SlideShare utilise les cookies pour améliorer les fonctionnalités et les performances, et également pour vous montrer des publicités pertinentes. Si vous continuez à naviguer sur ce site, vous acceptez l’utilisation de cookies. Consultez nos Conditions d’utilisation et notre Politique de confidentialité.
SlideShare utilise les cookies pour améliorer les fonctionnalités et les performances, et également pour vous montrer des publicités pertinentes. Si vous continuez à naviguer sur ce site, vous acceptez l’utilisation de cookies. Consultez notre Politique de confidentialité et nos Conditions d’utilisation pour en savoir plus.
This template is to be used for a WIDE screen like LED TVs or newer projection screens.
If preparing a presentation for a STANDARD screen or older projection screen then please use the 4x3 format presentation template instead.
All templates are available on the IWMI INTRAnet at https://intranet.iwmi.org
According to FAO (2014), lack of reliable statistics, especially on the socioeconomic profile in the aquaculture sector, makes it difficult to integrate the concerns of specific groups such as youth.
Not all of the sectoral policies on agriculture, fisheries and aquaculture make explicit mention of youth as a target category. Of the policies that do, the grouping of youth together with women and other groups considered ‘vulnerable’ is a common theme, with references made to supporting these groups in overcoming barriers to engagement.
Anyidoho et al. (2012) highlighted that when a group is considered vulnerable or marginal and in need of empowerment, as has been the case in the youth policies discussed above where youth are often grouped together with women and other ‘disadvantaged’ groups, it leads to generalizations of the characteristics and needs of the group. Considering youth as individuals without other intersectional identities, and with different forms of engagement with the agriculture, SSF and aquaculture sectors increases the likelihood of policies which assume that a single approach is sufficient to meet the needs of the entire group (te Lintelo 2012).
In the case of Egypt, there are few cases of exploitation of women (including young women) that sell fish by road corners (which is an illegal act). Women fish retailers, in most cases, do not have licenses to sell fish and they are arrested once or twice a week. Police apprehend them when they sell on the street corner. These women also have limited bargaining power.
In Zambia, fish for sex is reported as a challenge women (including young women) are facing in small-scale fisheries. In a report by Bene and Merten (2008), fish for sex refers to particular “arrangements” between female fish traders and fishermen where the female fish traders engage in sexual relationships with the male fishers to secure their supply of fish, which they then process and sell to support their families. The report further indicated that such transactional sex is perceived to happen as a result of individual economic impoverishment. Specifically, female fish traders who do not have the money needed to buy fish from male fishers are “forced” to agree to sex to secure their access to fish. Various documents make it clear that a large majority of women engaged in fish for sex are older women (married, widowed and divorced), though single, young and unmarried women (some still adolescent) are also engaged in this practice. This was also confirmed by key informants from Zambia.
They are faced with the challenge of accessing land for aquaculture production, particularly in the case of young women, and also with navigating systems of power in accessing any rights that are made available to them.
Barriers to key assets: Young men and young women have unequal access to assets, including information, financial services, land and other productive assets, with young women tending to face greater structural barriers such as inheritance norms and gender bias in the provision of financial and other services.
In Africa, young women in many communities engaging in aquaculture and SSF face cultural restrictions in inheriting land or accessing inherited land. Even in jointly managed ventures, their ability to influence decisions on how the land is managed is often curtailed.
Youth participation in small-scale fischeries, aquaculture and value chains
Youth participation in small-scale fisheries,
aquaculture and value chains
Indika Arulingam, Likimyelesh Nigussie, Sonali Senaratna Sellamuttu and Liza
Objective: To take stock of the current status in relation to
the engagement of youth in small scale fisheries and
aquaculture and value chains in 8 FISH focal countries in
Africa (Egypt, Nigeria, Tanzania and Zambia) and the Asia-
• Review of peer-reviewed and gray literature: 98
• Key Informant Interviews: 20 interviews
Largely desk-based study.
The population of those from ages15-24
expected to reach 1.3 billion by 2050 (FAO et
At present, nearly 90% of individuals aged
between 10 and 24 years live in low- and
middle-income countries (Blum and Boyden
In Africa, only 3 million job opportunities are
created for the 11 million individuals who enter
the job market this year (ADB 2017).
Widely believed that youth are leaving behind
livelihoods in agriculture, for other options
Definition of youth
• Youth as a social category is highly contextual -
defined not only by age but also gender,
education, marital status, engagement with the
labour market, and other factors (Pyburn et al.
• In some cases the definition of youth has a
gendered angle. For e.g. women can be expected
to act more as adults after puberty, as certain
cultural restrictions set in.
Country/institution Youth age bracket
Egypt 18-30 (Sika 2016)
Nigeria 18-35 (MoYD 2009)
Tanzania 18-35 (MoLYD 2007)
Zambia 15-35 (MoYS 2015)
African Union 15-35 (AUC 2006)
Data on youth in Fisheries and aquaculture
• Youth involvement in aquaculture, small
scale fisheries and value chains is under-
studied (FAO, 2016). One of the reasons for
this is lack of reliable statistics.
• Data on the participation of young women
and girls are even more sparse, as in many
cases, fish processing is carried out within
the households (FAO 2016c ).
• From what is known, for most youth, the
fisheries sector is not the first choice of
Gaps in policies
• In some cases sectoral polices and programs
consider women and youth as “disadvantaged” or
“vulnerable” groups, leads to generalizations of
characteristics and needs of the groups.
• Also, these policies consider youth without other
intersectional identities, and fail to consider
different forms of engagement within the value
chain nodes. This leads to an assumption that a
single approach is sufficient to meet needs of the
group (te Lintelo 2012).
• Encouraging big fish farms and giving less
attention to small farms which are dominated by
women and youth, systematically lea (KIIs).
• The positioning of women and men in the SSF and
aquaculture value chains frequently takes on a
gendered dimension, with certain niches such as
processing and post-harvest activities (e.g.,
marketing) carried out by a higher number of
• It is a common trend, globally, for export production
plants to employ women, due to the lower wages
that could be paid to female employees, and their
perceived docility and nimbleness at work (Kibria
• While doing these types of work, women (including
young women) face discrimination in terms of work
and pay in addition to the danger of various forms of
harassment (Nuruzzaman et al. 2014; Bene and
Merten, 2008 )
• In the aquaculture sector in Africa, the “Big 5” entry
barriers that limit the engagement of youth as
owner-operator – high quality and affordable seed,
feed, capital, markets, decision making, and
knowledge – can be further extended to include
• Further amplified in the case of young women
(Adesugba and Mavrotas, 2016; FAO, 2014), While
young people might face certain constraints due to
age, with time, young men are able to shed this
dependency, while young women might continue to
face similar or other constraints due to gender
relations and social norms (Pyburn et al. 2015).
• Ecosystems with diminishing productivity
(Venkatachalam et al. 2010)
Access to land
• Most young people in the study countries do not own
land, unless they inherit it from their parents.
• Among the youth, young men have the opportunity to
inherit land from their parents. However, due to large
family size and small land size, not all young men in a
given household have the opportunity to inherit land
from their parents. This challenge is further magnified
in the case of women due to cultural restrictions.
• Although government policies provide equal land
rights for men and women, effectiveness of such
policies is curtailed by lack of social legitimacy
• Employment and entrepreneurship
opportunities in the fast growing
aquaculture sector (Hishamunda et al.
• Moving down the value chain beyond
primary production might hold potential
• Opportunities with increased integration of
ICT technologies (still to be tested) (KIIs)
Four pathways for a more youth-inclusive program
• Understanding the impact of economic, political
and social shifts at global-national-local levels on
youth involvement in aquaculture and small-scale
• Analysis of the policy architecture that impact
youth involvement in aquaculture in small-scale
• Understanding youth aspirations and perceptions
of aquaculture and small-scale fisheries.
• Building a youth-oriented approach to aquaculture
and small-scale fisheries.
Follow up field-based study
Study Site: in Oyo, Ogun, Lagos and Anambra
states of Nigeria.
• How do SSF and aquaculture policies and
target young men and women?
• What are the opportunities and challenges for
youth to participate in SSF and aquaculture?
• How do the above two questions interact with
aspirations of young men and women?