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Youth participation in small-scale fischeries, aquaculture and value chains

By Indika Arulingam - Likimyesh Niguisse - Sonali Senaratam - Sellamuttu - Liza Debevec IWMI
for the 2019 ReSAKSS Conference

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Youth participation in small-scale fischeries, aquaculture and value chains

  1. 1. Youth participation in small-scale fisheries, aquaculture and value chains Indika Arulingam, Likimyelesh Nigussie, Sonali Senaratna Sellamuttu and Liza Debevec
  2. 2. Overview Objective: To take stock of the current status in relation to the engagement of youth in small scale fisheries and aquaculture and value chains in 8 FISH focal countries in Africa (Egypt, Nigeria, Tanzania and Zambia) and the Asia- Pacific. Methodology • Review of peer-reviewed and gray literature: 98 publications • Key Informant Interviews: 20 interviews Largely desk-based study.
  3. 3. Introduction The population of those from ages15-24 expected to reach 1.3 billion by 2050 (FAO et al. 2014). At present, nearly 90% of individuals aged between 10 and 24 years live in low- and middle-income countries (Blum and Boyden 2018). In Africa, only 3 million job opportunities are created for the 11 million individuals who enter the job market this year (ADB 2017). Widely believed that youth are leaving behind livelihoods in agriculture, for other options (White, 2012).
  4. 4. Findings Definition of youth • Youth as a social category is highly contextual - defined not only by age but also gender, education, marital status, engagement with the labour market, and other factors (Pyburn et al. 2015). • In some cases the definition of youth has a gendered angle. For e.g. women can be expected to act more as adults after puberty, as certain cultural restrictions set in. Country/institution Youth age bracket Egypt 18-30 (Sika 2016) Nigeria 18-35 (MoYD 2009) Tanzania 18-35 (MoLYD 2007) Zambia 15-35 (MoYS 2015) African Union 15-35 (AUC 2006)
  5. 5. Cont’d Data on youth in Fisheries and aquaculture • Youth involvement in aquaculture, small scale fisheries and value chains is under- studied (FAO, 2016). One of the reasons for this is lack of reliable statistics. • Data on the participation of young women and girls are even more sparse, as in many cases, fish processing is carried out within the households (FAO 2016c ). • From what is known, for most youth, the fisheries sector is not the first choice of employment (KIIs)
  6. 6. Cont’d Gaps in policies • In some cases sectoral polices and programs consider women and youth as “disadvantaged” or “vulnerable” groups, leads to generalizations of characteristics and needs of the groups. • Also, these policies consider youth without other intersectional identities, and fail to consider different forms of engagement within the value chain nodes. This leads to an assumption that a single approach is sufficient to meet needs of the group (te Lintelo 2012). • Encouraging big fish farms and giving less attention to small farms which are dominated by women and youth, systematically lea (KIIs).
  7. 7. Constraints Participation • The positioning of women and men in the SSF and aquaculture value chains frequently takes on a gendered dimension, with certain niches such as processing and post-harvest activities (e.g., marketing) carried out by a higher number of women. • It is a common trend, globally, for export production plants to employ women, due to the lower wages that could be paid to female employees, and their perceived docility and nimbleness at work (Kibria 1998). • While doing these types of work, women (including young women) face discrimination in terms of work and pay in addition to the danger of various forms of harassment (Nuruzzaman et al. 2014; Bene and Merten, 2008 )
  8. 8. Cont’d • In the aquaculture sector in Africa, the “Big 5” entry barriers that limit the engagement of youth as owner-operator – high quality and affordable seed, feed, capital, markets, decision making, and knowledge – can be further extended to include land. • Further amplified in the case of young women (Adesugba and Mavrotas, 2016; FAO, 2014), While young people might face certain constraints due to age, with time, young men are able to shed this dependency, while young women might continue to face similar or other constraints due to gender relations and social norms (Pyburn et al. 2015). • Ecosystems with diminishing productivity (Venkatachalam et al. 2010)
  9. 9. Cont’d Access to land • Most young people in the study countries do not own land, unless they inherit it from their parents. • Among the youth, young men have the opportunity to inherit land from their parents. However, due to large family size and small land size, not all young men in a given household have the opportunity to inherit land from their parents. This challenge is further magnified in the case of women due to cultural restrictions. • Although government policies provide equal land rights for men and women, effectiveness of such policies is curtailed by lack of social legitimacy (Agarwal 1994).
  10. 10. Key Opportunities • Employment and entrepreneurship opportunities in the fast growing aquaculture sector (Hishamunda et al. 2014) • Moving down the value chain beyond primary production might hold potential (KIIs) • Opportunities with increased integration of ICT technologies (still to be tested) (KIIs)
  11. 11. Four pathways for a more youth-inclusive program under FISH • Understanding the impact of economic, political and social shifts at global-national-local levels on youth involvement in aquaculture and small-scale fisheries. • Analysis of the policy architecture that impact youth involvement in aquaculture in small-scale fisheries. • Understanding youth aspirations and perceptions of aquaculture and small-scale fisheries. • Building a youth-oriented approach to aquaculture and small-scale fisheries.
  12. 12. Follow up field-based study Study Site: in Oyo, Ogun, Lagos and Anambra states of Nigeria. Research questions • How do SSF and aquaculture policies and target young men and women? • What are the opportunities and challenges for youth to participate in SSF and aquaculture? • How do the above two questions interact with aspirations of young men and women?
  13. 13. Thank you

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By Indika Arulingam - Likimyesh Niguisse - Sonali Senaratam - Sellamuttu - Liza Debevec IWMI for the 2019 ReSAKSS Conference


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