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“Tenure is not about land, it is about people (men and
women). It is about land only as far as land can serve the
needs of people (men and women)” (à la Westoby 1967)
Synthesis of Studies
• What are the lessons we are learning across different contexts?
• How can we learn from across different experiences? – Learning
• Learning from others’ challenges (mistakes), Good (opportunities)
• Ghana, Mali, Ethiopia, Malawi, Mozambique, South Africa,
Zambia and Zimbabwe.
• Acknowledgement (Global 1979 - UN Convention on the Elimination of All Forms
of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW)
• AU - Agenda 2063, Gender Policy (2009), Gender Strategy 2018-2028, Malabo
2014 Declaration - Women/youths, national levels)
• SDGs agenda.
• Discourse and policy pronouncements – mismatch with practice.
• Bright Spots of good practices.
• Still perceived as talking about women – gender desks.
• Myths of expensive sex disaggregated data.
Why Gender matters?
• Democratic and Human Rights necessity (51% of
citizens in Africa).
• Feminization of Agriculture – shifting nature of farming.
• 50-60% of sub-Saharan labor force are women (FAO
2011, 2010; COMESA).
• Transformation Agenda – link to gender outcomes.
Why Gender matters? (cont’d)
• Women have lesser access to inputs than men (FAO 2011).
• Female farmers produce less than male farmers due to
unfavorable context (IFPRI 2010) – how can they benefit from the
• Female farmers harvest 20-30% less yield due to lower use of
• Closing gender gap would result in significant gains.
Land Ownership and Control
• Land ownership is largely patriarchal – men control own and control
• In matrilineal societies (Malawi) the uncles have a say on land control
• In Ethiopia there is joint certification – but there is unspoken rule that
men have superior rights.
• Women’s interests are however secure – death of husband (Ethiopia).
• Land and Water – nexus – right to use water is linked to land
Asset Ownership and Control
• Whilst land is important – assets are also important for
irrigated agricultural production.
• Most female farmers own fewer assets than male farmers.
• Access to credit, in general, was more difficult for female
• ICT in Agriculture - mobile technology access – Mali,
Ethiopia- is gendered.
Gender and Agricultural Extension
• Despite De jure female Headed Households and De
facto – ‘farmers’ are often perceived as male.
• Malawi study shows how this is the perception across
all both female and male extension workers.
• Engrained socialization – why norms matter.
• Education levels – on average lower for women.
• Who decides on agriculture and other arenas?
• Male, Female, Joint – how joint?
• Household decision making?
• Deconstructing decision making processes.
Access and Control
• Women have significant contribution especially on
• Control of marketing and benefits – largely controlled
by men (Malawi – not safe, Ethiopia, Ghana – women
• Address both Access and Control – better outcomes.
• Land and water nexus – gendered tenure needs to be strengthened.
• Centrality of legal and customary land-water nexus tenure – gender.
• GTA – Multi-pronged - education, norms, culture, government, budget.
• Demystifying gendered participation 'I participate. You participate. He
participates. She participate. We participate. They rule’
• Meaningful decision making linked to positive gender outcomes – as
Africa’s Agriculture Transforms equitably.
• Transforming Gender Policies into Action – Key Step.
Thank You, Merci, Tatenda, Medase, Ameseginalehu
Acknowledging the support of the study partner communities in
Ghana, Mali, Ethiopia, Malawi, Mozambique, South Africa,
Zambia and Zimbabwe