program/initiatives to reinforce women's empowerment in Agriculture • National Climate Change Policy , does not mention about the vulnerability of women farmers to impacts of climate change.
  8. 8. Recommendations to Government of Madagascar • Establish a policy or strategy on family farming, endowing it with a real definition and taking into account all factors relating to it: community, social and men/women-specific, cultural, economic, geographical, and climate change • Review and/or enrich the climate change strategy of the ALF if needed, taking into account the evolution of knowledge and information • Update the National Nutrition Policy (2004) including • Recommendation of key actions for adaptation that consider climate parameters: current trends and future projections; • Consideration of nutrition education that targets both men and women.
  9. 9. Malawi • Access to land is a major challenge. Even in matrimonial systems, men take major decisions on how to use the land. • Women farm’s are smaller in size compared to men • Women use less input especially hired labor, fertilizer and use of early maturing varieties which accounts for about 80% gender gap in productivity. • 4% of male headed HHs received credit, while 2% of female headed HHs. • In general, agency related factors, such as illiteracy, make women have limited access to extension, credit and other financial facilities. • Women in Malawi produce 25% less per hectare compared to men
  10. 10. • Develop and implement strategies that improve and tailor extension services to women farmers including training more women extension officers. • Policy implement should consider the child-care and other household responsibilities e.g. promotion of the light weight irrigation equipment • FISD should aggressively be deployed to improve specific input needs of women farmers e.g. technical expertise on to apply fertilizer.
  11. 11. Tanzania • Adequate gender policy provisions which unfortunately have not influenced agriculture practice • Farms managed by women produce 14% less on gross output compared to men or jointly owned by other family members. • The environmental management act has weak gender provisions. • Gender focal points exist at various levels but lack capacity to address thematic issues such as agriculture. • Gender budgeting is recognized in Agriculture Tanzania but not implemented
  12. 12. Recommendations • Gender Budgeting is a big opportunity to address agriculture productivity gap • Implement gender budgeting priorities, one of which was to provide fertilizer and input subsidies to poor women farmers. • Engage Private Sector to develop products which women farmer can leverage on for credit through VSLA
  13. 13. Mozambique “Behind a Mozambican woman, there’s an entire household taking decisions for her’. Navarro, C. and Pellizzoli, R., 2012 • The adult literacy rate for women is only 36%, compare to 67% for men (UNESCO,2014). • Less than 10% of women in Mozambique have a bank account (ICC, 2014). • Mozambique ranks 125 out of 146 countries in the UN gender development index. • Only 25% of the land owners holding official user rights are women),
  14. 14. Recommendations • Improve extension services that are tailored to women farmers. • Resource and implement the Gender strategy in Agriculture to enable integration of gender in the sector • Improve school enrollment and retention of the girl child across the education system • Use the opportunity to review Strategic Plan for the Development of Agriculture Sector (PEDSA) to integrate gender in Agriculture.
  15. 15. Closing Remarks • Gender inequality in agriculture is a problem not just for women but for the agricultural sector, food security and society as a whole. • Government, donors and civil society should resource and implement gender integration in ALL agricultural programmes and projects. • Increasing input investment alone will not increase productivity in women farmers. • In the long term, raising education attainment for women would increase output from agriculture investment
  16. 16. THANK YOU

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