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Gender and trade in Africa: Case Study of Niger

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By Ismael Fofana - Sunday Odjo - Fousseini Traore

Publié dans : Économie & finance
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Gender and trade in Africa: Case Study of Niger

  1. 1. Gender and Trade in Africa: Case Study of Niger Ismael Fofana, Sunday Odjo, Fousseini Traore International Food Policy Research Institute
  2. 2. OUTLINE • NIGER: GEOGRAPHY AND TRADE • GENDER DIFFERENCES IN CROSS-BORDER TRADE • GENDER INEQUALITY IN EMPLOYMENT : CURRENT SITUATION AND PROSPECTS UNDER ECOWAS CET IMPLEMENTATION • CONCLUDING REMARKS
  3. 3. NIGER: VAST, LANDLOCKED AND FAST-GROWING • Predominantly desert terrain: 80% of the national area • Frequent droughts and floods, food shortages, famines in some cases: 1970s, 1980s, 2005–2006 and 2010. • Borders with 7 countries • One of fastest population growth in the world (3.8% per year) • One of fastest GDP growth (5%) in West Africa (driven by crude petroleum exports) • Migration and/or cross-border trade are most common copying strategies.
  4. 4. NIGER’S TRADE POSITION IN INTRA-AFRICAN AGRICULTURAL MARKETS, AVERAGE 2010–2014 -50.0 -40.0 -30.0 -20.0 -10.0 0.0 10.0 20.0 CATTLE SHEEP AND GOATS OTHER LIVESTOCK MEAT AND EDIBLE OFFAL FISH AND FISH PRODUCTS MILK AND DAIRY PRODUCTS RICE MAIZE SORGHUM MILLET ONIONS, SHALLOTS OTHER VEGETABLES EDIBLE FRUITS WHEAT FLOUR OILSEEDS PALM OIL SUGAR AND SWEETS PREP. MADE FROM CEREALS COFFEE AND TEA (*) PREP. FOR SOUPS AND BROTHS BEVERAGES TOBACCO OTHER AGR. PRODUCTS, NDA US$ Million Excess demands Excess supplies
  5. 5. GENDER DIFFERENCES IN CROSS-BORDER TRADE • Survey of male and female traders in border areas between Niger and its neighbors (Nigeria, Benin, Burkina Faso) • 200 traders surveyed, combining non-proportional quota sampling and snowball sampling techniques
  6. 6. 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 Fulani Other Tuareg Gurma Hausa Zarma Ethnic groups (% of respondents) Male Female 1. CROSS-BORDER TRADERS BELONG TO THE PREDOMINANT ETHNIC GROUPS OF BORDER ZONES, LEVERAGING CROSS-BORDER SOCIAL TIES TO OVERCOME RISKS AND CIRCUMVENT CUSTOMS RULES 2. FEMALE TRADERS ARE LESS EDUCATED THAN THEIR MALE COUNTERPARTS 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 No schooling Primary Secondary Quranic school Can read and write in his / her native language Education level (% of respondents) Male Female
  7. 7. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 1st wife 2nd wife 3rd wife Seniority rank among co-wives (%) 1. BEING DIVORCED, WIDOWED OR IN A MONOGAMOUS MARITAL RELATIONSHIP CAN FACILITATE FEMALE ENGAGEMENT IN CROSS-BORDER TRADE 2. POLYGAMY IS NEVER A WOMAN’S CHOICE BUT BEING SENIOR AMONG CO-WIVES CAN FINALLY HELP TO GET THE HUSBAND’S CONSENT TO LET HER ENGAGE IN CROSS-BORDER TRADE. 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 Divorced Widowed Single Married - polygamy Married - monogamy Marital status (%) Male Female
  8. 8. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Customs officers Police officers Drivers Apprentices “Passeurs” (Smugglers) Other Perpetrators of harassment cases (% of respondents) Male Female 1. HARASSMENT CASES ARE REPORTED BY BOTH MALE AND FEMALE TRADERS BUT AT HIGHER RATES BY MALE TRADERS. 2. LAW ENFORCEMENT AGENTS ARE THE MAJOR PERPETRATORS OF HARASSMENT CASES. FEMALE TRADERS ALSO IDENTIFY DRIVERS AND THEIR APPRENTICES AS OTHER MAJOR OFFENDERS. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Rape Sexual harassment Physical maltreatment Disability harassment Gender discrimination Armed robbery Political pressure Abuse of power and authority Ethnic discrimination Theft Other Financial harassment Intimidation Humiliation, verbal attacks Forms of harassment experienced while travelling for business (% of respondents) Female Male
  9. 9. GENDER INEQUALITY IN EMPLOYMENT : CURRENT SITUATION AND PROSPECTS UNDER ECOWAS CET IMPLEMENTATION • Data from Niger National Institute of Statistics • Simulation results using ECOSIM, a multicountry, multisector, dynamic, general equilibrium model of West African countries • with a specific treatment of Niger Economy to reflect current gender inequality in employment and access to investment resources: o Gender-disaggregated Social Accounting Matrix (SAM) o Inelastic substitution between male and female labor in production technology o Lower investment demand elasticity in female-led (compared to male-led) activities
  10. 10. 1.9 1.7 7.1 2 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Self-employment Family labor Salary and wage All employment Male-to-female ratio by employment category 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Self-employment Family labor Salary and wage Time allocation by employment category (%) Male Female 1. THE ECONOMY EMPLOYS TWICE AS MANY MEN AS WOMEN. MEN MAKE UP THE BULK OF SALARY AND WAGE WORKERS 2. WOMEN ARE MOSTLY SELF-EMPLOYED OR UNPAID WORKERS IN FAMILY BUSINESSES
  11. 11. EMPLOYMENT GROWTH UNDER ECOWAS CET IMPLEMENTATION (% CHANGE FROM BASELINE) 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 All workers Self-employed workers Family workers Wage and salary workers If current gender inequality in access to investment resources is sustained, male employment will grow faster, except as family workers Male Female 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 All workers Self-employed workers Family workers Wage and salary workers If current gender inequality in access to investment resources is dismantled, female employment will grow faster, in particular as self-employed workers. Male Female
  12. 12. CHANGE IN EMPLOYMENT GROWTH RATE ATTRIBUTABLE TO A DISMANTLING OF GENDER INEQUALITY IN ACCESS TO INVESTMENT RESOURCES (ADDITIONAL PERCENTAGE GROWTH POINTS COMPARED TO STATUS QUO) -0.4 -0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 All workers Self-employed workers Family workers Wage and salary workers Male Female
  13. 13. Concluding Remarks • Niger is positioned to take the best advantages of an actual implementation of the common external tariffs in West Africa • Expanded intra-regional trade entails more job opportunities (not only in trade), which should be available equally for women and men • Closing the gender gap in access to employment, productive resources and trade will be profitable not only to women but also to men and the whole economy. • Sensitizing men to these benefits is crucial for harnessing the demographic dividend and poverty
  14. 14. THANK YOU

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