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Gender sensitive Agricultural Investments Prioritization: Case Study of Niger

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By Ismael FOFANA - Mariame DIALLO - Anatole GOUDAN - Lea M. DOMGHO

Publié dans : Économie & finance
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Gender sensitive Agricultural Investments Prioritization: Case Study of Niger

  1. 1. GENDER-SENSITIVE AGRICULTURAL INVESTMENTS PRIORITIZATION Case Study of Niger I. FOFANA, M. DIALLO, A. GOUDAN, L. M. DOMGHO International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI)
  2. 2. Summary of Findings • Generation of gender disaggregated data  LSMS-ISA for Niger • Development a gender-sensitive results framework • Assessment of agricultural growth outlook under business as usual  Niger is off track to achieving the Malabo commitments and goals, including on gender • Agricultural Investments Prioritization  Investments prioritization (agric. commodity-wise or value chain) is gender sensitive in Niger • Gender-sensitive agricultural investment strategy  Good progress towards achieving the Malabo commitments and goals, including on gender, in Niger.
  3. 3. I. MALABO RESULTS FRAMEWORK I.1 Malabo Declaration on Accelerated Agricultural Growth and Transformation for Shared Prosperity and Improved Livelihoods I. Recommitment to the Principles and Values of the CAADP Process II. Commitment to Enhancing Investment Finance in Agriculture III. Commitment to Ending Hunger in Africa by 2025 IV. Commitment to Halving Poverty by the year 2025, through Inclusive Agricultural Growth and Transformation V. Commitment to Boosting Intra-African Trade in Agricultural commodities and services VI. Commitment to Enhancing Resilience of Livelihoods and Production Systems to Climate Variability and other related risks VII. Commitment to Mutual Accountability to Actions and Results
  4. 4. I. MALABO RESULTS FRAMEWORK (CONT’D) I.2 Malabo-Focused NAIP Results Framework Commitment Results Metric Target II. Commitment to Enhancing Investment Finance in Agriculture Enhance public investment finance Public expenditure to agriculture, share 10% Agricultural Value Added, Percentage GDP Enhance private investment finance Private investments to agriculture, growth > Private investments economywide, growth III. Commitment to Ending Hunger in Africa by 2025 Double current agricultural productivity levels Agricultural total factor productivity, growth 100% Agricultural labor productivity, growth 100% Halve the current levels of Post- Harvest Losses Agricultural post-production total factor productivity, growth 50% Agricultural post-production labor productivity, growth 50% Promote social protection initiatives focusing on vulnerable social groups Income share of the poorest quintile, change > Food production-to-consumption ratio, change > End extreme poverty in Africa by 2025 Poverty headcount ratio, measured at the food poverty line, change -95%
  5. 5. I. MALABO RESULTS FRAMEWORK (CONT’D) I.2 Malabo-Focused NAIP Results Framework (cont’d) Commitment Results Metric Target IV. Commitment to Halving Poverty by the year 2025, through Inclusive Agricultural Growth and Transformation Sustain annual agricultural GDP growth Agricultural GDP growth, annual average 6% Ensure that agricultural growth and transformation process is inclusive Agricultural contribution to GDP growth 50% Create job opportunities for at least 30% of the youth in agricultural value chains Job creation per annuum, growth > Increase wage and salary jobs Halving Poverty by the year 2025 Poverty headcount ratio, measured at the national poverty line, change -50 V. Commitment to Boosting Intra- African Trade in Agricultural commodities and services Harness markets and trade opportunities, locally, regionally and internationally Income growth of agricultural producers Income growth of agri-food producers Triple intra-African trade in agricultural commodities and services Intra-Africa Exports and Imports of agricultural commodities and services 200% Exports-to-Imports Agricultural Commodities, Ratio Exports Agroindustry-to-Agricultural Commodities, Ratio
  6. 6. I. MALABO RESULTS FRAMEWORK (CONT’D) 1.3 Gender in the Malabo Compliant Results Frameworks  Malabo Declaration on Accelerated Agricultural Growth and Transformation for Shared Prosperity and Improved Livelihoods IV. Commitment to Halving Poverty by the year 2025, through Inclusive Agricultural Growth and Transformation  Support and facilitate preferential entry and participation for women and youth in gainful and attractive agri-business opportunities.  CAADP Results Framework 2015-2025  Suggestion of gender disaggregation for nearly half (14 out of 31) of the indicators (levels 1, 2 and 3).
  7. 7. I. MALABO RESULTS FRAMEWORK (CONT’D) 1.3 Gender in the Malabo Compliant Results Framework (cont’d)  Key Performance Targets and Indicators for Monitoring and Reporting on the June 2014 AU Assembly Malabo Declaration for Agriculture o 3. Ending Hunger  3.5 Food security and Nutrition  Promote initiatives to improve nutritional status Increase rate of the proportion of Minimum Dietary Diversity-Women o 4. Eradicating Poverty through Agriculture  4.4 Women participation in Agri-business  Promote initiatives that facilitate preferential entry and participation for women in gainful and attractive agri-business opportunities Proportion of rural women that are empowered in agriculture Targets 20% (Reference: Malabo & Agenda 2063)
  8. 8. I. MALABO RESULTS FRAMEWORK (CONT’D) I.4 Gender-Sensitive Malabo Compliant NAIP Results Framework Commitment Results Metric Target II. Commitment to Enhancing Investment Finance in Agriculture Enhance public investment finance Public expenditure to agriculture, share 10% Public expenditure to agriculture share, relative to agricultural value-added share Enhance private investment finance Private investments to agriculture, change > Private investments economywide, change Private investments in agriculture, change in female-to- male ratio 20%
  9. 9. I. MALABO RESULTS FRAMEWORK (CONT’D) I.4 Gender-Sensitive Malabo Compliant NAIP Results Framework (cont’d) Commitment Results Metric Target III. Commitment to Ending Hunger in Africa by 2025 Double current agricultural productivity levels Agricultural total factor productivity, growth 100% - Agric. TFP, change in female-to-male ratio 20% Agricultural labor productivity, growth 100% - Agric. labor productivity, change in female-to-male ratio 20% Halve the current levels of Post-Harvest Losses Agricultural post-production total factor productivity, growth 50% Agric. post-production TFP, change in female-to-male ratio 20% Agricultural post-production labor productivity, growth 50% Agric. post-production labor productivity, change in female-to-male ratio 20% Increase agricultural productivity with social protection initiatives focusing on vulnerable social groups Income share of the poorest quintile, change > Income share female-head households in poorest quintile, growth 20% Food production-to-consumption ratio, change > Food production, change in female-to-male ratio > End hunger in Africa by 2025 Poverty headcount ratio, measured at the food poverty line, change -95% Contribution of female-headed household to poverty headcount ratio, measured at the food poverty line -20%
  10. 10. I. MALABO RESULTS FRAMEWORK (CONT’D) I.4 Gender-Sensitive Malabo Compliant NAIP Results Framework (cont’d) Commitment Results Metric Target IV. Commitment to Halving Poverty by the year 2025, through Inclusive Agricultural Growth and Transformation Sustain annual agricultural GDP growth Agricultural GDP growth, annual average 6% Ensure that agricultural growth and transformation process is inclusive Agricultural contribution to GDP growth 50% Women contribution to agricultural GDP growth 20% Create job opportunities for at least 30% of the youth in agricultural value chains Job creation per annuum, growth > Job creation per annuum, change in female share 20% Increase wage and salary jobs Female-to-male wage and salary gap, change 20% Halving Poverty by the year 2025 Poverty headcount ratio, measured at the national poverty line, change Female contribution to poverty headcount ratio, measured at the national poverty line, change 20%
  11. 11. I. MALABO RESULTS FRAMEWORK (CONT’D) I.4 Gender-Sensitive Malabo Compliant NAIP Results Framework (cont’d) Commitment Results Metric Target V. Commitment to Boosting Intra- African Trade in Agricultural commodities and services Harness markets and trade opportunities, locally, regionally and internationally Income growth of agricultural producers Income growth of agricultural producers, change in female-to-male ratio 20% Triple intra-African trade in agricultural commodities and services Intra-Africa Exports and Imports of agricultural commodities and services 200% Intra-Africa exports-to-imports of agricultural commodities, change Intra-Africa exports of agroindustry commodities relative to agricultural commodities, change Intra-Africa Trade of agricultural commodities and services, change in share of female employment 20%
  12. 12. I. MALABO RESULTS FRAMEWORK (CONT’D) I.4 Gender-Sensitive Malabo Compliant NAIP Results Framework (cont’d) 4 Commitments and Goals | 12 Result Areas | 34 Metrics, including:  20 Standard Metrics  14 Gender Disaggregated Metrics
  13. 13. II. AGRICULTURAL GROWTH OUTLOOK: BUSINESS AS USUAL  Macroeconomic Modeling (CGE Model)  Gender disaggregated labor and labor market  Gender disaggregated industries  Gender disaggregated households  Microeconomic Modeling (Statistical Economic Model)  Deterministic non linear mathematic programing model (Cross- entropy based)  Shocks implemented through changes in labor and capital revenues, and population growth and urbanization  Agricultural Productivity Modeling (Stochastic Frontier Analysis)  Overall technical efficiency analysis (technical efficiency and technological gap) I.1 Gender-Focused Economic Modeling
  14. 14. II. AGRICULTURAL GROWTH OUTLOOK: BUSINESS AS USUAL (CONT’D)  Macroeconomic Data  LSMS-ISA 2015 for Niger  Gender-Focused Economic Accounts for Agricultural  Microeconomic Data  LSMS-ISA 2015 for Niger  Household final consumption expenditure  Income category (labor, capital and transfers)  Microeconomic Data  LSMS-ISA 2015 for Niger  Focus on Sorghum and Millet I.1 Gender-Focused Economic Model (cont’d)
  15. 15. II. AGRICULTURAL GROWTH OUTLOOK: BUSINESS AS USUAL (CONT’D) I.2 Progress under Business as Usual Commitments Result Area BaU Progress, Metrics Standard Gender-Focused Enhancing Investment Finance in Agriculture (C. II) Increase public agricultural expenditure Increase private agricultural investment End Hunger (C. III) Increase agricultural productivity Reduce agricultural post-production losses Increase consumption of locally produced goods Reduce Inequality Eliminate extreme poverty Halving Poverty (C. IV) Sustain agricultural GDP growth Promote inclusive growth Employment opportunity and decent work Reduce poverty Boost Intra-African Trade in Agricultural commodities (C.V) Harness markets and trade opportunities, locally, regionally and internationally Increase Intra-African Trade in agricultural commodities
  16. 16. III. AGRICULTURAL INVESTMENTS PRIORITIZATION I.1 Commodity-wise Investments Prioritization Standard Metrics Standard + Gender Specific Metric Fishery Goat Cattle Poultry Sheep Sheep Other livestock Forestry Millet Maize Tigernut Sorrel Cowpea Other Crops Sorrel Rice Sesame Tigernut Other Crops Fonio Goat Fishery Forestry Sorghum Sorghum Cowpea Rice Sesame Fonio Cattle Groundnut Millet Poultry Groundnut Maize Other livestock
  17. 17. III. AGRICULTURAL INVESTMENTS PRIORITIZATION (CONT’D) I.2 Agricultural Value Chain Investments Prioritization Standard Metrics Standard + Gender Specific Metrics Agricultural Productivity Growth Agricultural Productivity Growth Subsidy, Input Use in Agriculture Subsidy, Agricultural Production Prices Agroindustry Productivity Growth Agroindustry Productivity Growth Subsidy, Agricultural Production Prices Cost Reduction, Intra-Africa Trade of Agricultural Commodities Cost Reduction, Intra-Africa Trade of Agricultural Commodities Subsidy, Input Use in Agriculture Subsidy, Food Consumption Prices Subsidy, Food Consumption Prices Productivity Growth, Domestic Trading of Agricultural Commodities Support to Private Investment in Agroindustry Support to Private Investment, Domestic Trading of Agricultural Commodities Support to Private Investment, Domestic Trading of Agricultural Commodities Support to Private Investment in Agroindustry Support to Private Investment in Agriculture Support to Private Investment in Agriculture Productivity Growth, Domestic Trading of Agricultural Commodities Income Transfer, Unconditional Income Transfer, Unconditional Income Transfer, Conditional to Food Consumption Income Transfer, Conditional to Food Consumption
  18. 18. IV. GOALS AND MILESTONES FOR AGRICULTURAL INVESTMENT PLAN IV.1 Progress under Agricultural Investment Strategy (Standard Prioritization) Commitments Result Area BaU Progress, Metrics Standard Gender-Focus Enhancing Investment Finance in Agriculture (C. II) Increase public agricultural expenditure Increase private agricultural investment End Hunger (C. III) Increase agricultural productivity Reduce agricultural post-production losses Increase consumption of locally produced goods Reduce Inequality Eliminate extreme poverty Halving Poverty (C. IV) Sustain agricultural GDP growth Promote inclusive growth Employment opportunity and decent work Reduce poverty Boost Intra-African Trade in Agricultural commodities (C.V) Harness markets and trade opportunities, locally, regionally and internationally Increase Intra-African Trade in agricultural commodities
  19. 19. IV. GOALS AND MILESTONES FOR AGRICULTURAL INVESTMENT PLAN (CONT’D) IV.1 Progress under Agricultural Investment Strategy (Gender-Sensitive Prioritization)Commitments Result Area BaU Progress, Metrics Standard Gender-Focus Enhancing Investment Finance in Agriculture (C. II) Increase public agricultural expenditure Increase private agricultural investment End Hunger (C. III) Increase agricultural productivity Reduce agricultural post-production losses Increase consumption of locally produced goods Reduce Inequality Eliminate extreme poverty Halving Poverty (C. IV) Sustain agricultural GDP growth Promote inclusive growth Employment opportunity and decent work Reduce poverty Boost Intra-African Trade in Agricultural commodities (C.V) Harness markets and trade opportunities, locally, regionally and internationally Increase Intra-African Trade in agricultural commodities
  20. 20. 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Agadez Diffa Dosso Maradi Tahoua Tillaberi Zinder Niamey Male Female Proportion of plot header (only millet and sorghum), by gender IV. GOALS AND MILESTONES FOR AGRICULTURAL INVESTMENT PLAN (CONT’D) IV.2 Gender Analysis of Agricultural Efficiency (Cont’d)
  21. 21. Production MSFA (Millet and Sorghum) Overall Efficiency Female 0.395 Male 0.442 Total 0.435 Yield (kg/ha), predicted global frontier Female 693 Male 706 Total 704 Yield (kg/ha), predicted in individual frontier Female 479 Male 675 Total 648 IV. GOALS AND MILESTONES FOR AGRICULTURAL INVESTMENT PLAN (CONT’D) • Low overall technical efficiency for both male and female producers Female TE (40%) < Male TE (44%)
  22. 22. Production MSFA (Millet and Sorghum) Group (Male and Female) Technical Efficiency Female 0.562 Male 0.465 Total 0.478 Technology score Female 0.703 Male 0.951 Total 0.917 Yield (kg/ha), predicted in individual frontier Female 479 Male 675 Total 648 IV. GOALS AND MILESTONES FOR AGRICULTURAL INVESTMENT PLAN (CONT’D) Challenges to increase productivity Female producers • Technical efficiency • Technological gap Male producers • Technical efficiency Yield (kg/ha), predicted global frontier Female 693 Male 706 Total 704
  23. 23. CONCLUSION • Generation of gender disaggregated data  LSMS-ISA for Niger • Development a gender-sensitive results framework • Assessment of agricultural growth outlook under business as usual  Niger is off track to achieving the Malabo commitments and goals, including on gender • Agricultural Investments Prioritization  Investments prioritization (agric. commodity-wise or value chain) is gender sensitive in Niger • Gender-sensitive agricultural investment strategy  Good progress towards achieving the Malabo commitments and goals, including on gender, in Niger.

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