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Women's Control Over Income

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presented by Prof. Cheryl R. Doss, University of Oxford

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Women's Control Over Income

  1. 1. Women’s Control Over Income Professor Cheryl R. Doss, University of Oxford Jemimah Njuki, International Development Research Centre
  2. 2. How do we ensure that women benefit from rural transformation? 1) Ensure that women are remunerated for their labor 2) Ensure that women control some of the money within the household.
  3. 3. Why is women’s control over income important? • It benefits the women themselves; controlling income is a source of empowerment and agency • It benefits children and families • It increases women’s stake in the agricultural sector and increases their investments
  4. 4. Empirical Analysis • Which women control income – and from which sources – using the Women’s Empowerment in Agriculture Index from Ghana, Mozambique and Rwanda. • Does it vary by source of income? Analyses control over income from food cropping, cash cropping, livestock, nonfarm enterprises and wage income. • We compare those who have at least some input into decisions about how to spend the income from these sources, with those who have little or no input. • Characteristics of crops and markets from review of the literature.
  5. 5. Which women are more likely to control income? Consistent across countries and sources of income • Older women more likely to control income than younger women • More educated women • Those with control over livestock and land Other factors, such as access to credit and membership in groups, varies across source of income and countries.
  6. 6. By Source of Income: • Varies across countries • Women have say in all or most decisions regarding income from: • Ghana: Wage and nonfarm enterprises • Mozambique: food crops and nonfarm enterprises • Rwanda: all forms of income
  7. 7. Characteristics of Crops • Some crops and livestock seen as more appropriate for women to control the income • Women tend to grow crops that are grown on a smaller scale, often around the homestead, and are less valuable • Often, women prefer products that have smaller but more frequent stream of income • Women are more likely to control the income from the sale of small livestock and poultry and livestock products
  8. 8. Characteristics of Markets • Not necessarily the case that the person who goes to market is the one who controls the income • Some markets are seen as men’s spaces; women would need to use a broker • Women are more likely to sell in local markets or at farmgate • Some examples where when a crop becomes commercialized, men take over
  9. 9. What works to ensure that women control the income? • Interventions in value chains • Engaging men and women and paying each for their labor • Payment systems such as mobile banking; ensuring that women have access to banks if needed for payment • Interventions in commercial agriculture • Direct contracts with women • Joint contracts with men and women • Ensure land rights for men and women so they can participate
  10. 10. What else works to ensure that women control the income? • Interventions to change household and community gender relations • Programs to promote cooperation • Training spouses together • Engagement with women and men
  11. 11. Conclusion • For women to participate in the processes of transformation and benefit from the changes, they must be able to participate in productive activities, receive the income, and have some control over how it is spent.