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Gender and Social Norms in
Agriculture
Presented By Edward Bikketi
INCLUDOVATE
What are social norms?
A category of collective belief referring the social environment –
specifically expectations one ha...
Disciplinary Trajectory on Social
Norms
01
02
03
04
Social norms theory
focusing on public
heath
Realisation by the cluste...
Framing of
Social
Norms
In sum, social norms refer to
the desire for social approval
or risk of sanction from
one’s peer g...
Social Norms Impeding Women’s Advancement
Norms assigning domestic work to
women
Norms of sexual decorum & fear of sexual ...
Gender Norms & Economic Empowerment
The informal unwritten social rules that
determine socially acceptable behaviour for
...
Gender Norms in Agriculture
No single set of norms or regional norms exist
They are context-specific and localized (cult...
Comparisons of Agency
between men and women
Fluid evolution of norms in response
to local economies & institutions
This ve...
Bias and framing of women
as farmers’ wives and not
farmers by extension systems
Commercialization reserving
certain jobs ...
Gendered expectation of
women as good mothers
Gender roles of bread
winner and caregiver
normalizing men’s control
over in...
Ownership and control of resources Influences adoption and use of
technologies especially natural resource management
Vita...
IntrahouseholdInfluence andVoice
Household head
and privilege
given to men
enshrining
practices
intrahousehold
competition...
Transforming
Deep-Seated
Gender
norms
Diagnosing and understanding
the gender norms as ‘typical’ or
‘appropriate’ or both...
Influencing
individual
attitudes
1
Providing Inclusive
Arenas for dialogue
& co-learning
2
Promoting alternative
expect...
Shifting Social Norms to Influence
Behaviour: Considerations for Practice
Use “attractive” messengers e.g. role models, an...
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Gender and social Norms in Agriculture 5 2019 re sakss conference presentation edward bikketi

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Gender and social Norms in Agriculture 5 2019 re sakss conference presentation edward bikketi

  1. 1. Gender and Social Norms in Agriculture Presented By Edward Bikketi INCLUDOVATE
  2. 2. What are social norms? A category of collective belief referring the social environment – specifically expectations one has about a peer or reference group or agreed upon expectations and rules guiding behaviour of a given group
  3. 3. Disciplinary Trajectory on Social Norms 01 02 03 04 Social norms theory focusing on public heath Realisation by the cluster of disciplines and research that social and non-social factors determine one’s action (on off and habitual behaviour) Social psychology and behavioral economics research observing that people make mental shortcuts through rational choice theories. Social psychology theories acknowledging the influence of social environment and peer groups as effective behaviour-change strategies One way behavioral change models – Theories of diffusion focus on lead farmer Economics, Ag-Econ Social Psychology, Gender, sociology, Anthropology
  4. 4. Framing of Social Norms In sum, social norms refer to the desire for social approval or risk of sanction from one’s peer group, which appears to have a greater influence on behavioral outcomes than individual attitudes and internal beliefs alone(Mayne et al. 2015)
  5. 5. Social Norms Impeding Women’s Advancement Norms assigning domestic work to women Norms of sexual decorum & fear of sexual violence as retribution Norms of decorum and reputations e.g. prohibition of interactions between men and women in work places Norms about mobility e.g. women working outside home or in distant places Norms of ownership access to & control of assets and resources 01 05 04 03 02
  6. 6. Gender Norms & Economic Empowerment The informal unwritten social rules that determine socially acceptable behaviour for men and women – shaping opportunities and constraints for empowerment. Gender norms internalized into women’s and men's consciousness can foster or undermine women’s economic empowerment. Gender norms and roles can be potent posing systemic challenges towards empowerment.
  7. 7. Gender Norms in Agriculture No single set of norms or regional norms exist They are context-specific and localized (culture and as well as economic contexts) This has required empirical studies that can explain how norms operate GENNOVATE by CGIAR (Petesch et al 2018) • 137 Agric communities from 26 countries in the Global South • Local normative climate and the fluidity of norms among men and women resulting in heterogeneity • Familiar patterns of gender norms exist that can interact with opportunity structures. • Root categories of gender norms that reproduce unequal power relations and unequal outcomes in male-dominated agricultural systems and structures
  8. 8. Comparisons of Agency between men and women Fluid evolution of norms in response to local economies & institutions This very fluidity of norms contributed to heterogeneity that affects perceptions & agency It is important to examine masculine and femine norms and how the interact with women’s agency 2 4 1 3 GENNOVATE KEY MESSEGES ON NORMS Normative Climate
  9. 9. Bias and framing of women as farmers’ wives and not farmers by extension systems Commercialization reserving certain jobs especial technical high paying jobs for men . Characterization of target groups based on the household head & cash-crops vs food crops In practice stereotyping of crops “men’s and women’s” is oversimplified as production practices. Mobility of women even when agro-advisory and training opportunities are available Critical skills of negotiation and collective participation remain a big challenge for women . Capacity Skills, Confidence: Stereotyping Farmers and Crops
  10. 10. Gendered expectation of women as good mothers Gender roles of bread winner and caregiver normalizing men’s control over incomes and cash crops Influence on labour markets and overall productivity Feminisation of reproductive roles Views of the patriarchal value system on productive and reproductive work . PRODUCTIVE VS REPRODUCTIVE WORK Norms of Productive vs Reproductive Work
  11. 11. Ownership and control of resources Influences adoption and use of technologies especially natural resource management Vital importance of accumulation and ownership of productive resources for sustainable engagement in agriculture. Bargaining power and voice in the household depends on ownership of productive resources Land tenure and land rights governed by the interplay of formal and informal institutions The role of kinship structures and religion in inheritance of assets and productive resources Access & Control of Productive Resources
  12. 12. IntrahouseholdInfluence andVoice Household head and privilege given to men enshrining practices intrahousehold competition Inefficiency in allocation of resources Poor information sharing within the households Gender norms tolerating GBV as for sanctioning and restraint on women
  13. 13. Transforming Deep-Seated Gender norms Diagnosing and understanding the gender norms as ‘typical’ or ‘appropriate’ or both Identifying the social reference group and the local normative climate (Petesch et al 2018) Applying evidence-based gender norms models in agricultural programming
  14. 14. Influencing individual attitudes 1 Providing Inclusive Arenas for dialogue & co-learning 2 Promoting alternative expectations 3 Providing opportunities for public change 4 Unpacking norms of Masculinity5 Transforming Social Norms What Works in Agricultural Programing?
  15. 15. Shifting Social Norms to Influence Behaviour: Considerations for Practice Use “attractive” messengers e.g. role models, and opinion makers to champion and enroll others in the cause In communications provide “social proof” that about relevant people in authority doing the desired behavior or supporting the campaign Provide people with information comparing their behaviors with those of their (anonymized) neighbors Spread new social norms by changing the behaviors of existing reference groups and/or creating new ones . 01 04 03 0 2

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